Why Be Drug Free Essay

Why Be Drug Free Essay.

I choose to be DRUG FREE for many reasons. In fact, I have several reasons why I am drug free. My first reason is because I can get diseases like emphysema, lung cancer, and liver disease.

My second reason is because drugs affect the brain.

My final reason is that drugs can cause a lot of harm to oneself and those around them. “Now join me as I explain my reasons”.

My first reason is because you can get diseases like emphysema, lung cancer, and liver disease. For example, years of smoking abuses the heart and lungs causing these organs to fail. When you have emphysema it affects your breathing causing respiratory failure. Alcoholism causes liver damage leading the liver to not work. When your liver does not work you need a liver transplant. If you do drugs you will be like a car with a broken motor you won’t start up.

My second explanation is because drugs affect the brain. As the brain will rot and cause brain damage. Drugs also effects ones thinking and daily function. It also causes memory loss. Ultimately, this will all lead to poor performance at work or school. Basically, you’ll be as useless as a weak pungent worn out towel.

My final basis is because drugs cause a lot of harm to oneself and those around them. For instance, if you are under the influence of drugs while driving you can cause a car accident. Another example is that you are a danger to if you are responsible for a minor. Also drugs cause mood swings that include violent and aggressive behavior. You can be as rough as a bull in a fight seeing red.

In conclusion, how can anyone enjoy life doing drugs with all the harmful and deadly damage it can cause? I want to enjoy a long healthy life. I do not want to hurt myself or anyone around me. This is why I choose to be drug free. “Sorry but this is the end of my essay”.

Why Be Drug Free Essay

Cell Phones Essay Essay

Cell Phones Essay Essay.

Cell phones have been around for centuries. On April 3, 1973 the first portable phone was introduced. Many Americans and people around the world use cell phones almost everyday. Cell phones do have pros, but they do have their cons too.

Five pros on the cell phone are that they believe that cell phone use is not associated with the risk of developing a brain tumor. The second pro is that in 2000 the FDA and the International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications (CTIA) signed a research agreement for further investigation on the health effects of cell phones.

After the investigation, they discovered that “no association was found between exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation from cell phones and adverse health effects.

The third pro is that in May 2001 the GAO reports “Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues,” they did conclude that there had been no scientific evidence that can prove that cell phone radiation had any health effects, but that more research on the topic was indeed needed.

The fourth pro is that Cell phones may be the world’s best invention to this day; “In 2008 the $148.1 billion wireless industry had over 270 million subscribers in the US (87% of the population) who used over 2.2 trillion minutes of call time.” The fifth pro is in December of 2012 the $185 billion wireless industry had gained 326,475,248 wireless subscriber connections in the US and 301,779 cell phone tower sites across the country.

Five cons on the cell phones are that they say the accurate amount of time for cancer to develop is 20-30 years and cell phone studies have monitored periods of 10 years or less. The second con is that on February 26, 1985 the first official safety guidelines for radio frequency (RF) radiation was enacted by the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to protect the people from being exposed to any dangerous “thermal effects” – levels of RF that could possibly heat human flesh to harmful temperatures. A third con is that in 1993 there was a major concern that there could be a possible link with the brain and cell phone use. A husband sued a cell phone manufacturer in Florida’s US Distract Court for the cause of his wife’s brain tumor.

The fourth con is that there is proof that exposure to high end (ionizing) radiation of ultra-violet lights, X-rays, and Gamma rays are known to cause cancer. The last con for the cell phone is “The INTERPHONE study, a 13 country, 10 year, $25 million endeavor, found that there was no overall increase in the risk of the brain tumors glioma or meningioma among cell phone users, but also found “suggestions of an increased risk of glioma, and much less so meningioma, at the highest exposer levels.” The study concluded that the evidence was not strong enough to prove a casual link between cell phone use and the development of brain tumors.”

Cell phones are used for many things nowadays. Teens are constantly on there phones talking, texting, playing games, watching videos, etc. Although many people seem to love this device, it does have its faults in the process of using it.

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Cell Phones Essay Essay

Approach to Care: Cancer Essay

Approach to Care: Cancer Essay.

Devastation and fear of the known are common feelings for those who receive news of having Cancer. Every year, over a million people will be diagnosed with cancer annually according to the American Cancer Association. When first receiving a cancer diagnosis, it is difficult for clients and loved ones to really understand any information provided immediately after the diagnosis is given. Every cancer is also staged from a biopsy of the site, and as a nurse, it is important to really understand the type of cancer along with the current stage.

There is a multitude of cancer information available, but really the nurse needs to be prepared to provide accurate information to patients and families. This paper will provide a brief description of the stages of cancer, some of the side effects from treatments available, and care of the patient with cancer.

Staging of Cancer

A physician will stage a cancer from 0 to IV to determine just how large the tumor is and how systemic it has become.

“By moving through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, cancer cells can spread from the primary site to lymph nodes or to other organs, where they may form new tumors” (National Cancer Institute). The TNM system is often used to determine the current stage of cancer. From the TNM system the size of the tumor, at which length the nodes are involved, and what extent the lymph nodes are exposed are used to determine the stage. Metastasis is the final part of staging cancer, which is spreading of the cancer to other areas of the body that are from the original site of the cancer. This leads to a grading system that helps determine the appropriate treatment plan or prognosis for the patient.

Carcinoma in Situ

Stage 0, also known as in Situ, is the earliest phase of cancer. A cell mutates into a cancer cell along with other cells in the same area, which forms a tumor in that tissue. This is not a diagnosis of cancer in Breast Cancer, but rather indicates an increased risk of cancer. Further treatment varies for those in Stage 0. Some patients may be observed while others may be started on tamoxifen, but there are of course risks associated with this medication such as increased risk of pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, stroke and Uterine Cancer.

“The NSABP-P-1 trial of 13,388 high-risk women comparing tamoxifen to placebo demonstrated an overall 49% decrease in invasive breast cancer, with a mean follow-up of 47.7 months” (National Institute of Cancer). Some patients may participate in clinical trials to reduce chances of further spread of the cancer while others may opt for more extreme prophylaxis such as a bilateral mastectomy.

Cancer Stage I, II, III

Stages I, II, and III all stand for disease being actually present. The higher level of staging could indicate a larger tumor. It could also indicate a more systemic disease process involving the lymph system. Once it has spread into the lymph system, the cancer can then spread to nearby organ systems. Along with tumor excision and removal of any effected lymph nodes, concurrent use of medications like tamoxifen in treatment of breast cancer, and the use of radiation and/or chemo therapy are all used in treatment plans at these stages of disease manifestation.

At Stage I, the tumor is small measuring less than 2cm and has not spread into nearby lymph nodes. As the cancer progresses, Stage II has a larger tumor measuring two to five centimeters, but has not inundated the surrounding tissues and has not spread from the current infected tissues, but it can sometimes be found in the associated lymph nodes. Stage III contains not only a larger tumor and is usually found in the nearby lymph nodes.

Stage IV

The final stage is Stage IV, where it is found that the cancer has spread from the original site to another organ system or systems. An example of this would be a primary diagnosis of Lung Cancer, but the cancer is found in the bones or the liver. No stage is great, but this stage is the worst because of the spreading of the disease to other organ systems. Often, the Prognosis is also determined on how much the cancer has spread and how severe the secondary tumors are. Treatment often involves radiation and surgical removal of the tumor.

Side Effects of Treatment

Treatment is often difficult for patients and families as there are some undesirable side effects associated with many treatment options. Side effects will vary depending on the location of the treatment. “Radiation on the lower trunk for gynecologic cancer and cancer in the prostate leads to diarrhea, frequent voiding and pain as well as affected sexuality. When head and neck area are irradiated, mouth dryness, taste changes, swelling, pain in the mouth and throat, loss of appetite and eating problems occur” (Pederson, Koktved, & Nielsen, 2013). Another treatment is Chemotherapy. Patients receiving chemotherapy often experience nausea, vomiting, and poor appetite.

Breast Cancer, as previously mentioned, in the early stages like In Situ, is often treated with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. “Tamoxifen is used in situations in which the cancer is a hormone receptive positive cell growth which accounts for over 75% of all breast cancer diagnoses” (Corter, Findlay, Broom, Porter, & Petrie, 2013. The possible adverse side effects are frightening and life altering happen to anyone.

It is important to not forget about the psychological toll these side effects can play. Patients have lives outside of their cancer diagnosis and treatment such as work and family responsibilities, or are just starting to enjoy retirement. Cancer does not pick and choose who it effects, so anyone could potentially suffer from this disease. “Emotional distress is common among cancer patients as a result of the diagnosis of a life-threatening disease, aggressive medical treatments, changes in lifestyle that occur, and the direct effects of the tumor” (Meijer, et al., 2013). Life can be stressful alone because of all the requirements, adding on stress to life such as diagnosis and treatment plans needed to combat cancer puts these patients at a high risk of Depression. Those providing care must always assess patients for depression at each appointment.

Not every patient will be the same, experience the same side effects, or respond the same to the treatments. Providers must be aware of this and be ready to provide information to patients and families related to the diagnosis and treatment.


There is hope at some point there will be a database with all the information of all patients’ cancer cell mutations to help improve treatment. “Even within the same tumor, cells may be altered in different ways, so a therapy that works for many patients may be utterly ineffective for the one sitting in the doctor’s office” (Edwards, 2014). Every patient is an individual, a person, not a number. The provider may have given the same diagnosis a hundred times, for that patient, it is probably the first time, and it is devastating. If providers can think of it as the first time, hopefully there will be an increased sense of empathy to this patient’s situation. The patient will have to endure a multitude of physical and psychological symptoms that may forever change their life because of their cancer diagnosis.

As a nurse, provide information on support available in the community and online patients and families. This diagnosis involves all in the family and is not just centralized for the patient. There may be support groups for patients and for families or caregivers available within the community. The American Cancer Society is a online support that has a vast amount of easy to understand information on numerous forms of cancers, stages of cancer, typical treatments, and support resources for patients and care givers. By providing this information early during the diagnosis is important, because after the intial shock of the diagnosis, this is an easy resource for people to start looking at information that is specific to their diangosis. This helps patients and families become advocates of their own care, whether it be to aggressive treatment or to improve the quality of end stages of cancer, rather than quantity.

Corter, A. L., Findlay, M., Broom, R., Porter, D., & Petrie, K. J. (2013). Beliefs about medicine and illness are associated with fear of cancer recurrence in women taking adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
British Journal of Health Psychology, 18(1), 168-181. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/detail?vid=8&sid=89dc87e3-ef39-4bfe-a28a-b07f6af34781%40sessionmgr111&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=s3h&AN=84763245 Edwaryds, C. (2014). Using patient data for personalized cancer treatments. Communications of the ACM, 57(4), 13-15. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.01085.x Meijer, A., Roseman, M., Delisle, V., Milette, K., Levis, B., Syamchandra, A., . . . Thombs, B. D. (2013, July). Effects of screenign for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer: A systemic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 75(1), 1-17. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S002239991300038X Pederson, B., Koktved, D., & Nielsen, L. L. (2013). Living with side effects from cancer treatment-a challenge to target information. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27(3), 715-723. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.01085.x

Approach to Care: Cancer Essay

My Dream Job Essay

My Dream Job Essay.

Since I was a little girl , I have dreamed of becoming a filght attendant in order to travel around the world. But everything has changed since I took part in raising funds for cancer ‘s patients at Oncology Hospital of Ho Chi Minh City. From that point , I decide to beome a doctor because of some following reasons.

First of all , doctor is a helpful job. For example , if my parents suffer a disease , I will examine them , give the most appropriate treatment to them.

Moreover , I can follow up their disease , encourage them to keep good habits for health and know the time to increase or decrease drugs. In addition, doctor is not only useful for my family but also helpful for my country. Indeed , Vietnam is a developing country and it has a lot of poor patients. Most of them have chronic disease such as hypertension , heart failure , diabetes and so on. It takes a lot of money to earn health cost.

Therefore , if Vietnam has groups of well-qualified doctors , they will do the best for patients and save cost.

Second , despite how society develops , physician is still a respected career. When doctors treat patients , they not only cure disease but also bring hopes to them and make it comes true. Furthermore , if one person are a businessman or work in another job , he or she is called “Mr” or “Mrs,Ms” before the name. Conversely , doctor is called “Dr” before their name , it express the respect of everybody with the noblest job.

Last but not least , this job satisfies my curiosity about knowledge. Doctor can put theory into practice in order to diagnosis and treat diseases. Moreover , they also apply huge understanding to study new drugs such as biological agents , stem cell technology to relieve pain , cure life threatening diseases (malignant disease, disease relate to immune system) and prolong the patient ‘s lifetime.

In conlusion , doctor is a helpful , respected job and it is my dream. Now I am a medical student and I wil try my best to become a good doctor in the future.

My Dream Job Essay

Thyroid Cancer Essay

Thyroid Cancer Essay.

  1. Introduction

            Cancer of the thyroid is less prevalent than other forms of cancer; however, it accounts 90% of endocrine malignancies. According to the American Cancer Society (2002), about 20, 700 new cases of thyroid cancer are diagnosed each year. Women account for 15, 800 of the new cases and men 4, 900. About 800 women and 500 men die annually from this malignancy. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland.

            External radiation of the head, neck, or chest in infancy and childhood increases the risk of thyroid carcinoma.

Between 1940 and 1960, radiation therapy was occasionally used to shrink enlarged tonsillar and adenoid tissue, to treat acne, or to reduce an enlarged thymus. For people exposed to external radiation in childhood, there appears to be an increased incidence of thyroid cancer 5 to 40 years after irradiation. Consequently, people who underwent such treatment should consult a physician, request an isotope thyroid scan as part of the evaluation, follow recommended treatment of abnormalities of the gland, and continue with annual checkups (Tierney, 2001).

  1. Discussion
  2. Assessment and Diagnostic Findings

            Lesions that are single, hard, and fixed on palpation or associated with cervical lymphadwnopathy suggest malignancy.

Thyroid function tests may be helpful in evaluating thyroid nodules and masses; however, their results are rarely conclusive. Needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is used as an outpatient procedure to make a diagnosis of thyroid cancer, to differentiate cancerous thyroid nodules from noncancerous nodules, and to stage the cancer if detected.

The procedure is safe and usually requires only a local anesthetic. Patients who undergo who undergo the procedure are followed closely, however, because cancerous tissues may be missed during the procedure (Tierney, 2001).  A second type of aspiration or biopsy uses a large-bore needle rather than the fine needle used in standard biopsy; it may be used when the results of the standard biopsy are inclusive, or with rapidly growing tumors. Additional diagnostic studies include ultrasound, MRI, CT scans, thyroid scans, radioactive iodine uptake studies, and thyroid suppression tests.

  1. Medical Management

            The treatment of choice for thyroid carcinoma is surgical removal. Total or near-total thyroidectomy is performed when possible. Modified neck dissection or more extensive radical neck dissection is performed if there is lymph node involvement.

  • Surgical management

Efforts are made to spare parathyroid tissue to reduce the risk for postoperative hypocalcemia and tetany. After surgery, ablation procedures are carried out with radioactive iodine to eradicate residual thyroid tissue if the tumor is radiosensitive. Radioactive iodine also maximizes the chance discovering thyroid metastasis at a later date if the total-body scans are carried out.

After surgery, thyroid hormone is administered in suppressive doses to lower the levels of TSH to a euthyroid state (Thyroid Carcinoma Guidelines, 2001). If remaining thyroid tissue is inadequate to produce sufficient thyroid hormone, thyroxine is required permanently.

Several routes are available for administering radiation to the thyroid or tissues of the neck, including oral administration of radioactive iodine and external administration of radiation therapy. The patient who receives external sources of radiation therapy is at risk for mucositis, dryness of the mouth, dysphagia, and redness of the skin, anorexia, and fatigue. Chemotherapy is infrequently used to treat thyroid cancer.

Patients whose thyroid cancer is detected early and who are appropriately treated usually do very well. Patients who have had papillary cancer, the most common and least aggressive tumor, have a 10-year survival rate greater than 90%. Long-term survival is also common in follicular cancer, a more aggressive form of thyroid cancer (Tierney, 2001). Continued thyroid hormone therapy and periodic follow-up and diagnostic testing, however, are important to ensure the patient’s well-being (Thyroid Carcinoma Guidelines, 2001).

Postoperatively, the patient is instructed to take exogenous thyroid hormone to prevent hypothyroidism. Later follow-up includes clinical assessment for recurrence of nodules or masses in the neck and signs of hoarseness, dysphagia, or dyspnea. Total-body scans are performed 2 to 4 months after surgery to detect residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease. Thyroid hormones are stopped for about 6 weeks before the tests. Care must be taken to avoid iodine-containing foods and contrast agents. A repeat scan is done 1 year after the initial surgery. If measurements are stable, a final scan is obtained in 3 to 5 years.

            FT4 TSH, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels are monitored to determine whether the thyroid hormone supplementation is adequate and to note whether calcium balance is maintained.

            Although local and systematic reactions to radiation may occur and may include neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, these complications are rare when radioactive iodine is used. Patients who undergo surgery that is combined with radioiodine have a higher survival rate than those undergoing surgery alone. Patient teaching emphasizes the importance of taking prescribed medications and following recommendations for following-up monitoring. The patient who is undergoing radiation therapy is also instructed in how to assess and manage side effects of treatment Thyroid Carcinoma Guidelines, 2001).

            Partial or complete thyroidectomy may be carried out as primary treatment of thyroid carcinoma, hyperthyroidism, or hyper-parathyroidism. The type and extent of the surgery depend on the diagnosis, goal of surgery, and prognosis. Thyroidectomy may be treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic hyperthyroidism is given appropriate medications to return the thyroid hormone levels and metabolic rate to normal and to reduce the risk for thyroid storm and hemorrhage during the postoperative period. Medications that may prolong clotting (eg, aspirin) are stopped several weeks before surgery to minimize the risk for postoperative bleeding.

  1. Nursing Management

            Important preoperative goals are to gain patient’s confidence and reduce anxiety. Often, the patient’s home life has become tense because of his or her restlessness, irritability, and nervousness secondary to hyperthyroidism. Efforts are necessary to protect the patient from such tension and stress to avoid precipitating thyroid storm. If the patient reports increased stress when with family or friends, suggestions are made to limit contact with them. Quiet and relaxing forms of recreation or occupational therapy may be helpful (American Cancer Society (2002).

  • Teaching Patient’s Health-Care

            The patient may be discharged the evening of surgery or within 1 0r 2 days. Therefore, the patient and family need to be acknowledgeable about the signs and symptoms of the complications that may occur and those that should be reported. Strategies are suggested for managing postoperative pain at home and for increasing humidification. The nurse explains to the patient and family the need for rest, relaxation and nutrition. The patient is permitted to resume his or her former activities and responsibilities completely once recovered from surgery (Tierney, 2001).

III. Conclusion

            In conclusion, if indicated, a referral to home care is made. The home care nurse assesses the patient’s recovery from surgery. The nurse also assesses the surgical incision and reinforces instruction about limiting activities that put strain on the incision and sutures. Family responsibilities and factors relating to the home environment that produce emotional tension have often been implicated as precipitating causes of thyrotoxicosis.


  1. American Cancer Society (2002). Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.
  2. Tierney, L.M. (2001). Current and Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.
  3. Thyroid Carcinoma Task Force (2001). AACE/AAES Medical and Surgical guidelines for clinical practice: Management of thyroid carcinoma. Endocrine Practice, 345 (7), 202-220.

Thyroid Cancer Essay

The fault in our stars review Essay

The fault in our stars review Essay.

I read the book “The Fault in Our Stars” by John Green. This book is young adult fiction. The reason I chose this book is because I heard amazing things about it from literally everyone I talked to and I kind of just wanted to see what all the hype was about. SUMMARY The story starts off with the narrator Hazel Grace explaining how she has stage 4 thyroid cancer and how her mom is forcing her to go to a cancer support group.

When she gets there she meets a boy named Augustus who has osteosarcoma.

The story continues, they fall in love, and all is well, until tragedy strikes and they’re forced to cope with the harsh reality of the fact that their time together is very limited. QUOTE A quote that stood out to me was on page 260: “There are infinite numbers between 0 and 1. There’s . 1 and . 12 and . 112 and an infinite collection of others. Of course, there is a bigger infinite set of numbers between 0 and 2, or between 0 and a million.

Some infinities are bigger than other infinities.

There are days, many of them, when I resent the size of my unbounded set. I want more numbers than I’m likely to get, and God, I want more numbers for Augustus Waters than he got. But, Gus, my love, I cannot tell you how thankful I am for our little infinity. I wouldn’t trade it for the world. You gave me a forever within the numbered days, and I’m grateful. ” The reason this stood out to me is because it made me realize how fortunate we are compared to other people dealing with issues like cancer and other illnesses.

OPINION MY opinion of this book is that it is a must read for everyone, boys and girls, because it isn’t just a corny love story or a sad depressing book about death. Although cancer is a really big factor in the book, it mainly focused on the development of Hazel and Augustus’s characters, which I liked because it kept you from just feeling sorry for the characters so you could really understand and get to know them.

The fault in our stars review Essay