Information technology is currently taking a big role in the development of the society and giving enormous advantages in easing the delivery of information around the world, as well as the central role of information in the new global economy, means that information technology will shape the dynamics of the new millennium. It also affects the contemporary changes occurring around the world such as in the midst of a third major revolution in human civilization. First there was the Agricultural Revolution, then the Industrial Revolution, and now we are in the Information Revolution.
Information technology and a worldwide system of information have been established for over a hundred years. Industry is not slowing down in growth rather it is accelerating because of the presence of new technology. Society is, in fact, transforming in a fundamental way, but the Information Revolution is only part of involving multiple and interdependent causes, including human values, ways of life, culture, science, politics, and economy. Economy, society, education, religion, psychology, science, and technology are all changing, since they are all reciprocally interconnected.
Globalization of world economies has greatly enhanced the values of information to business organizations and has offered new business opportunities. Today, IT provides the communication and analytical power that organizations need for conducting trade and managing business at global level with much ease. To coordinate their worldwide network of suppliers, distributors and consumers, organizations have developed global information systems that can track orders, deliveries, and payments round the clock. This has been possible because of the development of IT in its present form. In the broadest sense, information technology refers to both the hardware and software that are used to store, retrieve, and manipulate information. At the lowest level you have the servers each with an operating system. Installed on these servers are things like database and web serving software. The servers are connected to each other and to users via a network infrastructure. And the users accessing these servers have their own hardware, operating systems, and software tools.
The impact of information technology on societal development is that technological developments which have occurred in information technology have influenced a “broad grouping of people” in their “common traditions, institutions and/or collective activities”. This broad grouping of people primarily occurs in the industrialized world of where “information technology” is commonly available. Philippines have proved resilient in containing both domestic and external shocks with proper monetary policies and fiscal management. Reforms that brought about liberalization, deregulation, and privatization have significantly restructured industries towards greater efficiency. The present administration has built a solid foundation from which the Philippines can be propelled into the 21st century as a competitive and vibrant economy. The challenge to all Filipinos is to nurture and build on these gains and to ensure that their distribution will be as broad-based as possible.
These positive developments in the economy have contributed to the overall bullishness in the Philippine I.T. industry today. Indeed, there is a lot of gold to be mined in the Philippine I.T. landscape. The country can build its capability in the design and manufacture of large-scale integrated circuits and microprocessors and of microprocessor based process monitoring and control. Software design, along with information and data services, has become areas where the country has established certain advantages. Developments in telecommunications technology offer new opportunities for the country’s professionals (e.g. medical practitioners, engineers, etc.) to engage in distance professional services—where the presence of the professional is not required to provide such services. Knowledge-based industries are an area where the country can develop a competitive edge.
The principal strengths of the Philippine I.T. industry include a well-educated, price-competitive labor force, English proficiency, growing track record of successful I.T. work, fast-growing telecom infrastructure, government interest in the industry, less regulation than some neighbors, good capabilities for dealing with foreign partners, and strong entrepreneurship. The developments that have occurred in information technology have had many influences on educational establishments. The distribution of information is not the only concern of educational establishments. For example, one of the aims of universities is to create information. This creation is often done by research. Information technologies have enabled researchers to access a wider source of information than previously available through such technologies as the Internet.
The original Arpanet was set up primarily to assist research. The Internet and other related technologies, such as electronic mail, enable collaborative projects to be undertaken between geographically distant groups. The student population in higher education is changing. The dynamic state of technological development has made perpetual (or lifelong) learning a necessity. For this reason, more and more adults are returning to school to learn new skills or expand the skills they already have. This, according to John Chambers of CISCO Systems, will make “education the next big killer application over the Internet” Media is useful in so far as it helps to enhance understanding of material, clarify concepts studied, and consolidate knowledge.
Designers of web-based courses must remember that fancy media–complex graphics and animation–are no substitute for solid, concise content. Information technologies must be used that engage the learner with the media, and this engagement must occur in terms of stated learning objectives. Media should be used that allow the learner to interact with or self-discover underlying principles, models, and causal relationships that exist in the subject area under study. Information technologies make it possible to tailor the content and delivery of instruction to the needs of individual students. The result is that individual differences in learning styles and preferences can be better accommodated. In the future, students will be able to choose the instructional format appropriate to their level of knowledge. They will have the option of taking F2F, mixed, or online courses based upon their level of knowledge in a given subject area.
The traditional 12-15 week semester will likely become a thing of the past as colleges adjust their schedules to better fit those of a changing student population. The technologies that will play a role in the classrooms of the future are many and varied. The Internet will not replace “traditional media,” i.e., television, radio, film, and print. Rather Internet technologies will enhance and expand information gathered through other media. Moreover, in the future we will likely see the integration of each of these media in new and more powerful applications. Information Technology plays a big role in education development of the Philippines. Nowadays the country is experiencing a great improvement such as computerization and automation of many schools and educational processes.
Enrolment system is one of the best improvements of the educational field in the country wherein many Filipino students are benefited in the way that during enrolment in big universities that accepts many students their time is lessen. At the same manner students were enrolled faster. Computers are one of the biggest impacts for the development of information technology in the country. Many schools now offers computer subjects for the literacy of Filipinos even in the lower level of education students are experiencing this big impact. In addition, the Internet technologies form the backbone of many connected and virtual classrooms. Tools that allow for extended threaded discussion will be used more extensively to promote a high level of student-student and student-teacher interactivity. Collaborative learning, promoting the principles of constructivist theory will likely predominate in the higher education classroom of the future.
Students will work together to construct knowledge. As the power of the Internet as informational resources becomes more widely available, students will use its vast information databases to acquire and expand knowledge. In the process, students will develop skills critical to lifelong learning–they will become knowledge gatherers, knowledge receivers, and knowledge transmitters. Because effective use of the Internet as a source of information requires strong critical literacy skills, instructors in all disciplines will need to incorporate activities that target these skills. In this way, students will learn how to determine the validity and reliability of information they find on the Internet.
Developing strong critical literacy skills will also help students evaluate information received through other media. On the other hand, Information technology has also affected the grading systems of education in the Philippines, which includes the transformation of manual grading procedures to an automated grading procedure. This is the reason behind the securities and fairness that are happening nowadays in giving of grades to students. In addition, in today’s world specifically in the field of education, technology plays a crucial role such as computing grades in an automated manner.
Constant problems encountered regarding manual grade computations is that it is always delayed because of too much work that is needed to be done specifically by the teachers involved. One good possible solution to this is to modify/upgrade the existing grading system of schools by making it automated. In this manner, the grades that will be computed will not just be secured it will also be more accurate than that grade which is computed manually.
The opening of the Mountain Province High School was a big help to a growing need for a Baguio based institution to accommodate the elementary graduates of the city and nearby highland and lowland provinces. Classes were held at teacher’s camp and native girls from the provinces were housed at the BUA dormitory, known today as the Pacdal Elementary school. Among the pioneer teachers were Jesse L. Gains, principal, Juan Balagot, Servillano Tumaneng, Pedro Balagot, Genoveva Llamas, Esperanza Ver, Donato Guerzon, Grace Miller, Petra Ramirez, and Pillar Tan. THE MPHS easily gained national popularity in both academics and athletics. For several years, it has the strongest baseball team in northern Luzon. The graduates were added to the institutional prestige for it had a high proficiency in both oral and written English. The MPHS was then served by the succession of the following principals: Mr. Richard Patterson, Mrs. Eldridge, and Mr. Paul Bramlett.
In 1937, the national government transferred the financial responsibility of maintaining the school to the city government that’s why the name was changed to Baguio City High School. Students of the normal course were transferred to Trinidad Agricultural High School which became the responsibility of the mountain province. The general secondary curriculum transferred classes to the government center. In the same year the school squatted at the present site of the Baguio government center until world war two broke out in 1941. Mayor Gil Mallare made every effort to the approval of the site as permanent house of BCHS. He secured P 180,000 loan from the Rehabilitation Financing Corporation to start the construction of the building on September 20, 1953. The Parent Teachers’ Association continued to ask for the permanent site of BCHS headed by the PTA president Rufino Bueno who served from 1948-1958.
The present site of the school was segregated from Burnham park reservation on June 27, 1953 under proclamation No. 401 that awarded BCHS 11,840 square meters of land. Construction began under the administration of mayor Benito Lopez and finished during the term of manor Alfonso Tabora with additional expenses of P40,000 to finish the right wing of the main building. Inauguration rites were held on October 24, 1954, the school foundation day. In 1972, the science section as special classes opened, but was discontinued after two years due to the implementation of the revised secondary curriculum. It was reopened in 1984 with the efforts of class 1958 alumni, the city council, the school administration. This was accomplished through strong support and continuous follow up efforts of then Councilor Bert Floresca as member of the committee on education and that time president of the Alumni Association. At present there are fourteen classes in the special class. In 1995, two buildings were constructed by the permanent home of the special classes.
The students in these classes are receiving P200.00 as monthly stipend from the city government. In 1960’s Annex high school for the first and second year students had to be opened to accommodate the increasing population. In 1968, annex high schools were opened at Baguio Central; school, Dona Aurora, Loakan, Bonifacio, and Rizal Elementary school and other annexes were also opened in the following years in Quirino Elementary school, at Irisan and later Sto. Tomas and Quezon Hill. The number of students kept on growing both in Baguio City high school main and its annexes that by 1980, Baguio Central School had to be separated as another city funded school carrying the new name Pines City High School. In 1981, four year levels in Loakan annex were created and followed by other annexes.
The Baguio City High School is now called Baguio City National High School with a student population of over 10,844 as of April 2001. it has 8 annexes, seven of which have complete year levels; and with 339 faculty members and support personnel, headed by Dr. Elma D. Donaal the school principal of Baguio City National High School. The year 1997 proved to be another success. BCNHS won in the search for the Most Outstanding Female Public Secondary Principal in the person of Dr, Elma Donaal who represented CAR in the national level this year sponsored by AVON in coordination with the DECS. Another feather was added to the school’s cap for an award being drug free and fraternity free school. Baguio City National High School at 83 years has not diminished in its speed growth. Lots of contests being joined by the students were all fruitful because the school is consistently a winner in both academics and athletics.
When the school was on its boom, 5 top general of the country, hundreds of presidents and heads of offices in all fields of endeavour had represented the school nationally and international during discussion in the different areas in the field of education both from its teachers and students. A school with highly performing, competitive, successful and work service oriented students/graduates and personnel who manifest sincere concern for others.
The BCNHS publics to be models of high performance, competitiveness, success, work and service orientation and sincere concern for others by establishing wholesome and healthy working relationship, transparency, and understanding; providing the needed structural, behavioural and technical supports to all students; guided by the schools corporate culture of excellence in personal integrity, family solidarity, civic responsibility and universal charity leading towards the development of knowledge, attitude, skills and habits of the child which will redound to its benefit and the community. Baguio City National High School shall instil in the teachers and students the LOVE FOR GOD, dedication for country, care and undying concern for FELLOWMEN and deep respect for culture and environment. It shall strive to produce graduates who are supportive to the development programs of the country particularly Baguio City which are geared towards education, eco-tourism and commerce and trade industries.
PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY
The researchers have encountered different problems regarding the automation of Grading System of Baguio City National High School. Thus, in connection to the aims of the researchers to automate the grading system of Baguio City National High School and to have an efficient solution to the problem the researchers identified stakeholders such as students, teachers and parents that can help and will be benefitted to the study. The following are the problems identified and encountered by the researchers. 1. Why the identified stakeholders do encountered difficulties every grading period? 2. How important is automated grading system in school community and for the different stakeholders, in relation what will be the big effect of this especially for the teachers and students?
3. What are the different advantages and disadvantages that stakeholders may get in automated grading system? 4. How can automated grading system resolve the present problems of the stakeholders particularly the students and teachers regarding the fairness and securities? 5. Is the school community ready and have sufficient facilities and funds for the automated grading system? 6. Why do some teachers and students prefer to manually compute grades? 7. How can accurate computation of grades and security affect the students in studying? 8. What are the different approaches that will arise during implementation?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The researchers have come up with the following objectives for their study in order to achieve their goal in improving through automating the existing grading system of Baguio City National High School. 1. To identify difficulties of the different stakeholders that they encountered every grading period? 2. To enumerate the different importance and effect of automated grading system in school community and for the different stakeholders. 3. To be able to know the different advantages and disadvantages that stakeholders may get in automated grading system.
4. To provide capable solution to the present problems of the stakeholders particularly the students and teachers regarding the fairness and securities of grades. 5. To know the competence of the school community in providing resources for the automated grading system. 6. To discuss the reasons of teachers and students in using the manual grading system. 7. To elaborate further the accuracy of computing grades and security of it by using the automated grading system. 8. To detailed out possible different approaches that will arise during implementation of the system.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is all about the Grading System of Baguio City National High School. Our study will tackle all the problems and solutions regarding the processes on how they grade their students. The emphasis of the study is consented more on the computation of the final grade from first grading to fourth grading. It covers all year level, first year up to fourth year. The researchers will thoroughly analyze the existing system and will able to identify the problems and inconveniences of teachers during computation. In the same manner researchers will provide sufficient solution to the problems encountered by the teachers. Meanwhile, researchers will be using a java programming language for the development. All coding and testing will be done in this. The grading system will include the automated computing of grades.
In addition they will include other features such as storing of personal information of students and teachers. Wherein, personal information and their grades will be stored in a centralized database to be able to secure it. Such example of the information system is that if a student requests a record of his grades it will be given immediately because the system will get it to the database. The researchers will be using two data gathering technique such as interview and research study. If necessary the researchers will also use the questionnaire to gather further efficient data. The data will be taken from different stakeholders specifically the teachers, who are computing grades; department heads, who are validating it and re-computing the grades and the students. Thus, researchers will also use books, dissertations and related thesis; in addition the researchers will be using the World Wide Web as another source of data.
Researchers on the other hand will study the existing system for the better result of the development of the system. In contrast, the researchers are only limited to the studying of the present grading system and providing solutions through the automation of the grading system. The researchers will not tackle in this study any other system that can make this study more broad. It only means that the researchers are only limited into automation of grades and centralizing personal information and grades of students through a database system. The researchers will be using a java programming language and database server. Meanwhile, other data gathering technique will not be used by the researchers. In this reason, researchers can gather more sufficient data. The mentioned stakeholders are the only persons that the researchers will be involving for their research.
Significance of the Study
The study deals on the Grading System of one of the schools here in the City of Baguio, which offers secondary level of education, the Baguio City National High Schools. A study is necessary in order to help the teachers lessen their time involve in the computation of grades. In addition, teachers will be benefited in the study because their work will become easy and faster in terms of giving grades and personal biases will be lessen. Through the success of the study, it would be great help on the part of the teacher will be helped intellectually since it would be mandatory for all the teachers to learn how to make use of it because they will be the one to operate it. Teacher would be literate and adopt the new trend regarding the computer environment. Meanwhile, the researchers would be able to know and understand why does the flow is slow. Thus, the study is very important for the department heads of school for they are the in charge in validating and final assessment of the computed grades.
For the students that will be benefited of the study, automation of grades is significant for they will not be worrying for the practice of favoritism made by the teachers. In such manner, accuracy, honesty and security will be a very big advantage. On the other hand, parents will become confident of their child’s performance in school because of the fairness in giving grades.
The study signifies the great help of automated grading system in school. First for the benefits that it will give and another is that time will be lessen. Definition of Terms ACCURACY in the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of closeness of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ARBITARY is a term given to choices and actions which are considered to be done not by means of any underlying principle or logic, but by whim or some decidedly illogical formula. ASSESSMENT is Process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. This article covers educational assessment including the work of institutional researchers, but the term applies to other fields as well including health and finance.
ATTRIBUTES is an inherent characteristic; an accidental quality. An object closely associated with or belonging to a specific person, thing, or office AUTOMATION or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control system such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery with physical requirements of work; automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes sand systems can also be automated. BUSINESS (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses.
Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit to increase the wealth of owners. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative businesses and state-owned enterprises. Socialistic systems involve either government, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses. CLASS is a class in education has a variety of related meanings. It can be the group of students which attends a specific course or lesson at a university, school or other educational institution. CODE in communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, phrase, or gesture) into another form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.
In communications and information processing, encoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver. COMPUTER is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM includes hardware, software peripheral devices, personal devices and personal documentation. CONSISTENCY in logic, a theory is consistent is if does not contain a contradiction. The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a theory is consistent if it has a model; this is the sense used in traditional Aristotelian logic, although in contemporary mathematical logic the term certifiable is used instead. The syntactic definition states that a theory is consistent if there is no formula P such that both P and its negation are provable from the axioms of the theory under its associated deductive system.
CONTEXT DIAGRAM a data flow diagram that illustrates an entire system as one generalized element. DATA is factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion or calculating. DATABASE is collection of interrelated data, organized according to a schema to serve one or more application. DATA DICTIONARY is a repository method and description of forms, styles, and contents of data’s that are to be processed and reported. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM is a figure that illustrates the flow of data within the system and operations performed on the data. DEVELOPMENT is a act of improving or enlarging or refining; a recent event that has some relevance for the present situation. DIAGRAM is a diagram is a 2D geometric symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. Sometimes, the technique uses a 3D visualization which is then projected onto the 2D surface. The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.
ELECTRONIC MAIL often abbreviated to e-mail, email, or originally eMail, is a store-and-forward method of writing, sending, receiving and saving messages over electronic communication systems. The term “e-mail” (as a noun or verb) applies to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, to network systems based on other protocols and to various mainframe, minicomputer, or intranet systems allowing users within one organization to send messages to each other in support of workgroup collaboration. Intranet systems may be based on proprietary protocols supported by a particular systems vendor, or on the same protocols used on public networks. E-mail is often used to deliver bulk unsolicited messages, or “spam”, but filter programs exist which can automatically block, quarantine or delete some or most of these, depending on the situation. FEATURE is a structure, form, or appearance especially of a person. A prominent part or characteristic. A featured article, story, or department in a newspaper or magazine.
FLEXIBILITY is the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints and muscles that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. It is a term for the ability to easily bend an object or the ability to adapt to different circumstances. However, in various professional fields, more precise terms are used. FLOWCHART is a schematic representation of a process. They are commonly used in business, economic presentations to help the audience visualize the content better, or to find flaws in the process. GRADING SYSTEM is a set of criteria by which the quality of individual studies could be developed evaluated in terms of both internal validity and external validity. INFORMATION is a usable data being gathered for special purposes.
INTERNET is a worldwide web, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standards Internet Protocol (IP). It is a “network of networks” that consists of million of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web(WWW). LOCAL AREA NETWORK is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings e.g. a school. The defining characteristics of LAN’s, in contrast to a wide-area networks (WANS), include their much higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic range, a lack of need for leased telecommunication lines.
METHOD refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. METHODOLOGY is a plan or system of action, inquiry, or analysis. MODEL is a pattern, plan, representation (especially in miniature), or description designed to show the main object or workings of an object, system, or concept. PROGRAMMER is someone who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software.
One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer’s primary computer language (Java, Delphi, C++, etc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with web. REPORT CARD is a measure of a student’s performance. In most places, the report card is issued by the school to the student or the student’s parents twice or four times yearly. A typical report card uses a grading scale to determine the quality of a student’s school work. Throughout North America, the grading scale consists of grades scored in classes taken by the student. RESEARCHis a human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter.
The primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. RESPONSE TIME in technology, response time is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input. SYSTEM is a set of interacting or independent entitles, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements to other elements, and from relationship between an element of the sets not part of the relational regime.
SYSTEM ANALYST in system analysis is the interdisciplinary part of Science, dealing with analysis of sets of interacting or entities, the systems, often prior to their automation as computer systems, and the interactions within those systems. This field is closely related to operations research. It is also “an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help someone, referred to as the decision maker, identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might otherwise have made TECHNIQUE is a broad concept that deals with a species’ usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species’ ability to control and adapt to its environment.