Promote Positive Behaviour Essay

Promote Positive Behaviour Essay.

Understand how legislation, frameworks, codes of practice and policies relate to positive behaviour support. 1.1 Explain how legislation, frameworks, codes of practice and policies related to positive behaviour support are applied to own working practice. All aspects of my job role are regulated by policies and current legislation. The mandatory training that we attend has been designed to cover all aspects of legislation such as the Children’s Act, which provides a Code of Practice to enable us provide the best possible care and support for children and young people.

We also have inspections from OFSTED who ensure we are meeting, not only care standards, but also those relating to behaviour and how we encourage positive behaviour is evaluated. As a staff member I have the responsibility of recording all incidents of behaviour support and these include both positive and challenging behaviour. There are several policies and procedures in my work place relating to positive behaviour:


Rewards and sanctions
House rules

The code of conduct forms part of a behaviour policy.

It will state what is expected from staff as well as young people. It can provide guidence to staff when dealing with innappropriate behaviour presented by a child/young person. It states how to encourage positive behaviour, the importance of being fair and consistent, 1.2 Define what is meant by restrictive interventions.

There are a range of different restrictive interventions. When some people think of restrictive interventions they automatically think of phyhsical interventions, however a physical intervention is not always neccessary. Sometimes you can intervene using simple techniques such as language, including body language and facial expressions, this is known as social intervention. Another is mechanical intervention, this is useful with children in their early years, using things such as high chairs and safety gates to contain the child in one place for whatever reason. Physcial intervention is a restrictive intervention that should only be use if there is clear justification for why this type of intervention is being used. Planned intervention can be used if through observation or care plans for example, you expect that a child may present challenging behaviours in certain situations, then you ensure you are already prepared for this as it may be that just having a carer sitting by their side and placing a hand on their shoulder is all they need to sit back and think about their actions before displaying negative behaviour.

The aim of a restrictive intervention is not to take away the young persons right to freedom and movement, it is to give them the opportunity to think about their actions and change their behaviour. 1.3 Explain when restrictive interventions may and may not be used. Physical intervention is a last resort and all staff avoid having to do this however if deescalating techniques such as ‘planned ignoring’, ‘hurdle help’, ‘walking away’ etc. doesn’t seem to work, then restrictive interventions have to be used when young people are displaying certain behaviours such as committing a criminal offence, causing harm to themselves or others, causing damage to property or engaging in any behaviour that is prejudicial to maintain the good order and discipline within the home. 1.4 Explain who needs to be informed of any incidents where restrictive interventions have been used. Where restrictive interventions have been used, staff must follow policies and procedures in place such as ‘recording and reporting’. Firstly staff on shift at the time of the incident must complete an incident report and inform management of the incident.

The young person’s parents and social workers should be informed and if necessary other professionals involved in the young person’s life such as YOT and CAMHS (this all depends on the nature of the incident). Once the incident report is complete management will add their observations then send this to the safeguarding officer to do the same. Ofsted are always informed after any incident. If the young person or staff involved have sustained any injuries during the incident this is recorded on the incident report and on a body map as well as the accident book and RIDDOR guidelines will be followed. 1.5 Explain why the least restrictive interventions should be used when dealing with incidents of challenging behaviour. As explained before physical intervention should not be used unless it can be clearly justified why it was used, it is not always neccessary.

When dealing with challenging behaviour you can use restrictive intervention such as language which may result in the young person changing their behaviour before it even leads to an incident. For example there is a young person in my care who we have observed that responds well to humour, so if he is beginning to display negative/challenging behaviour we try to make jokes with him and sometimes tickle him. This turns his mood around and prevents an incident even taking place. It is important to use the least restrictive interventions where possible as if you didnt it could lead to further dilemmas such as verbal abuse, physical abuse, damage to property etc. 1.6 Describe safeguards that must be in place if restrictive physical interventions are being used. It is important to ensure that the young people and staff are all safeguarded.

Any staff that will be using physical interventions should have attended the mandatory training, risk assessments should be in place and staff should follow guidelines to ensure they have tried all possible alternatives before using physical interventions. In circumstances where physical interventions are being used, staff should assess the situation first to ensure it is safe to do so, is there enough staff? Is the environment they’re in safe and appropriate for the use of physical interventions? Staff must always disengage throughout the physical intervention to give the young person opportunity to calm and take back control. 2. Understand the context and use of proactive and reactive strategies. 2.1 Explain the difference between proactive and reactive strategies. Proactive strategies are strategies that everyone may use to deal with behavioural problems, they are strategies that are written in policies and procedures, risk assessments, care plans etc.

These are guidelines that are in place to be followed when a child/young person is presenting challenging behaviour even if these strategies are not proven to work as well as others for this particular child/young person. Examples of proactive strategies are having rules and boundaries in place, this is a way of letting the child/young person know the way they should be behaving, give praise to the child/young person for good behaviour and put sanctions and consequences in place when rules are broken.

Reactive strategies are the behaviour management strategies that you use at the time of an incident when a child/young person is presenting challenging behaviour. Even though there are guidelines in place for proactiv strategies that should be used, if you have observed that a child/young person responds well to something else and it diverts their attention to something positive then you may use these reactive strategies to stop the incident escalating any further. When using reactive strategies you should still follow guidelines for proactive behaviour management strategies and put consequences in place for inappropriate behaviour. 2.2 Identify the proactive and reactive strategies that are used within own work role Needs completing

2.3 Explain the importance of identifying patterns of behaviours or triggers to challenging behaviour when establishing proactive or reactive strategies to be used. With every child/young person you should be making observations of every aspect of their life. When they ‘slow time’ before going to school or refuse to attend school, is there a pattern in the days they are behaving like this? Is there a certain lesson on these days they dont like? Are their children in their classes on this day who they are having issues with? There is a reason behing every behaviour. It is important to identify patterns of behaviours and triggers so that you can predict when an incident may take place and use planned intervention to deal with these situations. Also different strategies may work for different incidents and different young people. Staff need to ensure they are making these observations, updating care plans and risk assessments and passing on information to all staff during handovers and meetings.

2.4 Explain the importance of maintaining a person or child-centred approach when establishing proactive strategies. Each young person is different, they need to be seen as an individual. Young people should all be treat fairly and equally but not the same. Some strategies that work on one child/young person may not work on another. Strategies have to be tried and tested, they wont all work but the ones that do, should be identified and all staff bare these in mind when dealing with further incidents. A young person in my care gets really upset when plans for family contact are changed or if it doesn’t go ahead. Staff ensure they tell the young person with at least 2 members of staff present incase they need to use physical restrictive interventions. The usual type of negative behaviour in instances like this is going to their room and slamming doors etc.

Due to the young person not actually causing any damage or harm to property or himself, staff use proactive strategies we have in place which in this case would be ‘backing away’ giving him time to calm, and with this particular young person we would use ‘humour’ once he is calm to keep him distracted. Another young person if he gets bored will display challenging behaviour through verbal abuse. Staff use planned intervention and always try and keep the young person busy to prevent him getting bored or agitated. If this particular young person is being verbally abusive staff use proactive strategies ‘planned ignoring’ as if staff give him attention for displaying negative behaviour, he sees this as an excuse to keep repeating this behaviour as he gets the attention he was after. When the young person is showing positive behaviour, even simple tasks like brushing his teeth and having a wash on a morning, he needs lots of praise to show him that he gets attention when he is being compliant. 2.5 Explain the importance of reinforcing positive behaviour with individuals.

Needs completing

2.6 Evaluate the impact on an individuals well-being of using reactive rather than proactive strategies.
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3. Be able to promote positive behaviour
3.1 Explain how a range of factors may be associated with challenging behaviour.
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3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of proactive strategies on mitigating challenging behaviours
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4.Be able to respond appropriately to incidents of challenging behaviour. 4.1 Identify types of challenging behaviours
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4.3 Explain the steps that are taken to maintain the dignity of and respect for an individual when responding to an incident of challenging behaviour. Needs completing
5. Be able to supports others and individuals following an incident of challenging behaviour. 5.2 Describe how an individual can be supported to reflect on an incident. How they were feeling at the time prior to and directly before the incident – Their behaviour –

The consequence of their behaviour –
How they were feeling after the incident –
Needs completing

5.3 Explain the complex feelings that may be experienced by others involved or witnessing an incident of challenging behaviour.
Needs completing
5.5 Describe the steps that should be taken to check for injuries following an incident of challenging behaviour. This should be done straight after the incident once the young person has calmed. If the young person directed their anger at a particular member of staff, then a different member of staff, preferably who the young person usually has a good relationship with should approach the child/young person to see if they are ok. Get the young person into an environment with privacy and where they feel comfortable, then have a discussion with them about if they are hurting anywhere and check them for injuries.

For example if the young person was restrained during the incident see if they have any marks from where staff held them, check their back thoroughly if you recall them banging it etc. If any marks are noticed, firstly check previous body maps in place for the young person to ensure these marks haven’t already been identified and recorded. If not then record the injuries on the incident report, on the young persons body map and daily observations. If needed offer first aid to the young person or medical attention. The young person should be checked for injuries again at a later time as bruising may show the following day.

Promote Positive Behaviour Essay

Positive Behaviour Essay

Positive Behaviour Essay.


Behaviour that tends to satisfy the desires of the respondent is Positive Behaviour . It will become apparent that by this definition some positive behaviour may lead to antisocial (so called “negative”) responses and hence is not recommended. Furthermore, some behaviour that is itself socially acceptable and apparently positive is not, by this definition, actually positive because it does not tend to satisfy the desires of the respondent. The reverse is also true: some behaviour that is social not acceptable and apparently negative is yet actually positive because its operates to satisfy the desires of the recipient.

Illustrations of Positive Behaviour

Actions that can be classified under the following headings are customarily called positive:

Showing interest


Making balance criticism


Showing affection






Although in some ways, the line between positive and negative behaviour exists in the eye of the beholder. Your value system, which stems from your family and cultural background as well as your own life experiences, will determine what you believe to be positive behaviour.

Your feelings about yourself and life in general will also colour your perceptions. When adults feel positive about themselves, they are better able to understand and accept children’s behaviour. Positive behaviours are those which help children/venerable person move along toward the goal of becoming well-adjusted, fully functioning adults. In other words, behaviour that is typical of a particular stage of development, that paves the way for the next stage, is positive. Positive behaviour is not, therefore, the same thing as compliance with adult wishes, especially if those adult wishes reflect a lack of knowledge of children’s or venerable person’s development.

Some positive behaviour can appear downright negative! Some authors argue that there are predictable times in the lives of all children/venerable person when their behaviour “falls apart”: when they seem to move backward in development in ways that perplex and dismay their parents and caregivers. These times invariably signal a rapid spurt of physical, cognitive, or socioemotional growth. An example might be the child on the verge of walking, whose frustration at being left behind evokes a sudden change in disposition and screams of rage. We can view these periods, not as crisis points, but rather as “touch points,” unparalleled opportunities for understanding and supporting development, if we anticipate them positively and avoid becoming locked in power struggles.

By studying child/venerable person development and carefully observing the behaviour of many them, you can learn to adjust your expectations so that the behaviour you expect is within the bounds of possibility for children to achieve. By observing the behaviour of a particular child child/venerable person over time, you can begin to understand what particular behaviours mean for that person. You may begin to see how behaviour that seemed irritating to you actually serves a positive function for a child/venerable person.

Focusing on positive behaviour places negative behaviour in better perspective and develops a more accurate impression of the whole child/venerable person. It allows you to emphasize strengths and help children overcome weaknesses. Early childhood educators with heightened awareness of positive behaviours will set the stage so that those behaviours can occur, and will respond in ways that make these acts occur more often. In other words, they will use techniques of indirect and direct guidance.

Positive behavioural support

According the Department of health, Positive behavioural support (PBS) provides a framework that seeks to understand the context and meaning of behaviour in order to inform the development of supportive environments and skills that can enhance a person’s quality of life. Evidence has shown that PBS-based approaches can enhance quality of life and also reduce behaviours that challenge which in turn can lead to a reduction in the use of restrictive interventions. It is founded on principles that have applicability for a much broader range of people and may use different terminology.

PBS provides a conceptual framework which recognises that people may engage in behaviours that are challenging because: • they have challenging or complex needs that are not being met – these could be associated with unusual needs and personal preferences, sensory impairments, or mental or physical health conditions • they are exposed to challenging environments in which behaviours of concern are likely to develop – examples might include environments which are barren and lack stimulation, where there are high levels of demand placed on people, where there may be institutional blanket rules, restricted or unpredictable access to preferred activities and those things the person values and where there is insufficient availability of positive social interactions, or where personal choices are not offered and/or honoured • they typically have a generally impoverished quality of life. PBS approaches comprise a number elements:

• Using person-centred, values-based approaches to ensure people are living the best life they possibly can. This involves assisting a person to develop personal relationships, improve their health be more active in their community and to develop personally. When done properly, person centred planning processes make sure that those who support people get to know them as individuals. • Skilled assessment in order to understand probable reasons why a person presents behaviours of concern; what predicts their occurrence and what factors maintain and sustain them (this area of assessment is often referred to as a functional assessment). This requires consideration of a range of contextual factors including personal constitutional factors, mental and physical health, communication skills and the person’s ability to influence the world around them.

Patterns of behaviour provide important data, skilled analysis of which enables key areas of unmet need to be understood. • The use of behaviour support plans which have been informed by an assessment of these factors in order to ensure that aspects of the person’s environment that they find challenging are identified and addressed, that quality of life is enhanced and that wherever possible people are supported to develop alternative strategies by which they can better meet their own needs. These are referred to as primary preventative strategies. • The behaviour support plan must detail the responses such as de-escalation techniques, distraction, diversion and sometimes disengagement to be used by carers/staff when a person starts to become anxious, aroused or distressed. These are referred to as secondary preventative strategies and aim to promote relaxation and avert any further escalation to a crisis. • Behaviour support plans include guidance as to how people should react when a person’s agitation further escalates to a crisis where they place either themselves or others at significant risk of harm.

This may include the use of restrictive interventions. Within behaviour support plans these are as identified as tertiary strategies. Any person who can reasonably be predicted to be at risk of being exposed to restrictive interventions must have an individualised behaviour support plan. Care programme approach care plans, personal recovery plans or other personalised approach planning structures may also incorporate behaviour support plans. They must always include clear evidence of health and social needs assessment, and be created with input from the person, their carers, relatives or advocates. This should identify: • The context within which behaviours of concern occur

• Clear primary preventative strategies which focus on improvement of quality of life and ensuring that needs are met • Secondary preventative strategies which aim to ensure that early signs of anxiety and agitation are recognised and responded to • Tertiary strategies which may include detail of planned restrictive interventions to be used in the safest possible manner and which should only be used as an absolute last resort What are the Positive Strategies for Supporting Behavior Improvement?

There are many possible contributors to the development of challenging behaviours. It is important to investigate and evaluate these, but also to take action sooner rather than later, since many behaviors can become increasingly intense and harder to change as time goes on. Often a necessary approach to managing behaviour involves a combination of addressing underlying physical or mental health concerns, and using the behavioral and educational supports to teach replacement skills and self-regulation. There is no magic pill, but there are a number of strategies that can often be helpful. The use of Positive Behavior Supports is more than just a politically correct approach to behavior management. Research shows that it is effective. The alternative is usually punishment, which decreases the likelihood of a behavior by taking something away (such as removing a favorite toy) or doing something unpleasant (yelling, spanking.)

While punishment might work immediately, it has been shown to be ineffective in the long run and can increase aggressive behavior, provide a model for additional undesirable behaviors, and strain the relationship with the caregiver (you). It is worth noting that to continue to be effective and maintain improvements, positive supports and feedback need to be ongoing as well. “Withholding reinforcement for problem behavior (i.e., extinction) is technically an example of punishment. Proponents of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) acknowledge that controlling access to reinforcement is necessary when trying to change behavior. What PBS does not condone is the use of aversive (e.g., demeaning, painful) procedures to suppress behavior.

Such approaches have been demonstrated to be ineffective in producing durable changes in people’s behavior and do not improve to quality of their lives.” –Association for Positive Behavior Support If you have made changes to improve your child’s health or happiness, and these have not helped to improvehis behaviour in a reasonable time frame (a couple of weeks), or you are concerned about safety, help may be needed. Positive strategies and an intervention plan can be developed by a behavioral or educational team, usually in response to what is learned in a functional behavior assessment (FBA) as described in the previous section.

When several challenging behaviors exist, it is important to establish priorities. You may want to first target behaviors that are particularly dangerous, or skills that would help to improve situations across several behavioural scenarios. Remember to set goals that are realistic and meaningful. Start with small steps that can build over time. A non-verbal child is not likely to speak in full sentences overnight, but if learning to hold up a ‘take a break’ card when he needs to leave the table allows him to exit, and keeps him from throwing his plate, that is a huge success.

A plan for our team should meet four essential elements:

Clarity: Information about the plan, expectations and procedures are clear to the individual, family, staff and any other team members. Consistency: Team and family members are on the same page with interventions and approaches, and strive to apply the same expectations and rewards. Simplicity: Supports are simple, practical and accessible so that everyone on the team, including the family, can be successful in making it happen. If you don’t understand or cannot manage a complicated proposed behavior intervention plan, speak up! We have to recognize that many skills take time to develop, and that changes in behavior require ongoing supports to be successful.

In some cases, especially when you are ignoring a behavior that used to ‘work’ for your child, behavior may get more intense or more frequent before it gets better. Your team should keep good records and track progress and responses to intervention to know if the plan is effective. Being realistic at the outset is crucial. It can help parents and caregivers appreciate that they are making small yet meaningful changes in their lives and the lives of the individual they care for. Making goals realistic means they are achievable. Being realistic keeps the picture positive. It focuses attention on progress towards to a goal, rather than perfection.

Setting a real Positive Behaiviour Support

Our team should develop strategies for you to use to increase the behaviors you want to see in your child. These will need to be individualized to his particular needs and challenges. They can often be helpful in building a sense of pride in accomplishments and personal responsibility, and a sense of what is expected. This will reduce the anxiety and reactivity that results in aggression or other behaviors. Some helpful strategies: Celebrate and build strengths and successes: we tell him what he does well and what you like. A sense of competence often fosters interest and motivation. Strive to give positive feedback much more frequently than any correction or negative feedback. ‘Great job putting your dishes in the sink!’ Respect and listen to him: We may have to look for the things he is telling you, verbally or through his choices or actions. ‘You keep sitting on that side of the table. Is the sun in your eyes over here?’ Validate his concerns and emotions: Do not brush aside his fears or tell him not to worry.

His emotions are very real. Help to give language to what he is feeling. ‘I know you do not like spiders. I can see that you are very afraid right now.’ ‘I can see that you are angry that our plans have changed.’ Provide clear expectations of behavior: Show or tell your child what you expect of him using visual aids, photographs or video models. A great way to teach new skills is Tell-Show-Do. Set him up for success: Provide accommodations. Accept a one word answer instead of demanding a whole sentence. Use a larger plate and offer a spoon to allow him to be neater at the dinner table. Use Velcroshoes or self-tying laces if tying is too frustrating. Ignore the challenging behavior: Do your best to keep the challenging behavior from serving as his way of communicating or winning. This is hard to do, but in the long run it is effective. Do not allow his screams to get him out of brushing his teeth, or his biting to get him the lollipop that he wants. Behaviors may get worse before you start to see them get better. Stay the course! And make sure all family and team members are consistent in this approach and that you pair this with other positive strategies.

Alternate tasks: Do something that is fun, motivating or that your child is good at. Then try something hard. He will be less inclined to give up or get agitated if he is already in a positive framework. Teach and interact at your child’s or loved one’s learning level: Take care to set him up for growth and accomplishment, rather than the anxiety produced by constant failure or boredom. Give choices, but within parameters: Everyone needs to be in control of something, even if it is as simple as which activity comes first. You can still maintain some control in the choices that you offer. ‘Do you want to eat first, or paint first?’ Provide access to breaks: Teach the individual to request a break when he needs to regroup (e.g. use a PECS card that represents “break”). Be sure to provide the break when he asks so he learns to trust this option and does not have to resort to challenging behaviors.

Promote the use of a safe, calm-down place: Teach him to recognize when he needs to go there. This is a positive strategy, not a punishment. Set up reinforcement systems: Use simple, predictable processes that reward your child for desired behavior. Catch him being good and reward that, verbally and with favored activities, objects or ‘payment.’ ‘I love that you stayed with me during our shopping trip. You earned a ride on the airplane toy!’ Allow times and places for him to do what he wants: Even if it is a ‘stim’, it is important to provide these options when it is not an intrusion or annoyance to others. Reward flexibility and self control: ‘I know you wanted to go to the pool today and we were surprised when it was closed.

For staying cool and being so flexible about that change in plans, let’s go get some ice cream instead!’ Pick your battles: Strive for balance. Focus on the behaviors and skills that are most essential. Be sure to include positive feedback and intersperse opportunities for success and enjoyment for you, your family, and your loved one with autism. Be resilient. Celebrate the fun and the good things! Use positive/proactive language: Use language that describes what you want the individual to do (e.g. ‘I love how you used a tissue!’ ), and try to avoid saying ‘NO’, or ‘don’t’ (e.g. ‘stop picking your nose.’ ).

Setting Realistic Behavioral Goals:

Setting goals allows us to objectively measure progress toward an identified desired outcome. It also allows caregivers and parents to ask themselves, “What behavioral changes would really make the greatest improvements in our lives together?” It allows them to identify what really matters. For instance, it may be more important to address a behavior such as throwing things during a classroom activity than to address that person’s tendency to stand up during meals.

Adapt the Environment

As you learn to think like a detective about your child’s behaviour, your observations (or the FBA) are likely to show that behaviour occurs at specific times, with certain people or in particular environments. You and your team will need to tune in, learning to recognize the signs of increasing tension, anxiety or frustration that eventually lead to challenging behaviours. Often there is a ramping up, or escalation period, and learning to recognize that early and using many of the approaches here can help to calm a situation and prevent behavioural outbursts. Sometimes these signs may be very subtle—red ears, a tapping foot, heavier breathing, higher pitched speech—but it is essential that everyone on the team responds to the importance of tuning in and working towards de-escalation. Changing the environment can often reduce behavioral episodes. Expand situations, relationships, places and opportunities that are successful.

If possible, try to adjust or avoid situations that are triggers for challenging behaviour. Incorporate ways to reduce frustration and anxiety and increase understanding. Below are some things to consider when working to create a more successful environment: Organize and provide structure: Provide clear and consistent visual schedules, calendars, consistent routines, etc. so that the person knows what is coming next. Inform transitions and changes: Recognize that changes can be extremely unsettling, especially when they are unexpected. Refer to a schedule, use countdown timers, give warnings about upcoming changes, etc. we can use Visual Supports: Pictures, text, video modeling and other visuals are best for visual learners, but they are also critical because they provide information that stays.

The ATN Visual Supports Tool Kit provides a step-by-step, easy-to-understand introduction to visual supports. Provide a safe place and teach when to use it: A calming room or corner, and/or objects or activities that help to calm (e.g. bean bag) provide opportunities to regroup and can be helpful in teaching self-control. Remove or dampen distracting or disturbing stimuli: Replace flickering fluorescent lights, use headphones to help block noise, avoid high traffic times, etc.

Pair companions or staff appropriately for challenging activities or times: Some people are more calming than others in certain situations. If going to the store with dad works better than with mom, focus on that and celebrate successes. Consider structural changes to your home or yard: These changes might address some of the specifics of your situation to increase independence or reduce the risks when outbursts occur. Making Homes that Work includes a range of potential changes that can be made to reduce property damage, improve safety, and increase choice and independence.

Communicate to Others

Many families have found it helpful to communicate to those around them about their child’s special needs and some of the behavioral situations that might arise. Sometimes it is helpful to let others know what is going on so that they can also be observers and help provide helpful input about your child. Some families have found it helpful to talk to their neighbours, or to communicate with others in the community using stickers, cards, or other visuals. Parents can carry a note card standing such this one :

Positive and Proactive Care: reducing the need for restrictive interventions People with learning disabilities whose behaviour is challenging will have physical interventions used on them at some point in their lives. In the absence of a lawful reason, using force, or threatening to use force, could give rise to a criminal charge, as could locking someone in their room. The Mental Capacity Act defines the unlawfulness, and the appropriate penalties for actions of illtreatment or neglect. A physical intervention in relation to challenging behaviour is described by the British Institute for Learning Disabilities (Harris et al, 1996) as ‘A method of responding to the challenging behaviour of people with learning disability and/or autism which involves some degree of direct physical force which limits or restricts the movement or mobility of the person concerned.’

They define three types of physical intervention direct physical contact between a member of staff and a service user: for example holding a person’s arms and legs to stop them attacking someone the use of barriers such as locked doors to limit freedom of movement: for example placing door catches or bolts beyond the reach of service users materials or equipment that restricts or prevents movement: for example placing splints on a person’s arms to restrict movement.

The Department of Health/Department for Education and Skills guidance (2002) outlines the requirements when physical intervention are planned and these include agreement by the multidisciplinary team, including consultation with others as appropriate put in writing, together with the behavioural plan (they should never be the only plan for managing behaviour) be supervised by appropriately trained staff be recorded, so that the circumstances of any physical intervention and methods used can be monitored. This guidance also emphasises that the physical interventions should be used as infrequently as possible be in the best interests of the service user be part of a broader treatment strategy not cause injury maintain the person’s dignity.

And also, The Human Rights Act (HRA)15 imposes a duty on public authorities, (including NHS Trusts, Local Authorities, and police forces) and services exercising functions of a public nature not to act in a manner that is incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights13 (ECHR) rights that have been made part of UK law by the HRA.

Positive Behaviour Essay

A New Kind of Dreaming by Jamie Riley Essay

A New Kind of Dreaming by Jamie Riley Essay.

Jamie Riley changing for the better throughout the novel ‘A New Kind of Dreaming’ is thanks to many of the events throughout his stay in Port Barren. The courts sending Jamie to Port Barren on Isolated Care, I find, is the best thing they have done for him. Even though he was targeted, threatened and set-up, he managed to endure it, and come out the other side a better person. He can only owe it to Port Barren and its people for the turnaround in his life.

Jamie’s poor attitude and behaviour issues are no fault of his own. They are at the fault of both his father and late mother. His mother had passed when Jamie was quite young, and his father was of no use either, ‘…usually too pissed to worry about anything, particularly the boys.’ Having no parents meant that both Jamie and Eddie could do whatever they like and not have to reap the consequences. Jamie and Eddie both took full advantage of this situation, and it hasn’t done either of them any favours.

Eddie is now behind bars, still with no concept of the severity of the situation. He just continues to think that it doesn’t matter, that he will get out and go and find Jamie in Port Barren and they’ll live happily ever after.

This attitude of Eddie’s plays a major part in influencing Jamie, especially because Eddie is the only person Jamie can look up to, and he isn’t what I would call a ‘good influence’. So as Jamie carries this attitude into Port Barren, he cops a bit of shit for it. As soon as he arrives in Port Barren, he stops dead still in the road with shock, as if ‘something bad, something evil had reached out and touched him as he crossed the road’. After this little incident, mid-way thru a conversation between Jamie and his social worker Lorraine, a comment she makes, startles Jamie a little bit ‘This is it, Jamie. This is your last chance.’ As much as he had heard it all before, he knew that for some reason, this actually was his last chance.

Being Jamie’s last chance, before Jail, he’d been putting in the hard yards. He was attending school, and had become quite close with Cameron, who was becoming more and more like a brother as the story unfolded, and had settled at Archie’s. Often, of an evening, Jamie would go for long walks, to think, and occasionally to release some ‘steam’. However, on the way back from one of his regular walks, after seeing Butcher burning the school down, Butcher followed him home, and just before Archie’s stopped Jamie; blamed him for burning the school down. Jamie tried to defend himself, but Butcher just smacked him over the back of the head with his Nightstick and threw him in the back of the police truck. After a torturous ride in the back of the police truck, Butcher deserted Jamie at an old Mining Station, Flaherety’s Curse, handcuffed to a retaining pole.

Cameron managed to decipher where Jamie was, however, another visit from Butcher, he smashed Cameron’s Father’s car into the Mining Hut, and left. Which meant if the boys even wanted a chance of survival, they’d have to hike it back to town, a very strenuous journey, especially after all of Jamie’s experiences. The boys found the previous person Butcher had left out there, who was unlucky enough to have died out there, and they bought her skeleton back too. After their near-death experiences on their travels, and being struck with pure luck, of finding a watering hole and two recreational hikers, who gave them a ride back to Port Barren, they made it back. Butcher, furious with the news, made a beeline for Archie’s house, in search of Jamie, and after a call from Cameron, he made for his sacred place, the boat.

Butcher, eventually finding Jamie, set the boat alight, and upon Jamie’s escape from the inferno, held him at gunpoint. Thanks to some ingenuity from Robb, Cameron and Archie, they managed to make it before it was too late, and Robb shot Butcher in the shoulder, saving Jamie’s life. They made contact with the Karratha Police, and had Butcher arrested and charged. Once all the fuss was settled, Jamie returned to Archie, and in reference to a story Archie had told Jamie, he asked if he was a wanderer or a lost one, and Archie’s reply was ‘Neither mate, you’re a local’. This was a massive milestone for Jamie.

Clearly Jamie realises that he needs to ‘pull his finger out’ or he has had it. This is shown right throughout the novel. Jamie does well at school, offers to give Archie around the house occasionally and he is off the streets. He feels different, usually when he was sent to Foster Homes, they’d all smother him, and nurture him, and treat him like an idiot, however, Archie’s was different, he had the freedom to do whatever he liked, but most of the time, he’d be controlled; he’d stay at home, and sleep or study. Also, throughout his stay in Port Barren, he felt as if he had a Guardian Angel, constantly watching over him and speaking to him. In the words of the narrator, ‘The girl’s presence filled Jamie. She’d been watching him, helping him, calling him, ever since the moment he’d stepped off the bus and into Port Barren.

I find that Jamie is also very grateful for the experiences throughout his stay in Port Barren, as good or as bad as they were, because if it wasn’t for them, he’d still be the same juvenile delinquent he’d come as, and for all we know, could’ve ended up in Prison with Eddie.

A New Kind of Dreaming by Jamie Riley Essay