Understand the neurology of dementia Essay

Understand the neurology of dementia Essay.

1.1 -Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome.

Dementia is a broad, umbrella term used to describe a family of brain disorders. Within this ‘family’ there are many different types (or causes) of dementia. Some people develop a number of dementias. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘mixed dementia’.

Alzheimer’s disease, which is a common cause of dementia, accounting for over half of all cases. Under a microscope it is possible to see a number of significant changes in the structure of a brain with Alzheimer’s, These include:

A general loss of brain cells.

Significant shrinkage in the brain tissue.
Neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid plagues.

‘Tangles’ and ‘Plaques’ are microscopic abnormalities found in the brain cells. Both of these cause brain cells to die off at a faster rate than in normal aging. Alzheimer’s tends to affect cells across the brain, as opposed to a specific area. Consequently, over time, the person will tend to experience a range of difficulties.

Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia and occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen. In order to function correctly the brain relies upon a constant flow of oxygen-rich blood. To this end, the brain is richly supplied with blood through a dense network of many millions of blood vessels- known as vascular system. If some of these vessels become diseased or blocked, for example by a blood clot, the brain is starved of oxygen. This in turn causes the death of brain cells, leading to the symptoms of dementia.

Dementia with Lewy bodies.

The ‘Lewy Bodies’ is a tiny spherical structure (an abnormality) found in the brain. Named after Fredrich H Lewy, the German scientist who first identified them in 1912, these abnormalities contribute to the death of brain cells.

Fronto-temproal dementia.

The term ‘Fronto-temproal dementia’ (FTD) covers a range of conditions including Pick’s disease, frontal lobe degeneration and dementia associated with motor neurone disease. All are caused by damage to the front part of the brain (the frontal lobe) and/or the temporal parts (the area above the ears).

Less common causes of dementia include,
Parkinson’s disease,
Huntington’s disease,
CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease),
Down’s Syndrome,
Motor Neurone disease.

1.2 -Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia.

Likely signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, a person will often begin by experiencing a mild impairment to their ability to:

Think clearly
Make rational decisions.

Vascular dementia signs and symptoms will vary depending on the area of the brain where blood vessels are diseased or damaged by stroke.
Common signs and symptoms are,
Problems concentrating and communicating.
Symptoms of stroke, such as physical weakness or paralysis.
Memory problems (although this may not be the first symptom).
A ‘steppes’ progression, with symptoms remaining at a constant level and then suddenly deteriorating.
Epileptic seizures.
Periods of acute confusion.
Hallucinations (seeing things that don’t exist)
Delusions (believing things that are not true)

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

In terms of signs and symptoms, DLB is similar to Alzheimer’s disease in that it causes difficulties with memory, reasoning and language. However, unlike most cases of Alzheimer’s, Lewy Body deposits are found in the base of the brain (the cerebellum), which is responsible for vision (the occipital lobe). Therefore, people with DLB tend to have difficulties with balance, double vision and/or visual hallucinations.

Fronto-temporal dementia

Signs and symptoms:

Lack insight and loss the ability to empathise with others. This can make them appear selfish and unfeeling. Become extrovert when they were previously introverted or withdrawn when they were previously outgoing. Behave inappropriately, for example, making tactless comments, joking at the wrong moments or being rude. Lose their inhibitions, for example, exhibiting sexual behaviour.

Become aggressive.
Be easily distracted.
Develop routines, for example, compulsive rituals.
Experience language difficulties, such as work finding difficulties or reduction in or lack of speech.
Overeat and/or develop a liking for sweet foods.

1.3 -Explain the way that individuals process information with reference to the abilities and limitations of individuals with dementia. 1.4 -Explain how other factors can cause changes in an individual’s condition that may not be attributable to dementia. 1.5 -Explain why the abilities and needs of an individual with dementia may fluctuate. Understand the impact of recognition and diagnosis of dementia. 2.1 -Describe the impact of early diagnosis and follow up to diagnosis. Benefits of early dementia diagnosis

Dementia, and the difficulties it causes, is one of the most feared health conditions. People with dementia and their families are sometimes reluctant to seek advice when concerned about memory or other problems. But there are many potential benefits to getting medical advice if you’re worried. Being diagnosed early is important for many reasons. It helps you to get the right treatments and to find the best sources of support, as well as to make decisions about the future.

Diagnosis can help uncertainty

It may not be clear why someone has problems with memory or has a change in behaviour. These problems may be because of dementia, or down to other reasons such as poor sleep, low mood, medications or other medical conditions. This uncertainty can be distressing for both the person experiencing difficulties, and their family and friends. While a diagnosis of dementia can be devastating news, an explanation of what the problem is and what can be done about it can help people feel empowered and reduce some of the worry caused by uncertainty. Some people find it helpful to discuss with doctors and nurses how the dementia may affect them or their loved one in the future, and there is advice available about how to stay independent and live well with dementia.

Accessing treatments

Dementia is not a single condition – it refers to difficulties with thinking and memory that may be caused by several different underlying diseases. This is one reason why not everyone with dementia experiences the same problems. Identifying that there is a problem, and then diagnosing the underlying cause is important for guiding treatment and accessing services. Some causes of dementia are treatable and reversible (either partially or fully, depending on the nature of the problem). Conditions such as anxiety and depression, some vitamin deficiencies, side effects of medications and certain brain tumours fall into this category. Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are neurodegenerative conditions, which means they gradually damage the brain. Cholinesterase inhibitor medications have been shown to have benefit in Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

These treatments (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) improve symptoms by making the remaining brain cells work a bit harder. Memantine is another medication that can help in Alzheimer’s disease. Although not a cure, these medications can make a significant difference to day-to-day living and functioning. Treating high blood pressure, high cholesterol and poorly controlled diabetes is also important, as is stopping smoking and keeping to a healthy weight. These factors (known as risk factors) all contribute strongly to vascular dementia, and may make Alzheimer’s disease worse. Your GP will be able to assess your risk factors, advise if treatment is needed and monitor you. Medications for other conditions can be reviewed in case they are having a negative effect on cognitive functioning.

2.2 -Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an individual in line with agreed ways of working. 2.3 -Explain the process of reporting possible signs of dementia within agreed ways of working. 2.4 -Describe the possible impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on National dementia strategies emphasize that the primary purpose of early diagnosis is timely Access to information, advice, and support and access to a pathway of effective treatment And care from the time of diagnosis to end of life care.

The clinical indication for an earlier diagnosis would be that a critical period for some Interventions may lie between the earliest point at which the diagnosis can be made and the Time at which diagnosis is currently made. That is, that the intervention only works, or works Better, when applied earlier than is usually the case.

Currently available drug therapies treat symptoms; they do not fundamentally alter the Course of the disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) Are licensed for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease, and memantine for moderate to Severe dementia. They do not appear to benefit people with mild cognitive impairment (16). However, compounds with the potential to slow the progress of the disease may be Developed in the future. Such compounds are likely to work best when applied before Extensive and permanent damage has occurred, therefore in the earliest stages of dementia, Or even before the disease is clinically evident.

Non-pharmacological interventions (therapies which do not involve drugs, including Psychological and psychosocial interventions) have the potential to improve cognitive Function, delay institutionalization, reduce carer strain and psychological illness and improve The quality of life. Information regarding the critical period, if any, for the effectiveness of These interventions are not readily available.

Little attention has been paid to the specific needs of people with dementia and their family Members in the early stages of the disease. In a needs assessment carried out in the USA, There was an expressed need for practical information, financial and legal counseling, Emotional support (particularly provided by other people with dementia and carers), and an Interest in research, including clinical trials for the disease.

2.4a -The individual
Every person who is diagnosed with dementia is different. Not two people are the same. Reactions can very with the individual, from, Confusion,
Denial of failings,
Trying to construct since and meaning into the situation,
Destruction of hope,
Loss of future goals,
May have to retire early,
Financial implications,
May need to stop driving,
Loss of socialisation.

2.4b -Their family and friends

Loss of socialisation,
Increased stress levels,
Feeling of guilt,
Need to balance commitments,
Loss of financial support/increased financial needs,
Feeling embarrassed,

Understand how dementia care must be underpinned by a person centred approach. 3.1 -Compare a person centred and a non-person centred approach to dementia care. 3.2 -Describe a range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia.

Recognising that a person will have a unique set of needs and preferences is important because: It encourages staff to look beyond the label of dementia and to see the person – at the heart of person-centred care there is a deep appreciation of the unique identity of each individual. Although two people are may have the same type of dementia, their personality and life history will mean that their experience of dementia will be different. Recognising that each person will have unique needs and preferences reminds staff to see the person first and the their dementia second. It helps to maintain well-being – dementia should not strip people of who they are.

Respecting each person’s unique needs and preferences can promote positive feelings about themselves and sense of hope for the future. Knowing a person’s preferences can help staff to promote choice, independence and participation – for example, some people like to go to bed at a set time, others do not. If a person prefers to bath once a week and done so all their life, it should be no great surprise if they become resistant to bathing more frequently. Dementia shouldn’t stop people from having choices and they shouldn’t be forced to fit into the routines of others.

3.3 -Describe how myths and stereotypes related to dementias may affect the individual and their carers.

The medical model of dementia dominated the traditional approach to dementia care up until 1990s. The emergence of a social model of dementia after that time was partly a reaction to this dominance. It was also part of a wider social and civil rights movement at that time which sought to transform the way in which people with disability were viewed and treated. The theory of the ‘social model of disability’ grew out of this movement. This became a tool for helping disabled people to gain a better insight into their situation and to recognise how they were discriminated against and marginalized within wider society.

3.4 -Describe ways in which individuals and carers can be supported to overcome their fears. Seeing dementia as a form of disability is important because it challenges health and social care staff to adapt their care approach and to maximise a person’s remaining strengths and abilities. It also challenges care providers to consider whether the environment within the care setting further disables people with dementia.

Understand the neurology of dementia Essay

Benefits Of Reading Books Essay

Benefits Of Reading Books Essay.

I’ve found that no matter what I read, the act of reading every day has helped me in nearly every aspect of my life. Here are a few of my favorite ways that reading has improved my quality of life, and will definitely improve yours.

1. Mental Stimulation

Studies have shown that staying mentally stimulated can slow the progressof (or possibly even prevent) Alzheimer’s and Dementia, since keeping your brain active and engaged prevents it from losing power. Just like any other muscle in the body, the brain requires exercise to keep it strong and healthy, so the phrase “use it or lose it” is particularly apt when it comes to your mind.

Doing puzzles and playing games such as chess have also been found to be helpful with cognitive stimulation.

2. Stress Reduction

No matter how much stress you have at work, in your personal relationships, or countless other issues faced in daily life, it all just slips away when you lose yourself in a great story.

A well-written novel can transport you to other realms, while an engaging article will distract you and keep you in the present moment, letting tensions drain away and allowing you to relax.

3. Knowledge

Everything you read fills your head with new bits of information, and you never know when it might come in handy. The more knowledge you have, the better-equipped you are to tackle any challenge you’ll ever face. Additionally, here’s a bit of food for thought: should you ever find yourself in dire circumstances, remember that although you might lose everything else—your job, your possessions, your money, even your health—knowledge can never be taken from you.

4. Vocabulary Expansion

This goes with the above topic: the more you read, the more words you gain exposure to, and they’ll inevitably make their way into your everyday vocabulary. Being articulate and well-spoken is of great help in any profession, and knowing that you can speak to higher-ups with self-confidence can be an enormous boost to your self-esteem. It could even aid in your career, as those who are well-read, well-spoken, and knowledgeable on a variety of topics tend to get promotions more quickly (and more often) than those with smaller vocabularies and lack of awareness of literature, scientific breakthroughs, and global events. Reading books is also vital for learning new languages, as non-native speakers gain exposure to words used in context, which will ameliorate their own speaking and writing fluency.

5. Memory Improvement

When you read a book, you have to remember an assortment of characters, their backgrounds, ambitions, history, and nuances, as well as the various arcs and sub-plots that weave their way through every story. That’s a fair bit to remember, but brains are marvellous things and can remember these things with relative ease. Amazingly enough, every new memory you create forges new synapses (brain pathways)and strengthens existing ones, which assists in short-term memory recall as well as stabilizing moods. How cool is that?

6. Stronger Analytical Thinking Skills

Have you ever read an amazing mystery novel, and solved the mystery yourself before finishing the book? If so, you were able to put critical and analytical thinking to work by taking note of all the details provided and sorting them out to determine “whodunnit”. That same ability to analyze details also comes in handy when it comes to critiquing the plot; determining whether it was a well-written piece, if the characters were properly developed, if the storyline ran smoothly, etc. Should you ever have an opportunity to discuss the book with others, you’ll be able to state your opinions clearly, as you’ve taken the time to really consider all the aspects involved.

7. Improved Focus and Concentration

In our internet-crazed world, attention is drawn in a million different directions at once as we multi-task through every day. In a single 5-minute span, the average person will divide their time between working on a task, checking email, chatting with a couple of people (via gchat, skype, etc.), keeping an eye on twitter, monitoring their smartphone, and interacting with co-workers. This type of ADD-like behaviour causes stress levels to rise, andlowers our productivity. When you read a book, all of your attention is focused on the story—the rest of the world just falls away, and you can immerse yourself in every fine detail you’re absorbing. Try reading for 15-20 minutes before work (i.e. on your morning commute, if you take public transit), and you’ll be surprised at how much more focused you are once you get to the office.

8. Better Writing Skills

This goes hand-in-hand with the expansion of your vocabulary: exposure to published, well-written work has a noted effect on one’s own writing, as observing the cadence, fluidity, and writing styles of other authors will invariably influence your own work. In the same way that musicians influence one another, and painters use techniques established by previous masters, so do writers learn how to craft prose by reading the works of others.

9. Tranquility

In addition to the relaxation that accompanies reading a good book, it’s possible that the subject you read about can bring about immense inner peace and tranquility. Reading spiritual texts can lower blood pressure and bring about an immense sense of calm, while reading self-help books has been shown to help people suffering from certain mood disorders and mild mental illnesses.

10. Free Entertainment

Though many of us like to buy books so we can annotate them and dog-ear pages for future reference, they can be quite pricey. For low-budget entertainment, you can visit your local library and bask in the glory of the countless tomes available there for free. Libraries have books on every subject imaginable, and since they rotate their stock and constantly get new books, you’ll never run out of reading materials.

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50 First Dates Essay

50 First Dates Essay.

Henry Roth is a marine-life veterinarian at Sea Life Park on the island of Hawaii who has a reputation of being a ladies man and targets female tourists and he has no interest in committing to a serious relationship with these ladies. He constantly gives these women excuses as to why he can’t give them his number. He owns an old boat which he plans to use to fulfil his dream. His friend Ula who happens to be his workmate and his closest friend is a marijuana-smoking Islander and Henry’s other friends include his assistant Alexa, whose sexuality and gender is unclear, Willy his pet African penguin and Jocko a walrus from his workplace.

One day Henry’s old boat breaks down while he is sailing at sea. He goes to the Café to wait for the Coast Guard to help bring his boat which happens to be falling apart to shore. While Henry is waiting at the café he sees a beautiful woman named Lucy Whitmore, who makes art with her waffles.

Henry does not approach her instantly and he just assumes that she is a local lady so he chooses not to go and introduce himself to her, but the next day he comes back and he sees Lucy at the café and approaches her and he hit it off instantly and she asks him to meet her again tomorrow morning.

When Henry goes back to the café, Lucy shows no recollection of ever meeting him. The restaurant owner Sue, who was the best friend of Lucy’s late mother, explains to Henry that a year previous, Lucy and her father Marlin went up to the North Shore to pick a pineapple for his birthday. On the way back, they got into a serious car accident that was caused by a stray cow that left Lucy’s father Marlin with 3 broken ribs and Lucy with loss of her short term memories which is called Goldfield Syndrome in the movie, a type of anterograde amnesia and wakes up every morning thinking it is October 13, 2002. To save her the heartbreak of reliving the accident every day, Marlin and Doug, Lucy’s steroid-addicted lisping brother, relive Marlin’s birthday by doing numerous tasks, including putting out October 13’s Sunday newspaper, re-watching the same Vikings game, and refilling Lucy’s shampoo bottles. Despite Sue’s warning, Henry decides to try and get Lucy to have breakfast with him.

Eventually he does, but it ends poorly when Henry accidentally hurts Lucy’s feelings. He follows her home to apologize where Marlin and Doug instruct Henry to leave Lucy alone. Henry begins devising ways to run into Lucy through the following days such as pretending to have car trouble, creating a fake road block, or by having Ula beat him up. Eventually, Marlin and Doug figure this out due to Lucy singing The Beach Boys “Wouldn’t It Be Nice” on the days when she meets Henry. One day, as Henry is about to sit with Lucy at breakfast, she notices a police officer writing her a ticket for her expired plates. Lucy attempts to argue that they are not yet expired, and takes a newspaper to prove herself, but sees that the date on all the newspapers is not October as she thought, and Marlin and Doug are forced to admit their deception when she confronts them. Henry comes up with an idea to make a video explaining to Lucy her accident and their relationship and play it every morning for her. She watched the tape and is hurt, but eventually comes to her senses and she is able to spend the day by picking up where the tape says she left off.

She spends more time with Henry and goes to see some of her old friends. Henry takes Lucy on 50 first dates and one night as they are out on their date walking on the beach, Lucy asks Henry if he loves her and henry says yes. Henry then asks Lucy if she can marry him and Lucy says yes. Lucy overhear Doug, Marlin and Henry talking and she hears of henrys plasn of leaving for the arctic so Lucy decides to erase Henry completely from her life after learning of his decision not to take a sailing trip to Bristol Bay to study walruses, something he has been planning for the past 10 years. He feels he cannot leave Lucy for the year it will take him. Henry reluctantly helps her destroy her journal entries of their relationship. A few weeks later, Henry is preparing to leave for his sailing trip.

Before he goes, Marlin tells him that Lucy is now living at the brain institute and teaching an art class. He also tells him that she sings. Then, he gives Henry a Beach Boys CD. Listening to the CD, Henry becomes emotional and curses Marlin for giving him the CD and making him feel so emotional. He then remembers that Marlin once told him that Lucy always sings after she meets him. He then realizes that Lucy remembers him and turns around to go home.

She says she does not remember, but then she dreams about him every night and paints pictures of him. They reconcile. Sometime later, Lucy wakes up and plays the tape marked “Good Morning Lucy”. It again reminds her of her accident, but ends with her and Henry’s wedding. From the tape, Henry says to put a jacket on and come have breakfast when she is ready. Lucy then sees that she is on Henry’s boat, which finally made it to Alaska. She goes up on deck and meets Marlin, Henry and their young daughter, Nicole.

About Amnesia and its relevance to the movie

Goldfield Syndrome is a non-existent ailment which was created by the writers of the movie but there really is a condition called “anterograde amnesia” which closely matches the situation portrayed in the movie. With anterograde amnesia, it’s usually caused when a person has some kind of brain damage, most often to the hippocampus region (a portion of the brain at least partially responsible for the storage of memory). In the film, Barrymore’s character has permanent brain damage due to a car accident she was involved in and suffered head trauma. When people have this condition, they really are, essentially, “stuck in time.” Their brains are able to encode new memories and store those memories, but the memories are made inaccessible to that person. In other words, the person doesn’t realize that the memories exist.

He or she will perpetually believe that it’s the day when the amnesia started, just like in the movie. Another reality portrayed in the film is that most people who have severe amnesia are forced to live in a hospital setting. There, the patients can be closely monitored and protected. You can imagine how stressful it would be to have a condition such as anterograde amnesia, and how confusing the world might become. Any new invention would scare you, as would your own reflection in the mirror as time continued to pass. One of the movie’s funnier moments, which also happen to be accurate, is the character nicknamed “10 Second Tom.” While Barrymore’s character can remember new events for a total of one day before “resetting,” the character Tom can, of course, only remember new events for 10 seconds.

This is also accurate. The type and extent of brain damage causing anterograde amnesia can vary, which leads to large discrepancies between individuals for how long memories can stick before fading away. It may seem like 10 seconds is ridiculous it is actually very real. Perchance one of the most famous amnesia patients is an English man named Clive Wearing, who could essentially only remember things for 7 seconds. Due to the fact that the movie is a comedy we see the “lighter side” of anterograde amnesia. However, the actual condition is extremely hard on the patient and his or her entire family. In Clive Wearing’s case, his children chose to stop visiting him as he aged, because he did not recognize them or acknowledge any of their past visits. They came to the realization that visits were stressful and unhappy memories for them, but had no long-term effect on their father at all.

The movie ending

Henry Roth first decides that he should give up the relationship, as Lucy can never truly love him. However, after Henry leaves Lucy shows that somewhere in her mind, her feelings for him have “sunk in” because she continually paints pictures of him, even though she doesn’t recognize who he is. While it is an unbelievable ending there is actual validity to this ending. This is because people who have anterograde amnesia, new memories are being encoded and stored in the brain; the problem is that they can’t access those memories. However, amnesia patients can still be affected by these memories, in surprising and interesting ways. In the movie we see Lucy’s character somehow, unconsciously, remembers Henry Roth and her feelings for him. Here the portrayal of anterograde amnesia is actually not wrong.

The movie itself

The movie itself is not about making fun of amnesiacs but it’s about a man who goes out of his way to make a woman fall in love with him every day and helps her family cope with this illness by saying, don’t just have her live the same day over and over. Make her life better. Allow her to grow because she is going to age and she’s going to deal. This movie offers a twist from the typical Hollywood romance where couples are usually in bed barely after a date or two. Henry, because of the newness of each day, is actually unsuccessful in getting Lucy to sleep with him. Instead his real love for her grows his lust for her lessens.

There is one mostly-clothed bed scene but sex is not necessarily inferred even though they do spend the night together. There are many romantic first kisses however and they do help to show the “sex-right-now” scene that more is not necessarily better. Henry seems to grasp this point which would have seemed impossible from early scenes where several women are describing their brief steamy affair with the elusive Henry. The filmmakers manage to turn their idea to its logical conclusion, turning an ending that could have been either laughable or appalling into something so effortlessly heartfelt as to be nearly inspirational.

The Movie Set

The movie set was on an island so the flora and fauna of Hawaii don’t upstage the actors. The light summer outfits were suitable for the film and the location. It was a Mise-en-scene set where the palm trees, bright green grass, and crystal blue waters complimented Lucy’s character (smart funny and caring) while Henry’s carefree character ,who would move from woman to woman before he met Lucy, worked well with the wind and the palm trees. The director Peter Segal gets viewers to care enough about the characters that the idiotic plot elements aren’t all that off-putting. If there’s a downside, it’s that, aside from a few notable moments of outrageousness, the comedy is both low-key and limited in its ability to generate laughs.

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Describe how neurons in the central nervous system communicate Essay

Describe how neurons in the central nervous system communicate Essay.

Human cognition, emotion, motivation and ultimately life is made possible by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). This essay will briefly describe the processes involved in neuronal communication and discuss how this knowledge has helped improve our understanding of human behaviour, specifically with regards to neurological and psychological disorders. Neurons connected to motor neurons in the somatic nervous system control the bodies conscious action whilst neurons in the automatic nervous system control involuntary action which keeps the heart pumping and internal processes working.

The soma of a neuron is electrically charged reacting to electrical disturbances from either sensory or neighbouring neurons via it’s dendrites. These brief changes of electrical voltage (action potentials) are conducted away from the soma and along the neurons axon. Action potentials travel quickly to the tip of the axon (synapse) where it stimulates the secretion of a particular neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitter acts as a chemical message able to bridge the fluid filled synaptic gap between neighbouring neurons so that communication between cells can occur.

The amount of neurotransmitter released into the synaptic gap depends on the frequency of the incoming action potential. On reaching compatible receptors on the postsynaptic neuron the neurotransmitter has an effect on the neighbouring cells action potential, either creating anew or increasing the frequency of an already present action potential (excitation) or suppressing action potential activity (inhibition). Crucially the neurotransmitter only has a short time to stimulate the receptors as it is quickly taken back by the presynaptic neuron in the process of ‘re-uptake’.

In this way the brain can receive incoming messages from the external world, process the information and transmit instructions of response to the body which reacts appropriately. Understanding the biological behaviour of neurons and applying this knowledge to symptoms of neurological disease has led to some important discoveries and theories regarding the nature of the brain and it’s relationship to human behaviour.

For example neuronal activity can explain why the breaking or blocking of a blood vessel (a stroke) and resulting lesion in a region of the motor cortex can cause loss of speech and use of corresponding limbs, neurons are no longer able to communicate to the appropriate motor neurons (Toates, 2007). The inherent adaptability or ‘plasticity’ of the brains neurons which enables other brain regions to take over a damaged region (Mareschal, Johnson and Grayson, 2004) also offers an explanation for the recovery of bodily function seen in stroke patients.

However the vast differences in levels and speed of recovery in stroke patients indicates that the creation of new connections is most likely affected by many variables placing limits on theories of cause and effect. In recent years non-invasive methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionised biological psychology research. Researchers are now able to provide visual evidence of participants neuronal activity as cognitive and motor tasks are performed.

This has armed psychology with credible biologically based data with which to generate hypothesis regarding the relationship between neurons and human behaviour. However Toates (2007) warns that the interpretation of material data in itself may limit the reliability of it’s use as evidence. A further area of psychological interest enriched by our understanding of neuronal systems is that of mood disorders.

For example depression is argued to be caused by abnormalities in the neurotransmission of key neural systems including the serotonergic synapse which results in inadequate levels of serotonin being present in the nervous system (Toates, 2007). The theory for a neurochemical cause of depression is supported through the use of antidepressants which inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin and increase serotonin levels (Martin, Carlson and Buskit, 2010).

This example illustrates how viewing a psychological state at the level of biology can be useful in both increasing understanding and developing interventions A strictly biological explanation for mood disorders therefore appears logical and valid but there are limits to this approach. For example if depression is simply a case of ‘not enough of the right neurotransmitter’ then we could expect antidepressants to be prescribed and depression to disappear but for an estimated 35-50% of people antidepressants are ineffective (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2012).

There is also the opposite phenomenon of placebos successfully treating depression which suggests that the idea of taking pharmaceuticals or perhaps the very act of getting medical support itself has a psychological impact which must somehow cause biochemical changes in the brain. The idea that conscious awareness can influence physiological processes in the brain is also supported by cases of psychoactive drug use . i. e. heroin where an appropriate social context is needed to experience their effects (Toates, 2007).

Psychologists are mostly in agreement that biological processes do not solely determine psychological processes but that the two are in fact reciprocal in nature, interacting and influencing each other over time and in different contexts. In other words a person may have a genetic predisposition for low levels of serotonin leading to depression but the biochemical state of depression may also be a consequence of an environmental experience.

This is supported by Anisman and Zacharko (1982) who found that depression is often proceeded with a high frequency of stressful life events, although this does not equate to a cause and effect relationship. To conclude this essay has highlighted the importance of recent technological advancements in providing scientifically reliable evidence to develop and support our understanding of neurological processes.

However it has also revealed the flaws of the outdated extreme reductionist view that all psychological phenomenon begin at the level of biology and are determined by physiological causes. Human behaviour is clearly too complex for this and in order to gain a more reliable and useful picture, must always be considered in a social and cultural context. At this point we may be closer to knowing how neurons communicate but the elusive cause and effect relationship between brain and behaviour is far from ready to be fully understood.

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Informative Speech Outline Essay

Informative Speech Outline Essay.


A) Traumatic Brain Injury’s are an injury that we are still finding out new information on. The extent of this in sports is also on a significantly more extreme level. The question I’m investigating and informing the audience of is whether or not the NFL taken appropriate measures in concussion prevention and rehabilitation? B) Tie this in with my own personal experience of having two concussions and the emotional and physical effects it had on me. My dad’s hockey career was also cut short because of experiencing several concussions.

C) Wrap up introduction by talking about my subtopics. These include the health effects of concussions, the NFL’s actions, and moving forward in the future. (new equipment technology, NFL’s intentions, etc.)


A) What is a concussion

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury caused by contact to the head. 1) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “signs and symptoms of a concussion may loss of conscious-ness, confusion, memory loss, dizziness, double or blurry vision, balance issues, sensitivity to light or sound, and nausea or vomiting.

”(Boriboon). Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, change to athlete’s behavior, etc. Because of the serious condition of the brain after a concussion, players are expected to sit out 2-4 weeks.

Long term effects

Conclude first point by talking about how because of the expectations and scale these pro athletes are playing on, they tend to mislead medical experts. 2) In the article, “Concussions in Sports and Recreation,” author Terry Adirim notes that, “ neuropsychological testing is the gold standard in the assessment of concussions. This is because there is evidence that underlying brain functions continue to be impaired even after reported clinical symptoms of concussion are gone”(Adirim).


Recently, Roger Goodell implemented a new medical committee to advise him on the issue of traumatic brain injuries. i) Replaced the former Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee, which was active from 1994 to 2009.

ii) After concussions were being seen more and more, “rule changes on and off the field, and the appointment of a new scientific advisory committee to study the neurological issues associated with concussion in NFL athletes,”(Ellenbogen). Go in to detail regarding former and current player’s who have been or are negatively affected by concussions Situation with NFLPA

Possible case study of a player who experienced a specific condition from excessive head trauma In 2013 alone, there were 228 diagnosed concussions during preseason and regular-season practices and games combined iii) “coaches typically are not familiar with the symptoms and treatment of concussions, and players have trouble diagnosing themselves, or are not likely to disclose their injury because they want to remain in the game,”(Heiner).

C) Moving Forward
-What can the NFL do to improve equipment safety?
-How could companies do this in a way that would not take away from the game?
– Concussions are harder to tell in some more than others so we need to enhance neuropsychological testing to fit all people
i) “The potential short- and long-term adverse consequences of concussion require accurate diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies for gender, all ages, levels of competition and countries.” (Demont)


A) There is no denying that concussions are a serious problem in the world of sports today Player’s who devote their life to something that is supposed to be their passions shouldn’t have to endure the detrimental effects of concussions later in their life Depression, CTE, and other ailments can be prevented if we take more accurate measure

B) The NFL has taken progressive steps in concussion prevention and awareness It is difficult for the NFL to really do anything more because of the criticism they’ll receive from acting too much or too little The aggressive nature of the sport is why so many experience concussions Can we educate players better in awareness so that they don’t try to play too soon

C) Is it possible to create better types of testing

– If we change equipment for the better of the player’s, will this help stop the NFLPA


Adirim, T. (2007). Concussions in Sports and Recreation (1st ed., Vol. 8). Elsevier.

Boriboon, K. (2013). Concussion Management In Football: Don’t Shake It Off (1st ed., Vol. 5). American Physical Therapy Association.

Ellenbogen, R., Berger, M., & Batjer, H. (2010). The National Football League and Concussion: Leading a Culture Change in Contact Sports. Elsevier.

Informative Speech Outline Essay

Map-A-Brain Essay

Map-A-Brain Essay.

1 Why is the story of Phineas Gage considered so extraordinary? What does his story teach us about the brain? The injury that occurred to Phineas Gage is extraordinary because it completely changed his emotions and mental characteristics, and did not damage him severely physically.He lived from the accident, and was physically the same person, but after it, all of his personal characteristics changed, turning him into a completely different person. This proves that the part of his brain that was injured is the part that is responsible for controlling emotion, personality and reasoning.

2 (Optional) How did Gall and Penfield differ in their approach to studying brain function? Both scientists wanted to answer questions through their experiments, but Gall mostly used observations and data collection to retrieve his discoveries.

Penfield on the other hand, seemed to be a lot more interactive with his experiment, as he used live patients, and opened their skulls and performs stimulations on their brains. Penfield had to use live subjects and subject them to stimulations to make observations; this seemed more like an experiment.

Gall used dissections and autopsies of brains as well as skull observations to make conclusions about his hypotheses.

1. (Optional) Scientists have used a drawing called a motor homunculus to show the connection between different body parts and areas of the brain. This drawing is a cartoon of the human body, where the bigger the body parts, the more area of the motor cortex that is dedicated to controlling them. If you were to draw this figure, what body parts do you think would be most exaggerated? Explain. The face, especially the mouth and tongue, and the hands. These body parts are exaggerated because they are directly correlated with the senses and they are responsible for expressing much of what the brain analyzes. The hands must feel, act upon many 3 (Optional) How did Broca and Wernicke determine the location of key language areas in the brain? They analyzed (autopsied) the brains of deceased subjects and compared similarities between the specimens to look for a link to the issues.

4 (Optional) Describe one method scientists are currently using to map the function of the human brain. Scientists are using MRI technology to scan brains with magnetic radiation signals that identify areas that are being used by the brain. MRI’s are connected to a screen that highlighted areas that are under use in the brain, different colors denote the intensity of the concentration of activity. The signals travel through the brain in layers to show a 2D model of an 3D brain.

5 New research is using functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), a scan of the brain that shows specific areas that are activated during certain tasks, as a lie detector test. Explain which area(s) of the brain you think might light up to show that you are telling a lie or telling the truth. Explain your reasoning. Most likely the frontal lobe, due to the fact that the frontal lobe is responsible for your emotions and reasoning as well as decision making. When you decide to lie, or when you analyze information to then give an answer, you use your frontal lobe to decipher how to react and what to say.

6 Explain the function of the brain’s limbic system. The limbic system is a system of nerves and networks of the brain that work to control general emotions, mood and instincts, like pleasure or anger, and initiates and drives feelings like care for children and hunger. 7 Return to the first paragraph of Activity 2.1.2: Build-A-Brain and re-read the description of your morning activities. Use your map to determine the part of the brain responsible for each of the actions, thoughts or emotions that occur in this paragraph. Either re-write the paragraph and add brain regions in () after each activity or simply list the actions and write the brain region next to it. Your alarm goes off and your arm flies up to hit the snooze button (frontal, temporal, pariential, motor cortex). You drag yourself out of bed and decide what to wear and what to have for breakfast (frontal).Your sister’s pancakes smell good so you grab a few bites while she’s not looking and head out the door (frontal, occipital, motor cortex). Running late (as usual), you sprint to catch your bus (frontal, motor cortex). You struggle to keep your balance as you head to the back of the already moving vehicle (cerebellum). A younger kid slams into your side with his book bag (pariential).

You are about to yell, but you figure it’s not worth it and grab a seat (frontal). You finish up the last of your math homework and turn on your iPod to clear your head (temporal, frontal). You have two tests and then a game after school (frontal, motor cortex). You think to yourself, “How am I going to get through the day?” (frontal) 8 Ten-year-old Alex Fuentes damaged his occipital lobe and his cerebellum in a car accident. Explain to his parents some of the possible effects of this injury. I am sorry to say that due to the accident that included your son, Alex is capable of having long term visual changes and effects in his balance and body coordination. It is possible that he could, in the worst case scenario, become blind as well as not be able to walk due to the fact that he does not have the balance capability.

Map-A-Brain Essay

Regulatory Behavior Essay

Regulatory Behavior Essay.

The human body is regulated by the nervous system and its functions. Under normal circumstances everything runs smoothly with no issues; however, fear can have an impact on how the nervous system works. One aspect that can be examined in relation to the nervous system and the ways that fear affects it is through body temperature regulation. When fear is present it bring on the production of specific hormones that cause certain responses within the body leading to the flight or fight situation.

As with any function of the body there are impairment that are always possible as well. Knowing in advance what types of things can impair one’s thermoregulation process gives people a step up against having issues later in life.

The nervous system consists of two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (National Institute of Health [NIH], 2013). Each part plays a role in our bodily functions. The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, the PNS is made up of the all the branch-like fibers that come off the spinal cord and reach all over the body- arms, legs, face, neck, etc.

Without the nervous system there would be no way to get information from the brain to the rest of the body; all the messages that our brain sends out must be sent though the nervous system through neuron communication. “Neurons communicate with each other using axons and dendrites. When a neuron receives a message from another neuron, it sends an electrical signal down the length of its axon. At the end of the axon, the electrical signal is converted into a chemical signal, and the axon releases chemical messages called neurotransmitters” (NIH, ¶ 3). This process is how the brain tells the body to walk or blink or even body temperature regulation; it is a very important process that regulates all bodily functions.

Body temperature regulation is the process by which our body maintains a steady internal temperature. This process is known as thermoregulation and is mostly controlled by the hypothalamus section in the brain (Vella & Kravitz, n.d.). When properly regulating the human body’s “normal core temperature at rest varies between 97.7 to 99.5 Fahrenheit” (Vella & Kravitz, ¶ 2); however, a factor like fear can cause fluctuations from the core body temperature. According to the Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation, children who have high levels of fear have a harder time than children with regular amounts of fear when it comes to falling and staying asleep. The disturbance in a regular sleep cycle has been shown to affect how the thermoregulation process functions; fear can cause the body to overheat and not allow the body to cool down when needed (Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation [JBRF], n.d.).

As with any function in the body fear produces a hormonal response. When a person experiences fear the hormones glucocorticoids, produced in the adrenal cortex, and catecholamines, produced in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves, are released into the body and cause the individual to either take the flight or fight stance (Rodrigues, Ledoux, & Sapolsky, 2009). Both of the fear induced hormones impact the nervous system in many ways. For example, glucocorticoids play a large role in the functioning of the CNS. It can lead to anatomical brain changes that result in a higher likeliness of sleep disturbances, psychiatric diseases, mood alterations, and cognitive impairments (lacroix, 2014).

The body’s ability to thermoregulate its temperature can become impaired. This type of impairment is sometimes caused when a person goes under anesthetics. According to Daniel I. Sessler, M.D., Professor and Chair, “Anethetic-induced impairment of normal thermoregulatory control, and the resulting core-to-peripheral redistribution of body heat, is the primary cause of hypothermia in most patients” (Sessler, 2009, ¶ 2). In other words, if the body is unable to control it’s thermoregulation it can start going into a hypothermic state which would lead to other risk factors and issues. During surgery a patients temperature is normally watched closely to make sure this is not an issue.

On the other end of the spectrum, if a person suffers from dysautonomia they can experience excessively high body temperatures and have difficulty bringing their temperature back down to a normal resting temperature. If this does happen the person may experience irritability, disorientation and confusion; this type of disorder leaves the symptoms being able to be treated but not the cause. Some suggestions for ways to help lower the internal body temperature are drinking lots of fluids and water, but avoiding caffeine and alcohol, placing cool compresses across the neck and if necessary seeking professional help from a doctor or hospital if needed.

Although the human body is a very complex and impressive organism it is not invincible to ailments. The nervous system keeps our bodies running and communicating so that we are able to act on and do every bodily function possible. Looking at the thermoregulation abilities that the body posses is very impressive and intricate, but it does have ways that things like fear are able to intrude. This intrusion can change the way our body responds to thermoregulation by emitting hormones that tell the body it may need to prepare for a flight or fight situation. Thermoregulation also has the ability to fall prey to impairment that can be very debilitating to the individual; impairments can range from unable to bring the body temperature down to a normal range or up to a normal range. In closing, thermoregulation may be an involuntary regulatory behavior, but it is still possible to impress changes upon it by either ailment or other outside factors.


Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation (n.d.). _Sleep, activity patterns and temperature study_. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.jbrf.org/category/description-of-the-condition/

Lacroix, A. (2014). _Glucocorticoid effects on the nervous system and behavior_. Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucocorticoid-effects-on-the-nervous-system-and-behavior

National Institute of Health (2013). _What are the parts of the nervous system_?. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/neuro/conditioninfo/Pages/parts.aspx

Rodrigues, S. M., Ledoux, J. E., & Sapolsky, R. M. (2009). _The influences of stress hormones on fear circuitry_ . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://my.psychologytoday.com/files/attachments/37382/rodrigues-ledoux-sapolsky-arn-2009.pdf

Sessler, D. I. (2009). _Temperature monitoring and perioperative thermoregulation_. Retrieved , from July 14, 2014

Synapse (n.d.). _Get the facts- temperature control and dysautonomia_. Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://synapse.org.au/get-the-facts/temperature-control-and-dysautonomia-fact-sheet.aspx

Regulatory Behavior Essay

Thesis paper on autism Essay

Thesis paper on autism Essay.

What is autism?Autism is a complex developmental disability that causes problems with social interaction and communication. Autism causes children to experience the world differently from the way most other children do. It is hard for children with autism to talk with other people and express themselves using words. Children who have autism usually keep to themselves and many can’t communicate without special help.

They may also react to what is going on around them in unusual ways. Normal sounds may really bother someone with autism – so much so that they may cover his or her ears.

Being touched, even in a gentle way, may feel uncomfortable.

Children with autism often can not make connections that other kids make easily. For example, when someone smiles, you know the smiling person is happy or being friendly. But a child with autism may have trouble connecting that smile with the person’s happy feelings.

A child who has autism may also have trouble linking words to their meanings.

Imagine trying to understand what your mom is saying if you didn’t know what her words really mean. It is twice as frustrating if the child can not come up with the right words to express his or her own thoughts.

Autism causes children to act in abnormal ways. They might flap their hands, say certain words over and over, have temper tantrums, or play only with one particular toy. Most children with autism do not like changes in routines. They like to stay on a schedule that is always the same. They also may insist that their toys or other objects be arranged a certain way and get upset if these items are moved or disturbed.

If someone has autism, his or her brain has trouble with an important job: making sense of the world. Every day, your brain interprets the sights, sounds, smells, and other sensations that you experience. If your brain could not help you understand these things, you would have trouble functioning, talking, going to school, and doing other everyday stuff.

What causes autism?Autism has no single definite cause. This disorder seems to be related to abnormalities in several regions of the brain. Researchers have identified a number of gene defects associated with autism.

Autism affects about 1 in every 150 children. Knowing the exact cause is hard because the human brain is very complicated. For some reason some of the cells and connections in the brain of a child with autism do not develop properly or get damaged. Scientists are still trying to understand how and why this happens.

Families with one autistic child have a one in 20 chance of having a second child with this disorder. In some cases, relatives of autistic children show mild impairments in social and communication skills or engage on repetitive behaviors.

Children with symptoms of autism have a higher than normal risk of also having:· Fragile X syndrome, which causes mental retardation· Tuberous Sclerosis, in which tumors grow in the brain· Tourette’s Syndrome· Epileptic seizuresFor reasons still unclear, about 20 to 30 percent of children with autism develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood.

What are signs and symptoms of autism?In general, children with autism have problems in three crucial areas of development – social skills, language and behavior. The most severe autism is marked by a complete inability to communicate or interact with other people.

Because the symptoms of autism vary widely, two children with the same diagnosis may act quite differently and have strikingly different skills.

If your child has autism, he or she may develop normally for the first few months – or years – of life and then later become less responsive to other people, including you. You may recognize the following signs in the areas of social skills, language and behavior:Social skills· Fails to respond to his or her name· Has poor eye contact· Appears not to hear you at times· Resists cuddling and holding· Appears unaware of others feelings· Often lacks empathy· Seems to prefer playing alone – retreats into his or her “own world”Language· Starts talking later than other children· Loses previously acquired ability to say words or sentences· Does not make eye contact when making requests· Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm – may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech· Can not start a conversation or keep one going·

May repeat words or phrases verbatim, but does not understand how to use themBehavior· Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping· Develops specific routines or rituals· Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals· Moves constantly· May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car· May be unusually sensitive to light, sound and touch· May refer to themselves by name instead of “I” or “me.”Young children with autism also have a hard time sharing experiences with others. For example, when someone reads to them, they are unlikely to point at pictures in the book. This early-developing social skill is vital to later language and social development.

These children have a reduced sensitivity to pain, but are abnormally sensitive to sound, touch, or other sensory stimulation. These unusual reactions may contribute to behavioral symptoms such as a resistance to being cuddled or hugged.

Do symptoms of Autism change over time?For many children, autism symptoms improve with treatment and with age. Some children with autism grow up to lead normal or near-normal lives. Children, whose language skills regress early in life, usually before the age of 3, show to be at risk of developing epilepsy or seizure-like brain activity. During adolescence, some children with autism may become depressed or experience behavioral problems. Parents of these children should be ready to adjust treatment for their child as needed.

How is autism treated?There are many different treatments for Autism. Once you find out your child is Autistic you will then want to begin some type of treatment plan. Many worry that they will have to use medications that can be dangerous to their child. This is not the case.

While some children need medication not all children do. There are a lot of other treatments available to the Autistic child besides prescription medication. Some people will go with the standard type of treatment plan, while others will try a natural plan. Some different types of treatment for Autism:Occupational TherapyOccupational therapy helps to teach the Autistic child to be independent. They learn daily skills they need like dressing, or taking a bath. They will work on fine motor skills. They also teach the child to use any devices they may have to help them function in daily life. They will be taught safety measures. This could be safety when outside, or dangers in the house.

MedicationThere are many types of medications used in treating Autism. These medications can be for different problems associated with Autism. Some are used to help with anxiety that is often found in Autistic children. Autistic children sometimes have problems with falling asleep. Medication can be used to help with this. Antipsychotic drugs are often used in children dealing with behavioral problems. These medications will not cure the Autism. Medications can have terrible side effects. The child needs to be monitored closely while on any medication.

Behavioral Therapy· Behavioral therapy will concentrate on teaching the Autistic child appropriate behaviors. Usually this will include some form of a reward system. They are taught how to act in social settings. This therapy is often done in the child’s home setting. The parents are taught ways to deal with the child’s unwanted behaviors. Usually an Autistic child will learn they will be rewarded for good behaviors, and they will stop some of the bad behavior.

Physical Therapy· Many Autistic children require physical therapy. This type of therapy can help children with low muscle tone. They also work with young children on basic motor skills. This can include walking, standing, and rolling. Many Autistic children can have other health problems. These problems can benefit from physical therapy too.

Speech Therapy· Autistic children often have a hard time communicating. They have problems understanding non verbal cues. Some Autistic children do not speak at all, so they have to be taught ways to communicate with others. Children with Autism need to be taught about body language. Some children with Autism that do not speak are taught to communicate by signing, or with the use of pictures. The speech therapist will work on getting a non verbal child to speak.

The most important factor is to find a treatment plan that works for your child. With proper treatment your Autistic child can thrive. Finally these are just a few of the many treatments available to a child with Autism. Not all children will require all of the treatments.

When to seek medical advice:Babies develop at their own pace, and many do not follow exact timelines found in some parenting books. But children with autism usually show some signs of delayed development by 18 months. If you suspect that your child may have autism, talk about your concerns with your doctor. The earlier treatment begins the more effective it will be.

Your doctor may recommend further evaluation if your child:· Doesn’t babble or coo by 12 months· Doesn’t gesture – such as point or wave – by 12 months· Doesn’t say single words by 16 months· Doesn’t say two-word phrases by 24 months· Loses previously acquired language or social skills at any ageWhat population is affected?Current records show that autism occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups equally, with individuals in one group no more or less likely than those in other groups. Three groups are at higher-than-normal risk s including:· Boys. Statistics show that boys are three to four times more likely to be affected by autism than girls are.

· Siblings of those with autism. With families that have one child with an autism, the recurrence of autism in another sibling is between 2 percent and 8 percent, a figure much higher than in the general population.

· People with certain other developmental disorders. For certain a disorder, including Fragile X syndrome, mental retardation, and tuberous sclerosis,
autism is common in addition to the primary symptoms of the disorder.

Guidelines used by the Autism Society of America include the following questions parents can ask about potential treatments:· Will the treatment result in harm to my child?· How will failure of the treatment affect my child and family?· Has the treatment been validated scientifically?· Are there assessment procedures specified?· How will the treatment be integrated into my child’s current program? Do not become so infatuated with a given treatment that functional curriculum, vocational life, and social skills are ignored.

The National Institute of Mental Health suggests a list of questions parents can ask when planning for their child:· How successful has the program been for other children?· How many children have gone on to placement in a regular school and how have they performed?· Do staff members have training and experience in working with children and adolescents with autism?· How are activities planned and organized?· Are there predictable daily schedules and routines?· How much individual attention will my child receive?·

How is progress measured? Will my child’s behavior be closely observed and recorded?· Will my child be given tasks and rewards that are personally motivating?· Is the environment designed to minimize distractions?· Will the program prepare me to continue the therapy at home?· What is the cost, time commitment, and location of the program?Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder:Some adults with autism are able to work successfully in normal jobs. Nevertheless, communication and social problems often cause difficulties in many areas of life. They will continue to need encouragement and moral support in their struggle for an independent life.

Many others with autism are capable of employment in sheltered workshops under the supervision of managers trained in working with people with disabilities. A nurturing environment at home, at school, and later in a job training and at work, helps people with autism continue to learn and to develop throughout their lives.

The public schools responsibility for providing services ends when the person with autism reaches the age of 22. The family is then faced with the challenge of finding living arrangements and employment to match the particular needs of their adult child, as well as the programs and facilities that can provide support services to achieve these goals. Long before your child finishes school, you will want to search for the best programs and facilities for your young adult. If you know other parents of autistic adults, ask them about the services available in your community. If your community has little to offer, serve as an advocate for your child and work toward the goal of improved employment services.

Living Arrangements for the Adult with an Autism Spectrum Disorder:Independent living- Some adults with autism are able to live entirely on their own. Others can live semi-independently in their own home or apartment if they have assistance with solving major problems, such as personal finances or dealing with the government agencies that provide services to people with disabilities. This assistance can be provided by family, a professional agency, or another type of provider.

Living at home- Government funds are available for families that choose to have their adult child with autism live at home. These programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), Medicaid waivers, and others. Information about these programs are available from the Social Security Administration (SSA).

Foster homes and skill-development homes- Some families open their homes to provide long-term care to unrelated adults with disabilities. If the home teaches self-care and housekeeping skills and arranges leisure activities, it is called a “skill-development” home.

Supervised group living- People with disabilities frequently live in group homes or apartments staffed by professionals who help the individuals with basic needs. They often include meal preparation, housekeeping, and personal care needs. Higher functioning persons may be able to live in a home or apartment where the staff only visit a few times a week. These people generally prepare their own meals, go to work, and conduct other daily activities on their own.

Institutions- Although the trend in recent decades has been to avoid placing people with disabilities into long-term-care institutions, this alternative is still available for people with autism who need constant supervision. Unlike many of the institutions years ago, today’s facilities view residents as individuals with human needs and offer recreation for simple but meaningful work.

Local and state foundations designed for the assistance for parents of an autistic child:Places for available for care and treatment:Anderson Center for Autism4885 Route 9PO Box 367Staatsburg NY 12580-0367T 845-889-4034F 845-889-3104Medical specialty foundations that deal with autism:Where can I get more information?For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network (BRAIN) at:BRAINP.O. Box 5801Bethesda, MD 20824(800) 352-9424http://www.ninds.nih.govAssociation for Science in Autism Treatment Autism National Committee (AUTCOM)P.O. Box 188 P.O. Box 429Crosswicks, NJ 08515-0188 Forest Knolls, CA [email protected] http://www.autcom.orghttp://www.asatonline.orgTel: 781-397-8943 Autism Research Institute (ARI)Fax: 781-397-8887 4182 Adams AvenueSan Diego, CA 92116Autism Network International (ANI) [email protected] Box 35448 http://www.autismresearchinstitute.comSyracuse, NY 13235-5448 Tel: [email protected] Fax: 619-563-6840http://ani.autistics.orgMAAP Services for Autism, Asperger’s, and PDDAutism Society of America P.O. Box 5247910 Woodmont Ave. Crown Point, IN 46308Suite 300 [email protected], MD 20814-3067 http://www.maapservices.orghttp://www.autism-society.org Tel: 219-662-1311Tel: 301-657-0881 800-3AUTISM (328-8476) Fax: 219-662-0638Fax: 301-657-0869Autism Speaks, Inc. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities2 Park Avenue U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Special Education Programs11th Floor P.O. Box 1492New York, NY 10016 Washington, DC [email protected] [email protected]://www.autismspeaks.org http://www.nichcy.orgTel:
212-252-8584 Tel: 800-695-0285Fax: 212-252-8676 Fax: 202-884-8441National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)National Institutes of Health, DHHS31 Center Drive, Rm. 2A32 MSC 2425Bethesda, MD 20892-2425http://www.nichd.nih.govTel: 301-496-5133Fax: 301-496-7101National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Information Clearinghouse1 Communication AvenueBethesda, MD [email protected]://www.nidcd.nih.govTel: 800-241-1044 800-241-1055 (TTD/TTY)National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)National Institutes of Health, DHHS6001 Executive Blvd. Rm. 8184, MSC 9663Bethesda, MD [email protected]://www.nimh.nih.govTel: 301-443-4513/866-615-NIMH (-6464) 301-443-8431 (TTY)Fax: 301-443-4279work cited:Maureen Aarons & Tessa Gittens.

The handbook of autism: a guide for parents and professionals, revised and updated 2nd edition (Routledge, 1999). ISBN: 0415160359 (paperback, 264 pages); ISBN: 0415160340 (hardcover, 264 pages); ISBN: 0203190793 . [autism,parent,intro]Anthony Attwood.

Why Does Chris Do That? Some Suggestions Regarding the Cause and Management of the Unusual Behavior of Children and Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome, Revised 2003 (Autism Asperger Publishing Company, 2003). ISBN: 1931282501 (paperback, 80 pages). [autism,intro]Sidney M. Baker & Jon Pangborn.

Defeat Autism Now! Clinical Options Manual for Physicians, 1999 update (1999). 41 pages, paperback. [autism,treatment]Simon Baron-Cohen & Patrick Bolton.

Autism: The Facts (Oxford University, 1993). Part of the series Oxford Medical Publications. Also New York. Aimed at parents summarizing what is known about autism. http://www.oup-usa.org/gcdocs/gc_0192623273.html ISBN: 0192623273 (paperback, 113 pages). [autism,intro,parent]Autism Research Unit.

Psychological Perspectives in Autism (1995). Proceedings from the 1995 conference of the Autism Research Unit of the University of Sunderland. From
conference at The College of St. Hild & St. Bede, University of Durham, April 1995. [autism,proceedings]American Psychiatric Association.

DSM-III: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd edition) (1980). Replaced by DSM-IV. [autism,medical,reference]

Thesis paper on autism Essay

Brain Drain in India Essay

Brain Drain in India Essay.

The concept of brain drain is of a recent one that has ever strongly emerged since the last few decades. The phrase brain drain refers to the increasing tendency of the young, energetic, capable and talented youth of a country to migrate to another country in search of their fortune — rather better fortune. They forsake their motherland for they seek better opportunities in other countries. This has become a characteristic more of the intelligentsia of the nation—the doctors, engineers, scientists, M.

B.As, C.As, lawyers and other professionals.

Investment in education in a developing country may not lead to faster economic growth if a large number of its highly educated people leave the country. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) estimates that India loses $2 billion a year because of the emigration of computer experts to the U.S.[45] Indian students going abroad for their higher studies costs India a foreign exchange outflow of $10 billion annually. Our country is gradually being deprived of its intellectual capacity.

Brain drain is also regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government. Our nation, if this continues, will be rendered intellectually impoverished and impotent. This, in turn, is leading to a great loss of National wealth.

But, have we ever thought of the reasons behind such a great movement of brain outside the country? Like always, we prefer to harp upon the problems rather than find a solution. Why does India, a great and domineering nation in Asia, have to face such a grave and serious problem? Why is our youth allured by the stranger meadows and horizons? Why do they prefer to work hard and be honest there, instead of here?The first answer to this problem is that we have utterly failed to our youth in providing the right kind of career opportunities and the opportunities to prove their capabilities.

India has fallen face down when it comes to fulfilling their aspirations, ambitions and dreams. Countries like USA, UK, Germany, France, Russia, Italy, Japan etc have developed greatly in their technology, science, electronics, computers, astronomy etc. Thus, these countries provide greater opportunities—quality as well as quantity-wise. The facilities, packages, scholarships etc provided by these nations are far better than what we can provide them in a lifetime. The only thing we can do is that when Indians like Amartya Sen, Arundhati Roy or Kalpana Chawla make it to international fame, we jump with joy and hypocritically say that they are Indians and we are proud of them.

Cynics allege that talents like these can never hide. It will unreveal itself ultimately under every or any circumstances. This is utter foolishness. It is only reasonable and logical to think how you can expect a seed to sprout without providing it with sufficient water, fertilizer, manure, heat and protection. Same is the case with men too. How can the youth of a nation rise to superhuman feats when we cannot even provide them with humane conditions? He too, has a right to live and move ahead.

Therefore, his reason leads him elsewhere in search of the land of his dreams where he can see these dreams, taking real shape. He can soar high, fly to his own liking in other countries whereas his wings are clipped short and he is left to suffocate and die on his own. Moreover, when Indian students, studying abroad return, they find themselves without any job or opportunity because we in reality have no jobs or employment avenues to match their caliber. Hence, even if they want to stay back, necessity forces them out of the country to earn a living.

If we want to put a check to this growing problem, we have to create better jobs and offer better opportunities to our intellectuals so that we can woo them to stay on. Our IT professionals and IIM graduates are the best in the world. Countries welcome them with open arms. Why cant we think of some measures where we can absorb our best within our own country? We can use the best potential of the country to accelerate our progress in socio-economic fields.

We need to give deserving jobs to students who return to India after completing their education abroad full of fresh ideas, zeal, idealism and patriotism. We need to formulate such policies which attract our scientists, engineers, lawyers, doctors, researchers, MBAS to come back to their motherland and work together for its progress. We need to weed out petty politics and corruption to provide a better living atmosphere and a better working condition if we seriously want to block the brain drain from our country. “We recognize the greatest strength of India is not just the number of people, it’s the skill level that exists here” say an International Company.


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Khadria, Binod. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India’s Brain Drain, (2000)Kuznetsov, Yevgeny. Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad (2006)D. W. Livingstone; The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy (1998), focus on Canada online editionDouglas S. Massey and J. Edward Taylor; International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market, (2003) online editionMullan, Fitzhugh. “The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain.” New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:18101818 October 27, 2005 Number 17 online versionCaglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff. International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain. (2005)Ransford W. Palmer; In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean Praeger Publishers, 1990 online editionPearson, Raymond (1998), The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, Macmillan, ISBN 0312174071Ronald Skeldon and Wang Gungwu; Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the
New Overseas Chinese 1994 online editionMichael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell. The Human Face of Global Mobility: International Highly Skilled Migration in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific, (2006)Thackeray, Frank W. (2004), Events that changed Germany, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0313328145David Zweig, Chen Changgui, and Stanley Rosen; China’s Brain Drain to the United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s Institute of East Asian Studies, 1995 online edition

Brain Drain in India Essay

People Only See What They Are Prepared to See Essay

People Only See What They Are Prepared to See Essay.

Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “People only see what they are prepared to see.” A statement so veridical, that the people to whom it implies are either not capable of understanding it or simply cannot accept it. In fact, most of humanity can read the undeniably prodigious quote ad infinitum, without comprehending the profound meaning behind it.

There are four types of individualities, each reacting to the quote in a different manner. And how individuals react to it, determines their general responses to the situations which life brings upon them.

Innocent minds are unable to adequately understand the significance of the quote. Because of their naivety, they are neither able to respond intelligibly to the quote, nor to most situations in life. They are gullible and non-opinionative, thus, only seeing what others want them to see. The majority of people so caracterised are infants and young children. They fail to look at things from various perspectives because they have not yet had enough experience in life.

For instance, if you speak of war with a child, he or she will not know how to respond. The mind of the person is too young for knowing what to do when spoken to about political conflicts, patriotisms, warfare, death and other serious matters. In most situations, their innocent, unsophisticated minds, simply cannot understand the difference between wrong and right until they develop into more sophisticated beings.

Ignorant people avoid thinking about anything which does not concern them personally. These people apparently have the ability to see, but because of their personality, are unable to. Until they start caring, they will not be able to see things which demand care, because they are not yet ready. Many adolescents and unsuccessful people would fall into this category. And why I stereotype many unsuccessful people is due to the fact that they are ignorant to education and in time, fail to succeed in life. Education is the knowledge of life, and if avoided, results in failure at it. If again, you mention war to an ignorant being, he or she will dismiss the subject before it could reach the brain’s thinking process. These personalities could never go below the surface of the topic.

Stubbornness is similar to ignorance, but not quite the same. The stubborn will not hesitate to dive into the ocean, but will never reach the bottom so they can examine it in depth. These people will hear a topic; they will think about the topic; but before looking at it from another viewpoint, their stubbornness will compel them to form a prejudice opinion. These would be the people who, when spoken to of war, will take a stand on one side before examining the other. For example, if America is warring with Iraq, many stubborn Americans will support their leader no matter how immoral his actions may be. Same would imply to the stubborn Iraqis, who will deny the fact that their leader was corrupt without visualizing him from his victims’ perspective. Because they are the citizens of their country, they will overlook its faults and never question their government’s actions, thus, diving into the situation, but only going half way down, because that is what they are prepared to see, therefore, that is what they see.

The realists see everything and accept it as it is. They have the power to make unbiased decisions and opinions. These are the people who will stand up for what they believe in. They are logical and open-minded. A realist would dive into the ocean, go to the bottom, take time to look at everything in depth, then, and only then, will form an opinion backed by much reasoning. Realists can see everything. Their minds have no road blocks blocking information from entering and processing through their brains. A realist will look at Emerson’s quote and completely comprehend its meaning.

To what depth you understand this essay will determine how ready your mind is to accept the facts stated in it. Literally, you will see everything on these pages. However, mentally, your mind will comprehend only the details herein, for which it is prepared to accept. If you have read this far, you certainly are not ignorant; you have already gone below the surface of the quote. If you have understood and accepted everything, congratulations, you are in fact, a realist! If not, time may be the remedy to your innocence or stubbornness.

People Only See What They Are Prepared to See Essay