Representative Bureaucracy Essay

Representative Bureaucracy Essay.

The idea of representative bureaucracy is a relatively simple one; however, the nuance of implementation which accompanies the transition from theory to practice has resulted in a divergence of opinion regarding the usefulness of two models of representational bureaucracy: a “passive”‘ mode and an “active mode. ” Each of the modes demonstrates the attempt to generate a bureaucracy which will well-serve those whom it represents.

The first mode of representational bureaucracy: passive, emerges from the idea that a bureaucracy should be “the presence of a public workforce that reflects the demographic characteristics of the society it serves,” and that ” the idea of representative bureaucracy which reflected the “backgrounds of the citizenry and similar values and beliefs,” will enable “citizens to feel a connection with government,” (Sowa, 701).

By contrast, active representational bureaucracy puts more discretionary power into the hands of administrators and enables them to take an aggressive rile in championing the causes of groups for which they are appointed to support. Active representational bureaucracy becomes a method “through which the interests of particular groups could be more actively pursued by administrators holding similar values,” and as such demonstrates a direct line of influence from groups to their representatives, (Sowa, 701)

The basic difference between the two modes is the idea of administrator discretion which is the active mode of representational bureaucracy, can use discretionary authority which is “directed toward more representative and possibly more equitable outcomes,” in bureaucratic services, (Sowa, 701).


The underlying premise of representational bureaucracy is that of a “public workforce that is representative of the population” which is intended to embody “values and beliefs that are similar to the population it represents”; in this way, the public workforce is theoretically prepared to best represent the needs and desires of those for whom it exists.

However, the issue of whether or not minority needs are met by representational bureaucracy is the subject of considerable debate, (Sowa, 703). Central to the debate is the issue of administrative discretionary power. A significant amount of administrative discretion is argued for under the “active” mode of bureaucratic representation and the expected outcome is that administrators will function as vocal advocates with a measure of power on behalf of those they represent.

Studies cited in Sowa’s article point to evidence that advocates and administrators, in fact, do pursue discretion in tandem with their cultural identification and association with the cultural identities of those they represent. As Sowa’s article points out, “authorities governing an agency define work roles as a articular set of behaviors expected from those occupying a particular position or job”; so it is important that administrators identify as much with those they represent as possible, (Sowa,704).

In my opinion, Sowa’s article demonstrates, conclusively, that representative bureaucracy does, in fact, function better when the public workforce holds strong identification with the people it represents. Although no system is perfect, active modes of bureaucratic representation seem to yield demonstrable results, according to the ideas and evidence expressed in Sowa’s article.

Representative Bureaucracy Essay

Pfizer Case Study Essay

Pfizer Case Study Essay.

1- Describe and evaluate what Pfizer is doing with its Pfizer Works.

Pfizer Case Study Essay. Pfizer is continually looking for ways to help employees be more efficient and effective. Pfizer helps his managers to spend more time on knowledge work when they really needed and less support work by shifting time consuming tasks with a press of a button. They are also happier because they spend time working on what they know and like to do. This strategy saved valuable employee time and for example, when he gave the Indian team a complex project researching strategic actions that worked when consolidating company facilities, the team put the report together in a month that would have taken six months to do.

Pfizer Case Study Essay answers

Pfizer is the world’s largest research-based pharmaceuticals firm and also a well-known pharmaceutical company. So their most of the work depends on research, developing strategies and innovate. They were trying to find a new way of system which makes their work more effective and efficient.

Pfizer find out that their worker spends more time on business research and data analysis to the creation of documents and other routine support like Surfing and making PowerPoint and also spending so much time on menial tasks rather than knowledge work. The average Pfizer employee was spending 20 percent to 40 percent of his or her time on supporting work(creating documents, typing notes, doing research, manipulating data, scheduling meetings) and only 60 percent to 80 percent on knowledge work( strategy, innovation, networking, collaborating, Critical thinking).

Pfizer case study covid

That’s why Pfizer starting to find a solution of this problem to increase their Efficiency and effectiveness. Pfizer build a new kind of structure by using Microsoft outlook where their connecting to an outsourcing company where Pfizer can connect with different worker by email where they can connect with any worker around world and get cost specification for their requested work. By using this process the time spent on analysis of data has been reduce, also have many financial benefits and employees also get rid of their boring work.

Question 2: What Structural implication-good and bad- does this approach have? (Thinking term of the six organizational design elements)

Pfizer competitive analysis

This approach “office of future concept” (it means Pfizer make a new concept of future office where they can connect their all offices around the world with each other and where any staff of the office can communicate, share information with another staff from one office to another office around the world) by Pfizer is good decision taken by Pfizer Senior director. This organizational structure also follows the six organizational design elements. As we know there are six organizational design elements. And they are:

1. Division of Work
2. Departmentalization
3. Hierarchy Development
4. Authority, Responsibility and Delegation
5. Centralization vs. Decentralization
6. Coordination

Division of Work: Division of the work means divide a job into different part. When a job is broken-down into a number of steps, and each step is completed by a separate individual leading to work specialization is called division of work. In the new organization structure Pfizer also divide their work into different part and also reduces the work load of their employees by specialization. Departmentalization: For different specialization Pfizer facilitated by putting specialists together in departments under the direction of a manager. These departments are typically based on the work functions performed, the product or service offered, the target customer or client, the geographic territory covered, or the process used to turn inputs into outputs. In new organizational structure Pfizer also departmentalize through different geographic area.

For example: an employee of Pfizer can take any kind of information through one country employee to another country. Hierarchy Development: In Pfizer for the new organizational structure hierarchy development is also followed. In this structure a single worker have to request to its upper level and after he or she receives the permissions he or she can start to assign a team to complete the work. Here they also have to follow a hierarchy level from upper side to downside. Authority, Responsibility and Delegation: In the new organizational structure of Pfizer the Authority, Responsibility and Delegation of each employees is also been decide and the authority of level is higher than the lowest level workers and also responsibility is also high for the upper level and low for the lower level.

Pfizer case study covid

Pfizer Case Study Essay

Bureaucracy and self-government Essay

Bureaucracy and self-government Essay.

When a government creates policies, regulations, laws and guidelines, it rigorously and astutely applies them through what is called an act and service of public administration. Public administration is then implemented within an organizational structure. The bureaucracy that this structure operates illustrate the various operatives and/or personnel and/or leaders that makes the decision and leads the methodologies, tactics and strategies to implement the said policies, regulations, laws and guidelines.

The bureaucracy is likewise responsible in ensuring the efficient and effective ways and means for such act and service.

In executing its mandate, public administration must be dynamic. It must have a natural course of evolution and appropriate change and improvements that responds to the multifarious and complex demands of public service; constituent needs and demands and expectations. “Bureaucracy and Self-Government…” is a book that gives enlightenment and on how concepts of public administration renders its appropriate service to the American people.

The Book’s Insights Bureaucracy in its principle is the rational and academic structure of the organizational process in rendering service and implementing policies and procedures of any institution – like the government.

The positive principle of bureaucracy has however evolved into a negative context in the modern time wherein red tape and other forms of inadequacies. It is because the bureaucracy in rendering public administration operates within two types of concepts.

It is therefore very important and interesting that Dr. Cook laid out in his book that public administration in American politics is operated both within the instrumental concept and in the constitutive concept. The instrumental concept believes that the job of bureaucracy in public administration is to execute the instructions of public officials. Within the simplicity of this concept there lies the insufficiency of complete rendering of public service. That is the reason why Dr.

Cook has outlined that the past two centuries of America is a struggle to create life and meaning and expectations of the instrumental concept of public administration and service. The constitutive concept believes that the job of bureaucracy in public administration is to shape and characterize public policy and political community. This concept allows formative methods that bring shape and structure to laws and policies of government. Creativity and dynamic insights and foresights of government officials and public administrators are exercised in using this concept.

The concluding insight of Dr. Cook in “Bureaucracy and Self-Government…” outlines principles of responsible public administration. Firstly, with proper responsibility in governing and administering comes along an unlimited ability. A complete and consummate commitment to adherence to the law must be characterized in the proponents of public administration. Government leaders and officials must take the rule of law as their way of life. Secondly, within the rule of law “an adequate sphere of constitutionally legitimate independence must be carved”.

(Cook, 1996, page 177). This principle is coherent with what government administrators have sworn to in fulfilling their duties and responsibilities. It is important that discretion of the law is carried out with integrity. The Book’s Presentation The book is presented in a very scholarly format. He extensive experience of Dr. Brian J. Cook in the study of politics and public administration render authority on the subject matter. The book is seemingly passionate in pursuing ways and means for public administration to still attain its ideals.

The book traced well established historical background that served the impetus on how American government administration and management has evolved – thus providing the foundation of the conduct and manner of public administration of modern day. Whatever the course of history and evolution American politics and public administration may have tracked and traced, the book offers confidence and hope that the better of valor shall surface in public administration in America. The Book’s Author Dr.

Brian J. Cook is presently a Professor in the Center for Public Administration and Policy in the School of Public and International Affairs of Virginia Tech. He earned his BA degree in Political Science in 1977 from Cleveland State University with magna cum laude honors. His further education in government and politics earned him is masters in 1982 and doctorate in 1984 – both from the University of Maryland. He has taught; lectured and done research on politics and government since 1979.

Dr. Cook has been endowed with numerous foundation and university grants and government sponsored research. He has written and published three books: “Bureaucratic Politics and Regulatory Reform: The EPA and Emissions Trading” (1988); “Bureaucracy and Self-Government: Reconsidering the Role of Public Administration in American Politics” (1996) and “Democracy and Administration: Woodrow Wilson’s Ideas and the Challenges of Public Management” (2007).

In addition he has written and published numerous book chapters; peer reviewed and non-reviewed articles; book reviews; conference papers and reports covering a very wide array of thoughts, principles and theories in American politics, government, administration policies. (Brian J. Cook Curriculum Vitae, 2008, pages 1-2) Works Cited: Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government: Reconsidering the Role of Public Administration in American Politics John Hopkins University Press, 1996 Brian J. Cook Curriculum Vitae, September 2008 http://www. cpap. vt. edu/doc/BJC_Curriculum_Vitae_09-08. pdf [accessed 2 June 2009]

Bureaucracy and self-government Essay