Mabo Student Guide Essay

Mabo Student Guide Essay.

1. VCAA guidelines for Mabo

The following information is from the VCAA Study Design and the 2013-14 Assessment Report

You must address the following:

• The ideas/characters/themes constructed by the author/director and presented in the selected text • The way the author/director uses structures, features and conventions to construct meaning • The ways in which author/director expresses or implies a point of view and values • The ways in which readers’ interpretations of texts differ and why.

Types of topics:

There are two topics for each Reading and Responding text.

 The types of topics varied, but all offered the opportunity to develop a sustained discussion linked to aspects of key knowledge for Units 3 and 4, Outcome 1: some topics focused on a close interpretation, some on developing a reader interpretation; some on characters; some on themes; some on the ways in which authors express or imply a point of view and values; and some focused on the way the author or director uses structures, features and conventions to construct meaning.

While the focus may appear to stem from one of these strands, students who are able to demonstrate an understanding of how the construction, structures and features of the text (including genre) operate in adding meaning were rewarded.

Answer what the question is asking not what you hope it is asking. Most of the concerns with students’ text responses relate to dealing with the topic. There is a distinct difference between being well prepared and attempting a prepared response. After a detailed study of their text throughout the year, students should be encouraged to have confidence in their own reading and demonstrate a personal understanding of their text, rather than relying exclusively on commercially produced material. It is important to be aware that there are no ‘correct’ responses. Each response is assessed on its own merits and the complexity of the texts and the topics allow for a variety of possible approaches. If you know your text well you will be able to address this point: Students should be bold in their assertions about their texts.

To do this students must have a good working knowledge of their text, its characters and themes, as well as the way in which the author or director has worked to present those ideas. Students may expect to challenge or qualify aspects of a topic. Students should look critically at the wording of the topic and consider what assumptions are being made within it. Too many students seem to want to respond to their own question rather than grapple with the ideas of the set topic Look at the criteria: for 9 or 10, a script ‘demonstrates an understanding of the implications of the topic, using an appropriate strategy for dealing with it, and exploring its complexity from the basis of the text.’ Students must also ensure that they are exploring all of the elements presented in the topic. Too often a key point is plucked from the topic and an essay produced, omitting a significant idea that has a major bearing on the topic itself. All parts of the question need to be considered.

Your essay needs to have:
clear introduction
appropriate paragraphing
the ability to embed quotations appropriately
be expressed fluently – coherent and cohesive

Keep working on:
developing a more sophisticated vocabulary
improving your grammar and focus on sentence structure.

Outcome 1
On completion of this unit the student should be able to develop and justify a detailed interpretation of a selected text.

Key knowledge

This knowledge includes an understanding of the ideas, characters and themes constructed by the author and presented in the selected text; the structures, features and conventions used by authors to construct meaning in a range of literary texts; the ways in which authors express or imply a point of view and values; the ways in which readers’ interpretations of texts differ and why; strategies and techniques for constructing a detailed written interpretation of a text, supported by textual evidence and including appropriate metalanguage; the conventions of spelling, punctuation and syntax of Standard Australian English.

Key skills

These skills include the ability to develop sustained interpretive points of view about texts, supported by detailed textual analysis and reference to features, structures and conventions; analyse the ways in which authors express or imply a point of view or values; use appropriate metalanguage to support a detailed interpretation of a text; plan and revise written work for fluency and coherence;

use the conventions of spelling, punctuation and syntax of Standard Australian English.

Assessment Criteria
DESCRIPTOR: typical performance in each range

A highly-developed and well-sustained interpretation of a selected text supported by the considered selection and use of highly appropriate textual evidence. Thorough and insightful understanding of the ideas, characters and themes constructed and presented in the selected text. Complex discussion and critical analysis of the ways in which the author constructs meaning and expresses or implies a point of view and values. Highly appropriate use of relevant metalanguage to support analysis. Highly expressive, fluent and coherent writing.


A well-developed and sustained interpretation of a selected text supported by the careful selection and use of appropriate textual evidence. Thorough knowledge of the ideas, characters and themes constructed and presented in the selected text. Well-developed discussion and sound analysis of the ways in which the author constructs meaning and expresses or implies a point of view and values. Appropriate use of relevant metalanguage to support analysis. Expressive, fluent and coherent writing.


A generally well-sustained interpretation of a selected text supported by textual evidence. Knowledge of the ideas, characters and themes constructed and presented in the selected text. Discussion and some analysis of the ways in which the author constructs meaning and expresses or implies a point of view and values. Use of mainly relevant metalanguage to support analysis. Generally expressive, fluent and coherent writing.


Limited interpretation of a selected text supported by some use of textual evidence. Some knowledge of the ideas, characters and themes constructed and presented in the selected text. Generalised discussion of the ways in which the author constructs meaning and expresses or implies a point of view and values. Use of some metalanguage to support analysis. Clear expression of ideas in writing.


Little, if any, interpretation of a selected text, with minimal textual evidence offered in support. Limited knowledge of the ideas, characters and themes constructed and presented in the selected text. Little, if any, discussion of the ways in which the author constructs meaning and expresses or implies a point of view and values. Little or no use of relevant metalanguage to support analysis. Simple expression of ideas in writing.

2. Sac procedures
For satisfactory completion
participate in class activities
complete practice essay
meet requirements of the SAC tasks
meet attendance requirements

Date and Time of SAC
Wednesday 10th September 2014
Time: 70 minutes

3. Essay Questions: Teachers will assess essays write on the following topics: MABO Practice SAC questions

Last year’s SAC questions:

To what extent does Director Rachel Perkins present Eddie Mabo as a hero?

“But you always were one to get above yourself, Eddie.” Does Eddie overestimate his ability to bring about change?

How does Director Rachel Perkins connect viewers with the story of Mabo?

The film Mabo is about Eddie’s lifelong struggle for acceptance. To what extent do you agree?

Last year’s exam questions:
Mabo is a film about pride. Discuss.

In the film Mabo, the land plays such an important role that it is like a character. Discuss.

More prac questions:
In the film, Mabo, it’s not until the end of Eddie Mabo’s life that he realises that his fight is about more than just him. Discuss.

In Mabo, the legacy is bigger than the man. Discuss.

Mabo’s fight for native title is a fight to find his home. Discuss.

The more Mabo fights for his home, the more he becomes obsessed by it. Discuss.

Eddie is a strong but flawed hero in Mabo. Discuss.

Racism is only one of many things that Eddie must struggle against in Mabo. Discuss.

Bonita makes Eddie a better person in Mabo. Discuss.

How does Rachel Perkins use dramatized and archival footage to more effectively tell the story of Mabo?

It’s pride, just as much as native land rights, that is at stake in the story of Mabo. Discuss.

“Possession is nine tenths of the law.” Why does Eddie deem it important to claim Native Title in Mabo?

“…How my wife has stuck to me… somehow we made it.” (Eddie) How does Netta support Eddie?

“When young men go the mainland, they forget everything.” (Benny Mabo) Is this true for Eddie Mabo? Why/Why not?

“You’ve got a voice haven’t you? (Union Organiser) How does Eddie become heard in his struggle for justice?

“Netta, people like us have no choice by to be troublemakers.” What does Eddie mean by this statement?

What is the significance of the way Perkins portrays Killoran in Mabo? Discuss.

4. Reading a non-print text

What to look for when viewing feature films
Studying film should have parallels with studying novels, plays and short stories. The same attention should be paid to characterisation, plot, structure, craft (how the film is put together), themes and issues. You should look at film excerpts in the same way that you look at key chapters in a novel.

There are, however, obvious differences between print and non-print texts which you need to be aware of. Look at how point of view is controlled by the camera, for example. This will determine from whose point of view the story is told and is often influential in evoking your sympathies or determining with whom you identify when watching a film.

Do not analyse film as a unique entity, one that is totally different from other types of text. There are some film terms which you should know, but essentially the rest of the language used when discussing film is the same as the language you would use when discussing print texts.

The study of film should look at how and why meaning is constructed. As with the study of poetry, form and content should not be separated. When viewing a film, you should always look for the ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ in conjunction with each other. This means that you should be able to identify the film’s main ideas, understand the ways in which these ideas are presented and also be able to speculate about why you think the filmmaker has presented the ideas and characters in that particular way.

Structure and meaning in feature films

The moving image is so pervasive that we cannot ignore the need to acquire the tools for understanding how viewers are positioned by the visual media. The feature film is the storyteller of the twenty-first century and, much more than the contemporary novel, it is the model through which we articulate the world and under­stand the value systems that underpin that world. Therefore, it is important to under­stand the codes and conventions of film. Complex meaning systems

A feature film is, firstly, a series of events. This series of events unfolds sequentially in most films. There is an introduction, a conflict, a climax and a resolution of the conflict or achievement of a goal. This model of storytelling is called the classic Hollywood narrative.

From watching feature films you quickly develop the ability to follow the sequence of events in film stories. However, if the plot were all that you needed to understand there would be little purpose in studying feature films or any other non-print medium. Feature films actually use complex meaning systems to tell stories, and the study of feature films is important in leading you to discover the deeper levels of meaning that can be conveyed through aural and visual means. This appreciation can then help to develop a more critical understanding of the way in which all texts, film or print, can manipulate emotions, reinforce values and resist or re-affirm beliefs. Shared meaning systems

Each piece of information that we see or hear in a film has symbolic meaning and is selected to suggest meaning to the viewer. Viewers relate what they see and hear to their own cultural experiences and the context in which the film is viewed. For example, a woman dressed in a black suit may be interpreted as part of a constructed image of elegance or as an indicator of mourning, according to the context. Another example could be the use of rain as part of the soundtrack. Rain can denote a moment of crisis or a moment of catharsis for a character.

Each viewer processes the information and interprets symbols according to his or her individual cultural experiences. Age, gender, class, ethnicity and sexual preference are some of the variables that determine response and the way in which the viewer interprets these symbols. As a meaning system, a feature film is understood because its symbols draw upon broad cultural experiences shared by both filmmaker and viewer. Characteristics of feature films

In feature films the narrative is developed through a range of visual and auditory features. Feature film may be examined in terms of the shots, the sequencing of shots and the soundtrack. The choices made by the filmmaker in creating meanings can be a source of discussion for students as they focus on what has been included and what has been excluded and the effect that these choices might have on the viewer.

This entails study of both the film-making process (composition, framing, lighting etc.) and the visual meaning of what is represented on screen (posture, gesture, movement and dress of characters). It also requires analysing the sequencing (editing) of shots, and ,listening to the soundtrack, including the selection and organisation of spoken language (dialogue), music, sound effects and the silences which create atmosphere in film. 5. Features of film (film technique)

The four main elements of film style are mise en scene, cinematography, editing and sound. You can analyse each element separately but a more insightful and complex analysis will explain how these elements combine to help create the film’s overall meaning. a. Mise en scene means ‘staging the action’. It refers to all the visual elements within the frame at any given point in the film. It is the sum total of everything that is seen through the camera lens. It includes camera angle position of characters, background. There are four main elements of mise en scene: setting, lighting, costumes and acting style. Setting: a film can be in a studio or on location, depending on the film’s budget and how natural or realistic the director wishes the film to look. Lighting: depending on direction and intensity, lighting can illuminate one part of the set, or one actor more than others. It can create mood, especially through the use of shadows and colour.

Costumes: include clothes worn by the actors, individual props (such as jewellery), make-up, hairstyles. Costume changes often signal changes in a character’s outlook or life circumstances. Acting style: this includes facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice, pace of delivery, but not the actual words spoken by the actor. b. Cinematography is the art of capturing images on film. The cinematographer uses all the resources of the camera to produce a varied and engaging film style that also helps to tell the story. Camera distance and angles allow the audience’s attention to be focused on certain elements of the setting or on one or more characters.

Four main shots are: Close-up shot: typically focuses on a person’s facial features and expressions Medium shot: shows people from the waist up with background details clearly visible; can show people close together. Medium long shot: shows the whole body of a person and the surrounding setting; can show interactions between individuals and place them in a context Long shot: people appear as smaller figures, gives a sense of the landscape or a whole city in which people live. Aerial shot/overhead shot: the camera is above the characters.

It can show things that are not obvious on the ground. It can also make people look vulnerable. Low angle shot: the camera is below the subject. The person or object seem powerful and intimidating because we are looking up at the subject that is being filmed. High angle shot: the camera is higher than the subject. The audience looks down on the subject, making the person look small and defenceless.

Camera movement

The camera can move by rotate horizontally (a pan) or vertically (a tilt). This allows the audience to follow a moving object or person from a fixed position, or to take in the extent of an object or landscape as if they were turning their heads to see everything. Alternatively, the whole camera can move or ‘track’ the action, giving the viewer the sense of active involvement in the scene. When a hand-held camera is used, the unsteadiness of the image can produce an unsettling effect enhancing the tension or uncertainty in the narrative. c. Editing is the process of selecting shots and of joining them in a meaningful sequence.

Crosscutting is an editing technique that allows a film to tell the stories of several characters. The editor crosscuts from one scene to another to allow two or more storylines to be developed. Matching the scenes allows crosscuts to occur seamlessly, encouraging the audience to see connections between experiences of different characters. A montage sequence is a series of quick or still shots, often accompanied by music. It can depict a relatively long passage of time through a selection of images showing significant events in a character’s life. It can also portray a rapid series of thoughts and images passing through a character’s mind. d. Sound

A film’s soundtrack has two main components:
Dialogue and sounds of actions (both seen and unseen) e.g. footsteps; a door being closed; traffic noise; natural phenomena such as birdsong or rain The music sound track. This plays a very important role in creating the mood or atmosphere for each scene and for the film as a whole. The music often has an emotional impact and complements the narrative, strongly affecting the audience’s response to characters and events.

Sound can be further divided into two main areas:
Diegetic sound: Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film: voices of characters  sounds made by objects in the story  music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music) Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film’s world. Diegetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame. Another term for diegetic sound is actual sound.

Non-diegetic sound: Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action:
narrator’s commentary
sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
mood music

Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from a source outside story space.

6. Discussion of 2 techniques in Mabo: Archival footage and flashbacks

Archival footage

Real, historical footage is used three times in Mabo. The film begins with news footage reporting the Mabo case – the quotes used capturing the division of opinion in Australia about its impact: • “The economic and political future of Australia has been put at risk” • “Mabo establishes a fundamental truth and lays the basis for justice” Later on, real footage is used again when Eddie becomes more active in protesting against racism.

After the scene where he tells Bonita that indigenous people must organise themselves and “fight” there is an extended edit of archival clips showing indigenous marches and protests, interviews with white and Aboriginal people and a clip of the Premier of Queensland Joh Bjelke- Petersen speaking. This footage reinforces what the film is dramatising – powerfully showing to the viewer the actual historical context of the film, where indigenous people had to enter cinemas by a separate entrance (as a white woman tells in an interview), where they felt they had “bugger all” (as one sign reads).

The film finishes with archival footage which conveys what a dramatisation could not. Here – at the end of the film – we see Eddie’s funeral on Murray Island – where he was accorded the ceremony of a leader. The sadness and coming together of the people here poignantly represents to us the impact of Eddie and his fight for land rights. The final image of the film is perhaps the most powerful – it’s footage of Eddie dressed traditionally and fishing. In the end, the film is telling us, Eddie was a traditional man with a powerful connection to the land.


Throughout the film we see flashbacks of Eddie’s life on Murray Island with his adoptive father Benny. Eddie is deeply torn by the feeling that he has left Mer Island and not returned. However, the flash backs along with the music show that despite the physical separation between him and the island, a connection re-mains. The flashbacks show us that Eddie will not forget his heritage as an Islander.

7. Music
The function of music in a film:
establish identity, ethnicity and period of time
create mood and atmosphere
reflect emotion
add emotional depth: intensify and relax tension
create unspoken thoughts

Discussion of music in the film:

Music is an essential technique in Mabo to signpost Eddie’s emotional journey. To this end, Perkins makes frequent use of traditional Murray Islander/Meream music in the film to aurally characterise Eddie Mabo’s connection to his traditional homeland. There is a joyful chorus of Islanders’ singing that we hear at the times when Eddie is most content – or where there is a justice and fairness to what is happening. One such moment is at the start of the film when we see Eddie dancing at Mer Island, culturally at home and content with his life.

This chorus returns again at the end of the film, but we also see it at other poignant moments – such in the extended sequence of archival footage towards the middle of the film when Eddie’s fight for indigenous rights begins in earnest. One particularly poignant scene features Eddie wandering alone on the train tracks – this is just after he has been pulled over by the police. He sings and dances to a traditional Mer song – and a chorus is synced with his singing on the film’s soundtrack. This moment both captures Eddie’s connection to his culture, but also the anguish at his separation from it. We might hear the chorus on the film’s soundtrack, but on the train tracks his voice is alone.

Mabo Student Guide Essay

Speech Australian Visions Essay

Speech Australian Visions Essay.

Arthur Schopenhauer once said “every men take the limit of his own field of vision for the limits of world “a vision is the best path way to understand culture. And today I will be talking about Australian vision through Douglas Stewart’s “eyes” .Australian vision are a reflection is Australian beliefs, value, and perceptions. In Mr. Stewart’s poems explore concepts of Australian’s egalitarianism, Australia flora and fauna, Aussie battler. The poems clearly present those ideas. Wombat’s Aussie battler struggle for survival, the beauty of Australian flora “snow gum” that is standout out in snow.

In the poem “then snow gum” Douglas Stewart present the ideas of snow gum’s inner strength as it overcomes the difficulties as an Aussie battler and the beauty of Australia’s flora. The use of imagery “out of granite’s eternity”, “out of winter’s long enmity” the bitter, cruel climate and harsh environment create the idea of winter as an enemy, and the solid, dark, hard element of granite.

All those present an idea of Aussie battler as the snow gum has struggled to survive in this harsh environment. Also suggest an idea that Australians can struggle to survival through difficulties and push themselves to try harder and never give up. And the use of simile connect snow gum to “ecstasy” by using hyperbolic emotive language drop a hint to audience a spiritual connection and shows that the poet were amazed by the view of the tree in the snow and he was enjoyed. And the color of “silver” and “green” is symbolize the warm life in the cold winter and is a miracle to survived in this harsh environment.

The poem “snow gum” is a vision of Australians overcomes the troubles and face the difficulties at the same time he shows the amazing picture of Australian’s flora The poem “wombat” shows us another side of Australian visions such as: Australia fauna and egalitarianism. The use of metaphor demonstrates the idea of egalitarianism “we have one mother, good brother” the metaphor emphasizes the relationship between mother earth and the wombat and we clearly see the earth has a deep connection with the wombat 1st the earth provide shelter 2nd the earth give the wombat food to survival. And it also shows the kinship between the poet and the wombat suggesting an idea that we are come from the same Mother Nature, and we are a family.

Speech Australian Visions Essay

Syrian refugee essay Essay

Syrian refugee essay Essay.

“Our compassion and fairness are a source of great pride for Canadians”, proudly stated by Citizenship and Immigration of Canada on its refugee system.There is no doubt that Canada has been a leader in refugee resettlement programs. Its outstanding and effective protection for Vietnamese “boat people” after Vietnam war gained Canada great respect from global community, and ever since, Canada is known as the most “refugee-friendly” country in the world. However, the past glory does not reflect in the status quo of Canada’s Syrian refugee resettlement.

When facing the largest humanitarian crisis in our generation with regards to Syria, a great leadership is not found in Canada. The immigration department does not live up to its promise of bringing in 1,300 Syrian refugees; on the other hand, Sweden announced they have welcomed 15,000 which exceeds the amount that Canada planned.That was such a disappointment to both the Canadian society and the Syrian refugees.

Why isn’t Canada leading the world this time? The problem is the insufficient support the private sponsors receive from Immigration offices, which put Canada’s asylum at a disadvantage position in the competition with other host countries.

Canadian government relies on private sponsors to achieve its resettlement goal, but the restriction that it imposes on sponsor groups clearly did not help with the situation. As a critical part of the bridge that connects refugees and Canadian government, the number of sponsors is significantly shrinking due to the backlog of files the offices are encountering. The downsizing of the sponsor groups will certainly lead to less opportunity for refugees in the light of escaping the war-torn country and coming to Canada. What’s even worse is that the government failed to warn the sponsor groups of its big expectation, resulting in organizations that already committed to take in refugees from other counties having no spot left for the influx of Syrian refugees (Gazette).

The churches are not very pleased with government’s slow response. A recent survey shows that most religious groups are concerned about the long waiting period and the time to process the files after they are submitted, which can take up a year to two years. By contrast, Sweden has been very supportive and announced their new policies to fast track the refugee claims in order to save more lives. RatnaOmidvar of the Global Diversity and Migration Exchange commented, “Sweden’s commitment to refugees is remarkable, it is steadfast, it is admirable, it is outstanding…People look to you, not to Canada, as the moral guardians for the world”(Wagner). Some people may argue that Canada is taking a different approach to this issue. As Dana Wagner said, “a regional crisis needs a regional response.” Canada hasspent $630 million for humanitarian groups that are mostly based in the countries that share borders with Syria.

In that sense, Canada expected a lot more Syrians can be benefited from the direct and effective regional responses instead of waiting for the papers to be processed. However, Canada failed to realize that in most of the time, Syrians are not getting any better ways out in refugee camps because they are still trapped in war-zones and are seen as burdens to the host countries they fled to. The Turkey government labeled the refugees as “guests” who can only enjoy temporary protection;lack of housing, rapidly rising rents and unregistered Syrian businesses, all the problems that came along with influx of Syrians, irritated the local Turkish (Letsch). Imagine, you fled a place, which has no electricity, food or water but fear of being killed to a placewhere your family lives on odd jobs and small donations of citizens; the life may even be harsher, with the hostility you feel from the local community.“They react angrily. I am not comfortable here and if I could I would go somewhere else…I feel trapped”, said Abu Nour, after he was severely beaten by Turkish soldiers when he tried to cross the borders to enter Turkey (Letsch).

All these factors point out to a fact that pouring money on humanitarian aids instead of accepting more refugees does not seem to yield the results that Canada has expected. Are we still that compassionate, Canada? Not too long ago, in 2013, Canada responded to Typhoon Haiyan within 24 hours and promised to fast-track Filipino’s visa applications and 1,097 Filipinos were given residence permits within 6 months. In 2010, Canada fast-tracked 3,300 Haitian applications after a major earthquake in Haiti (Goodspeed). Canada is capable to welcome more than 1,300 refugees and fast-track the implications to rescue more suffering people, but it chose not to. No programs similar are provided for Syrian refugees.Instead, theapplication process is extremely frustrating for some desperate Syrian refugees.

If one missing address or telephone number is found on the application, the application will be returned to the applicant and after one and a half year waiting, the refugees are still hanging at the starting line, not even close to the finish line.As Immigration Minister Chris Alexander puts it, Canada has “to be careful in any part of the world where terrorist groups are operating”( …). Granted, there may be a few terrorists using the asylum system to enter Canada and create public panic and therefore security check is essential for society’s concerns, but to what extent we have to ignore the fact that a massive amount of Syrians are innocent people and victims of the terrorism. It is absurd that some tiny mistakes sometimes weigh over the life of a refugee and unacceptable to have double standard toward an ethnic group.

Syrian refugee essay Essay

An essay on bushfires as natural hazards Essay

An essay on bushfires as natural hazards Essay.

A bushfire is a firre burning out of control inthe open. Bushfires can burn using grass,scrub or forest (or a combination of these) forfuel. Unless quickly controlled, bushfirescan become large, spreading to affect forests,wildlife, crops, houses and other buildings,and human life. In Australia, some bushfireshave become major disasters.

Fires are not a recent occurrence in Australia.

Since the last Ice Age, bushfires have influencedthe development of the Australian land. Fires arean essential element in some Australian ecosystems,which need the intense heat of bushfires torelease the seeds from plants and replenishgrowth.

Australian Aborigines used fires to assistthem in their hunting activities. It is believedthat the fire activities of Aborigines contributedto the development of an open woodland ecosystemin parts of south-eastern Australia.

Early European settlers used fire to assist inthe clearing of land for crops and as a means ofremoving stubble following cropping. However, inmore recent times, laws have been passedrestricting the lighting of fires for these purposes.

This has led to a more dense vegetation in manyrural areas and a greater accumulation of leaf andba rk litter on the ground.

The litterprovides a significant amount of fuelfor fires if they do start.

Bushfires are one of the most destructiveforces of nature. Firefighters risktheir lives each year to control andeventually extinguish them. Eventhough bushfires can occur naturally,mainly as a result of lightning strikesand spontaneous combustion, most arestarted by the activities of people. Thisincludes cigarettes and matches beingcarelessly discarded, electricity cables,sparks from machinery and tools, andburning off. Arson has been the causeof some of the worst bushfires.

BUSHFIRESWHAT CAUSESBUSHFIRES?Eucalypts and bushfiresThere are two main types of bushfires:· Surface bushfires burn in grass, low shrubs andground litter. They can travel at high speed butare relatively easy to control.

· Crown bushfires occur when heat and flamesfrom a surface flre ignite the crowns of trees.

Crown fires spread rapidly if there are strong,hot winds and very dry vegetation. Hugeamounts of ¯ammable eucalyptus vapour,transpired from leaves, can create firebrandsthat engulf the tree crowns ahead of the firefront. This makes crown fires very dangerousand difficult to control.

As the map shows, bushfires usually occurin the less arid parts of Australia. Aridareas tend not to have enough fuel to sustainfires for any length of time. SoutheasternAustralia is particularly subject tobushfires. There are several reasons for this,including the following:1. Large areas are covered with sclerophyll vegetation.

The dominant trees are eucalypts,which have highly flammable oil in theirbranches. Eucalypts burn readily and canbecome so hot during fires that their sap boilsand the whole tree or shrub can explode inflames. This is not a problem for the plantspecies as most eucalypt varieties burn hotand fast as a means of releasing seeds onto thefire-cleared ground. Some burnt trees simplysend up new shoots from their stumps or rootsand grow to full-size trees again.

2. The area is also subject to prolonged periods ofbelow average rainfall and droughts. Many ofthe most severe bushfires have occurredduring droughts and El Niño events. Bushfiresand drought often occur together.

3. South-eastern Australia is also subject toheatwaves and strong northerly winds duringthe summer months. Two or three days ofheatwave weather can often provide conditionssuitable for bushfires to occur.

Bushfires can bring massive destruction, loss oflife and personal hardship to families and communities.

Individuals, community-based groupsand governments have responded to this hazardin many ways.

There are over 70 000 individuals who are volunteermembers of bushfire brigades. They domost of the fighting of bushfires. During times ofsevere bushfires they can be on duty for days at atime, sometimes facing extreme danger. Theymake a highly significant contribution to makingour communities safer.

The government has set up many agenciesthat work to protect the community when bush-fires occur. These include ®re brigades, police andambulance services, welfare agencies and theState Emergency Service. Governments can provideemergency financial assistance in severebushfires. The Bureau of Meteorology providesshort- and long-term weather forecasts to warnof bushfire dangers.

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An essay on bushfires as natural hazards Essay

The Great Barrier Reef Essay

The Great Barrier Reef Essay.

-Outline 2 physical characteristics of the Great Barrier ReefThe Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system. It is located on the northeast coast of Queensland next to the Pacific Ocean. The reef extends from the Torres Straight Islands to Sandy Cape near Fraser Island. Nearly 3,000 individual coral reefs and some 300 small coral islands form the reef, which ranks as the world’s largest structure made by living organisms .The reef is approximately 37,000 square kilometers, accounting for 13% of the world’s total coral reefs.

In 1975, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority were established. The purpose of this was to conserve this area for the benefit of present and future generations by balancing conservation and human use. The actual park covers 344,800 square kilometers by covering the waters surrounding the reef. The reef’s outer edge ranges from as close as 30 km to the Australian mainland, to as far as 250 km .

The Great Barrier Reef supports around 350 species of stony coral and 1,500 species of fish, some of which are sharks.

The stony corals that build coral reefs are slow-growing but long-lived corals. Many types of stony corals grow in the Great Barrier Reef, including branching corals, stag horn corals, massive corals, brain corals, plate corals, and mushroom corals .Coral reefs are the most ideal place for marine life to live. The large surface of the coral reef provides natural shelter and food. It is because of this that coral reefs are the homes of the largest ecosystems in the world. Some fish that inhabit The Great Barrier Reef include Damselfish, Wrasse, Butterfly fish, Angelfish, Cardinal Fish, Groupers and Basslets.

Discuss the Human Environment and the Human Interactions that occur in the Great Barrier ReefThe coastal zone along the Great Barrier Reef contains the majority of marine tourism infrastructure, ports and harbours, urban and resort development and industrial development .

UrbanStretching from Bamaga to Gladstone, there are more than 10 towns along the length of the Great Barrier Reef. This is also known as the coastal zone. Approximately 25% of the land area of Queensland is part of a network of 26 major river catchments that drain directly into the Great Barrier Reef marine Park. Run-off from the urban development is one of the largest impacts affecting the water quality of the Great Barrier Reef . There is extra stress on the Great Barrier Reef Marine Authority’s ability to conserve the Great Barrier Reef as population growth rises in urban centres along the coastal zone. Increased growth often leads to increased demand for marine tourism, and recreational infrastructures such as marinas, ferry terminals, safe harbours and jetties .

IndustryThe largest industry surrounding the Great Barrier Reef is fishing. The fishing industry in the Great Barrier Reef, controlled by the Queensland Government, is worth 1 billion Australian dollars annually . There are many reasons why people fish in the Great Barrier Reef. Commercial fishing and recreational fishing are the biggest reason, however, some may fish as a traditional means to support one’s family. The fishing industry of Great Barrier Reef employs around 2000 people.

AgricultureToday 80% of the land adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area supports agricultural production, primarily beef cattle grazing and intensive cropping agriculture . Approximately 4,500,000 cattle graze in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment, which is the largest single land use. The grazing has caused widespread soil erosion which empties out into the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

The most common crop grown in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment is the sugarcane. Along with the soil erosion, fertilizers and pesticides that are originally intended for the sugar cane are washed down rivers, estuaries and eventually the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage area.

TourismEvery year, the Great Barrier Reef attracts more than 1.6 million tourists from all over the globe. These tourists may snorkel around the Great Barrier Reef, enjoy a cruise or just enjoy the beaches. No matter what they do, tourists bring with them rubbish and distractions from the life the normal life of fish living in the Great Barrier Reef. Rubbish is usually left lying around and when rain comes, the rubbish is swept down the drain and into the sewers, which then empty out into the sea. This rubbish can pollute the water and can be potentially fatal to fish.

For example, a plastic bag can wrap it self around a fish’s head or get lodged inside a sharks throat. The fish will eventually die of suffocation or starvation. Distractions to the normal life of fish come in the form of the multitude of cruises provided for the tourists. These cruises usually follow the same route every day and eventually it may scare away all the fish from the area. This also affects the ecosystem. Distractions can also be the snorkeling tourists. At the beginning of the day, most tourism operators scatter food for fish around the areas where they bring tourists to snorkel to keep business running. Eventually, these fish may become dependent on this food and will stop eating their natural prey. These prey will multiply and also mess up the ecosystem.

Continual construction of hotels for tourists on islands and resorts destroy the habitats of some birds use to live in that area. This affects the ecosystem of the Great Barrier Reef because when the birds are totally driven away from the Great Barrier Reef, the fish that were once prey to the birds now multiply. An increase in this kind of fish may result in the extinction of a different species of fish as a result of the increase of demand on food.

AboriginalThe Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and utilized by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islanders peoples . The Great Barrier Reef has been home to aboriginal Australians for more than 40,000 years and the Torres Strait islanders have lived there for more than 10,000 year ago. The Great Barrier Reef is also an important part of culture and spirituality in the 70 or so groups of Aboriginals or Torres Strait Islanders.

Outline the Aboriginal Heritage that exists within the Great Barrier ReefThe Great Barrier Reef has been home to the Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait islanders long before the first settlers arrived. More than 42,000 Torres Strait Islanders/ Australian Aborigines live in the coastal cities of Townsville and Cairns. Cape York Peninsula extends about 800km north of Cairns. It has a population of 15,000, half of which are Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.

The Australian Aboriginals that live near the Great Barrier Reef have burial grounds. These burial grounds are of high cultural and heritage significance to the Indigenous Australian peoples. The old burial grounds and sites have slowly disappeared under rising sea levels. Erosion along the coast and islands has exposed some burial sites and remains, and traditional owners have conducted some traditional reburials on islands within the Great Barrier Reef.

There are many specific traditional lifestyles that are important to the indigenous cultural heritage of Australia in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park area. Some include:•Seek food for nourishment on a daily basis and for special occasions or ceremonies•Seek natural products including plant material for the production of baskets, necklaces and other goods12•Implement, control and monitor traditional management measures to maintain biodiversity in the sea and the on the land12•Develop and use knowledge systems including Traditional Ecological Knowledge, for daily interaction with the sea country12Totems are physical representations of an animal that is adopted as the family or clan emblem. Some groups can be identified by their totems, which can be all kinds of animals. They are an important part of cultural identity and are especially significant in song, dance or names on cultural implements.

Include 2 recent media reports dealing with an Environmental issue in the Great Barrier ReefMedia report 1Students join effort to protect the Reef11 February 2008Rasmussen State School will join thousands of students along the Queensland coastline in pledging their commitment to the Great Barrier Reef, when they officially become a Reef Guardian School this Tuesday. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Reef Guardian Schools Coordinator Ms Megan Sperring said it was the students idea to join the programme. “It is really exciting to see the students driving their involvement in the programme with teachers working to follow their lead. “Because of the enthusiasm with which Rasmussen State School is becoming a Reef Guardian, we are expecting great things from them this year. The school already has big plans for its first year as a Reef Guardian. Located more than 15 km from the ocean, the school’s focus will be on improving wetlands and sharing the message that the activities we do away from the coast can still impact the Great Barrier Reef.

Rasmussen students will be mentored by Central State School during their first Wetlands Unit, which was designed in collaboration with the Queensland Wetlands Programme. Student Charli Jones said she was excited to become a Reef Guardian and was looking forward to getting her feet wet in the school’s Wetlands Unit. “Our school decided we should become a Reef Guardian school because this term we are learning about wetlands and trying to protect the Reef. “We want the whole school to help look after the Reef so it doesn’t die.” Student Ally Watkins agreed that protecting the Great Barrier Reef was an important job for schools. “We decided we should become a Reef Guardian School because the Reef is getting destroyed. “If we become Reef Guardians the Reef could last longer.

“It will last longer because if we all learn about the Reef, we will tell others all about it and then they will want to help protect the Reef too.” Rasmussen State School Principal Loretta Swayn said she is thrilled that her school is joining the programme. “Becoming a Reef Guardian School is a very practical way that we can look after our local environment. “Our Values Education program focuses on Sustainability in the 21st Century, so we are already committed to environmental protection at Rasmussen. “Our young people are very excited about playing a part in preserving the Great Barrier Reef for their future.”Healthy wetlands boost fish stocksThursday 31 January 2008The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) and the Burdekin Shire under the Reef Guardian Council program are urging the community to consider the importance of wetlands to the local environment and the health of the Great Barrier Reef.

GBRMPA Chairman Mr Russell Reichelt said that over the last 150 years many wetlands have been lost due to coastal development and agricultural growth.

“Wetlands play a vital role in filtering out nutrients and sediments before that water reaches the Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” he said.

“Water Quality is a critical issue for the Great Barrier Reef and if we are to have a Reef that is resilient in the face of climate change then healthy wetlands are pivotal.”Burdekin Shire Council Mayor, Cr Lyn McLaughlin said as just one of four Reef Guardian Councils in Queensland the Council took its responsibility to look after wetlands seriously.

“Wetlands play a vital role in our Shire in filtering out some pollutants while also providing a nursery ground for important fish stocks,” Cr McLaughlin said.

“The Shire is undertaking a project of re-establishing passage for native fish at Horseshoe Lagoon which will result in improved fish stocks in downstream estuarine areas such as Barramundi Creek.

“On World Wetlands Day this Saturday I encourage everyone to consider the important role wetlands play in our community and in helping to protect the Great Barrier Reef,” Cr McLaughlin said.

Project funding of $65 000 was received to help undertake this project through the Commonwealth Recreational Fishing Grants.

The wetlandsWetlands are vital to the Great Barrier Reef. They protect our shores from wave action, reduce the impacts of floods, absorb pollutants and provide habitats for plants and animals. The wetlands also provide shelter and an area to develop for young marine life and because of this, Australia’s recreational and commercial fishing industries rely on this area. The purification of water also starts in the wetlands. This is the most vital use of the wetlands surrounding the Great Barrier Reef. The water quality of the Great Barrier Reef starts at the wetlands. Wetlands play a vital role in filtering out nutrients and sediments before that water reaches the Great Barrier Reef lagoon . If the quality of water is poor as it enters the Great Barrier Reef, many fish, whose bodies are unaccustomed to this polluted , may die.

Infilling and drainage pipes that lead to the wetlands have caused significant degradation of the wetlands. More than 50% of the wetlands have been affected by the growing agriculture and resource consumption required in that area. Also, a significant amount of modern development has begun in the areas around wetlands. The increase in pollution added to the noise of development may eventually drive most animals away from their natural habitats in the wetlands. This will have impact greatly on the ecosystem of the wetlands and ultimately the ecosystem of the Great Barrier Reef.

The involvement of students and teachers in the conservation of the Great Barrier Reef has helped in many ways. As well as promoting the idea of community involvement in the conservation of the Great Barrier Reef, the Rasmussen State School will also contribute to preserving the wetlands and advertise the fact that even though people may not live near the reef, their actions may still affect it. $65 000 has been given to aid in the conservation of the wetlands. This donation was given by the Commonwealth Recreational Fishing Grants, who realized that the more higher the quality if water, the more amount of fish there were to be fished. Also, the local shire, Burdekin Shire, has undertaken a project to re-establish a passage near Horseshoe lagoon in an attempt to increase the number of fish in areas down-stream like Barramundi creek.

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Authority Reef Guardian Schools programme is about supporting schools whose aim is to help conserve the Great Barrier Reef and reduce their consumption of the natural resources so that the rate of regeneration for resources is greater than the actual consumption of the resources (Ecological Footprint). The programme is successful as each year, more schools from the Queensland region join their cause.


Introduction “Great Barrier Reef,” Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Formation and physical features “Great Barrier Reef,” Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Formation of the Reef “Great Barrier Reef,” Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Coastal Development, GRMPA, http://www, Barrier Reef, Wikipedia,, GRMPA http://www, Heritage in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Burial grounds, Heritage in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Traditional cultural lifestyles, Heritage in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, totems, join effort to protect reef, GRMPA , GRMPA

The Great Barrier Reef Essay

Indeginous Australia: Invasion or Settlement? Essay

Indeginous Australia: Invasion or Settlement? Essay.

For generations Australians have been taught to believe the country was peacefully settled by Europeans. Discuss whether this is true or not.

Majority of Australians are taught to believe that Australia was a peacefully settled country by Europeans. Only Ancient Indigenous Australian communities know for a fact from their ancestors, that this is not true. Indigenous Australians lived in the country for thousands of years before the Europeans’ invasion. They believed the land owned them not they owned the land like the settlers believed.

The indigenous people respected the land and cared for it, they only used and killed what they needed and were smart resource planners. The developed new skills and immunity to the land and weather condition. When the Europeans arrived they considered the land as terra-nullius (no-mans land) which was free for the taking and they dis-respected and considered the local indigenous societies as nothing. This was also a gain for the Europeans as they didn’t own any land in the area yet.

Aborigines are natives to Australia and Tasmania. They have lived there for about 35,000 to 70,000 years. Their skin and hair are both dark. There are about 500 recorded tribes. Aboriginal tribes didn’t usually stay in one place for long, moving to watering places and setting up camp there. Aborigines lived in family groups and clans. Each clan has a place on their land where their spirits return when they die. They have to protect these places so they won’t upset their ancestral beings. The men were custodians, tool-makers, and hunters. The women took care of the children and gathered and fixed their food. The Aborigines used the land wisely and knew when to harvest the many plants they ate. Dingoes guarded their homes and helped the men hunt. The Aborigines were also traders. There were trade routes across the country. They traded stones, shells, boomerangs, and ochre, a yellow paint pigment. Along these trade routes they would have exchange ceremonies where they traded, sang songs, and danced.

The Aborigines were totally isolated until 1788, when the English arrived. Their traditions included music, singing, dancing, and art. They did paintings on dried tree bark with natural black, brown, yellow, white, and sometimes red colours. The paintings were originally used for tribal ceremonies and then destroyed shortly after the ceremonies were finished. In the 1940’s, however, the paintings became popular with art collectors and they became more widely made and distributed, provided that there were enough eucalyptus trees in the area because they needed the bark from the tree to draw on.

At the time when Sydney Cove was settled by the British there were 300,000 Aborigines in Australia and about 250 different languages were spoken. Since they didn’t have a system of government, no permanent settlement, and no land ownership, the British made them move. Many of the Aborigines got smallpox, measles, venereal disease, influenza, whooping cough, pneumonia, and tuberculosis and died. European invaders cut down forests and brought foreign animals to Australia. By 1860 there were 20 million sheep in Australia. The cattle and sheep destroyed the Aborigines’ water holes. White settlers and Aborigines were at war for the land and water. By 1900, traditional Aboriginal society was still in small groups in central and northern Australia.

In the early 1900’s, laws to protect the Aborigines were passed in every state. They also made restrictions for the Aborigines on owning land, where they could live, and even to whom they could marry.

Finally in 1967 the Australians voted Aborigines real citizens. They were given the same rights as everyone else. Some people still argue that what the Europeans did was right and they call it a settlement? But majority of the population that do know the truth, know that what was done was wrong and un-humane and know it was an invasion to the indigenous society/culture.



Indeginous Australia: Invasion or Settlement? Essay

The 1967 referendum essay Essay

The 1967 referendum essay Essay.

The 1967 referendum is about the aboriginals trying to be counted in Australias census. They are trying to change their rights and freedom. The aboriginals were treated unfairly during this time and was discriminated against. There are many aspects to the referendum including the lead up to it, the context on which it was presented, the referendum and finally the impact it has on the aboriginals.

The 1967 referendum is about including Aboriginals people in the census and allowing the commonwealth to make laws for the aboriginals.

At the same time of the referendum, harold Holt was the prime minister and liberal was in power. Before the referendum, there was a question in the census to establish the number of full blood aborigines society viewed aboriginals as a disadvantage. Aboriginal were able to vote in 1962, however they have no potential power and although they are allowed to vote, they are not counted in the census. Australia became more aware of the discrimination and of what other countries think of them and they finally removed the discrimination from federal legislation.

At this time, the laws regarding the aboriginal is the responsibility of the states government. Consequently, if an aboriginal moved to another state, their rights might be gained or lost. Furthermore by the end of 1966, aboriginal people has been granted legal rights but not citizenship.

A boriginals tried to be counted as Australians and a referendum was done to change the australian convention. A referendum is a voting system, where people vote yes or no to something and a majority of vote will win. Therefore the federal council campaign for a yes vote in the referendumThe context of the referendum is quite good. The aboriginals were hopeful towards the referendum and has faith on getting counted in the census because they successfully gaines the rights to vote in previous times. They believe that their chances of winning this referendum is strong. In addition, the Government also wanted to change the Australian constitution as they were viewed badly by overseas countries, so citizens were encouraged to vote yes. A booklet is usually handed out, in prior to the referendum. Usually it has information on the yes or no vote case and the disadvantage and advantages of each; in this case only the yes was printed out. This shows how much they want to change the constitution.

The referendum took place on 27th may 1967. It read; do you approve the proposed law for the alteration of the constitution entitled – an act to alter the constitution so as to omit certain words relating to the people of the aboriginal race in any state as so that the aboriginals are to be counted in reckoning to the population? for the referendum to be a success a majority have to vote yes. The referendum achieved the change in the convention as 90.77% voted yes to the change. Although the states with the most number of aboriginal have the most no vote, the constitution was changed. However, even after the change, aboriginals still didnt get equal treatments as the state government still had power over the laws regarding the aboriginal in their state. The laws that were newly obtained from the constitution were not used until 10 years later.

The referendum didn’t really have much impact on australia or the aboriginal. It was seen as the beginning of a new contract for the aboriginal. They assumed by changing the constitution, all the discrimination would be taken away. But this was not the case; The rules of the aboriginals were still left to the individual states to decide. Furthermore, the government was still reluctant to acknowledge the aboriginals. However, there was some good things that come out from it. The thing that the aboriginal gained was additional money to fund for the improvement of their housing, health and education. Moreover, a council of aboriginal affairs were established. In 2008, 13th February is a significant day for the aboriginals, asutralian prime minister, john howward apologises for.

All in all, the referendum is a very important time for the aboriginals. However, although the referendum was a success there were not many changes that affected the aboriginals way of living.


Anderson, L. Low, A. Conroy, J and Keese, I. Retroactive 2 John Wiley and son Ltd Sydney 2000Attwood, Bain and Markus Andrew. The 1967 referendum: race, power,and australian constitution. (12/02/09)

The 1967 referendum essay Essay

The Men of the Open Spaces Essay

The Men of the Open Spaces Essay.

Identity is a very important part of being Australian; it is a feeling of being associated with a national group, defined by a common heritage, which may be based on many attributes, including race, territory, language and history. “The Men of the Open Spaces”, written be Will H. Ogilvie addresses these issues of Australian identity, constructing a powerful representation of the Australian ‘bush’ culture. The text uses past views of popular culture that are still ubiquitous today, to construct a sense of national ideology.

The text focuses on a very traditional concept of nationhood and constructs a stereotypical representation of Australian culture. This essay will explore this in relation to the discourses of gender, class and environment.

The text focuses on a predominantly masculine discourse by stereotyping the traditional bush ethos of Australia, while excluding females and other ethnic groups. The text uses the term “men with the sun-tanned faces” to reinforce the white masculine culture of Australian ideology. The poem defines Australians as strong, rugged and very hardworking.

“The men who have learnt to master the forces of fire and drought…and share the fight with fate” creates an image of the Aussie battler.

This representation of males is still extensively accepted in today’s society. The term ‘mate’, which is widely used throughout the text, has a strong masculine emphasis to the Australian culture, excluding women from the image of the typical Australian. The bush ethos constructed in the text and the term ‘mate’ is an intertextual reference to the ANZAC’s and reinforces the strong bonds (of mateship to protect each other) that are associated with Australians. The text highlights a predominantly masculine discourse that is present in Australian culture while excluding females and other ethnic groups.

The discourse of class focuses on the Australian culture and constructs Australia as an egalitarian society. The text is suggesting that Australians are very anti-authoritarian and like to have their freedom and individuality. This has intertextual reference to the first white settlement of Australian’s, where majority of the people where male convicts, who were under authority and had no freedom. Texts such as “the men who have stood together” and “holds a mate to his mate”, implies a value of mateship and unity which reinforces the egalitarian beliefs of Australians. Verse 4 constructs a royalty imagery of power and independence, showing a comparison of the Australian battler to what is considered an upper class image. It constructs Australians as stately and brave; standing alone in society.

The text “empire of his own” and “every saddle’s a throne” implies that the working class is the ruling class of society and money does not determine your status in society, rather how valuable your outlook in life is. Australian’s are strangers to airs and graces and scornful of power and pride. We live in a very classless society, and when we feel someone is a high achiever we show or feel contempt towards them, which is commonly referred to as the ‘tall poppy syndrome’. This idea is excluding wealthy or successful people in Australian society. Australian’s strong belief of egalitarianism and anti-authoritarianism are foregrounded with relationships to the discourse of class in society.

Australia’s environment is focused in the text and reinforces the traditional bush climate of Australia. Throughout the text, Will Ogilvie uses the term open spaces to create a pictorial image of the geographical landscape of Australia as very open and isolated. This has connotations of the historical context of bush and pioneering traditions of Australia. It also is an intertextual reference to Australia’s freedom. Verse two focuses on the harsh climate of Australia that predominantly men have had to endure (there is no reference to females in the text).

“Forces of fire and drought” and “the demon floods disaster” is an intertextual reference to the harsh, dry and cruel climate that are emblematic of the national identity. These texts, while creating a very dismal aura show that this is the true Australia that our egalitarian society has to endure. It also silences the urban areas of Australia, excluding the modern or materialistic aspects of Australia’s environment. The text constructed Australia as a very harsh and natural environment to highlight the relationship the environment has on the Australian identity.

“The Men of the Open Spaces”, focuses on a very traditional concept of nationhood, constructing a version of the Australian reality. The author constructs Australia as a predominantly white masculine society, while women and ethnic cultures are excluded. The text also looks into the traditional concepts of nationhood and constructs Australian’s as very egalitarian and anti-authoritarian society where everyone’s equal. This also has a relation to the term mate, which is used throughout the text to reinforce this unity and bond that Australians have.

The text excludes marginalised groups, foregrounding working class perspectives to create a pictorial image of the Australian identity. The poem also depicts Australia as a very open and isolated place and the harsh natural environment that ‘Aussie battlers’ have had to endure, which are all emblematic of the national identity. In conclusion, with the use of gaps and silences, traditional views and aspects of the Australian identity are constructed by reinforcing the values and beliefs that underpin the text.

The Men of the Open Spaces Essay

“Rabbit Proof Fence” by Phillip Noyce Essay

“Rabbit Proof Fence” by Phillip Noyce Essay.

The scene starts with indigenous music and a blank black background. The indigenous music comprehends the didgeridoo. The low pitch sets the atmosphere and the Aboriginal feel of the film. Then the prologue appears on the screen in contrasting white font, giving us the background knowledge of the movie.

Western Australia 1931100 years the Aboriginal have resisted invasion of their lands by white settlers.

Now, a special law, the Aborigines Act, controls their lives in every detail.

Mr. A. O. Neville, the Chief Protector of Aborigines, is the legal guardian of every Aborigine in the State of Western Australia.

He has the powerto remove any half-caste child from their family, from anywhere within the state.The first visual shot the audience sees is an extreme long shot of the opening landscape. It comes across as dots, so the audience is made to question whether this shot is an extreme close up, extreme long shot of the land or a painting.

This shot may symbolize Aboriginal paintings, how they are mostly formed of dots and patterns, it is a very clever yet interesting way to start off the film.

Simultaneously with the opening scene, Molly introduces the film in her native language. After a minute or so, the camera pans up to the sky, then focuses back to the ground. But this part of the land is darker, lifeless, and dull; it is a contrast to the opening natural environment. The audience can clearly see a fence cutting through the land, the rabbit proof fence. This signifies white people killing off the land, and likely the scar that the white have caused upon the Aborigines.

The next scene is a close shot of Molly. Molly is looking up, and the camera angle is from the bottom looking up. The sky is blue, and there is gentle wind, the music also becomes more. This shot of Molly is emphasizing her authority in the nature and the land she belongs to. Everything is calm, peaceful and relaxed. Then we see a shot of Molly and her Mother together. This shows the physical connection between Molly and her Mother. Also, in some ways defines A.O Nevilles job, to take the peace away from families, to rip them apart. Then the camera pans up to show us the spirit bird in the sky. The spirit bird symbolizes freedom, home and hope for Molly. And the spirit bird also represents the spiritual connection between Molly and the natural environment.

The next thing we see is the family, Molly, her mother, her sister Daisy, and her cousin Gracie, out hunting. This shows Molly learning to hunt, and somewhat proves her survival skills. A lot of people might question how a little girl would survive such a long journey, but this one scene answers most of their doubts. This scene also shows the unity of the family. This scene is then contrasted with the white man, looking up with a rifle. This is a symbol of violence; the music is also emphasized, with low notes.

“Rabbit Proof Fence” by Phillip Noyce Essay

Australia Essay

Australia Essay.

The downturn in the international financial crisis has compounded Australia’s tourism industry. Relevant departments recently predicted that Australia will be reduced by inbound tourists this year, more than 4% the past 20 years Australian tourism industry is facing the most severe blow.

Australian Bureau of Statistics data released ,2007-2008 Australian tourism contribution to gross domestic product was 3.6%, while this proportion was 4.7% previously. Therefore, the tourism industry downturn will inevitably affect Australia’s economy as a whole.

The largest source of tourism is the lack of trouble.

Australian Tourism and Transport Forum executive director 奥利维娅沃 thinking recently pointed out that the traditional source countries as Australia and the tourism industry of the United States, Britain, Japan and South Korea economy continues to decline, resulting in significantly reduced visitors to Australia, the situation in the future may continue to deteriorate. According to relevant departments of Australia forecasts, in addition to visitors from New Zealand will increase in times of adversity, the next six months, tourists from other countries will be the number of tourists fell by double-digit rates.

Australia’s tourism industry suffered a downturn has begun to transfer to the related industries. According to statistics, about 48.3 million people in the Australian tourism practitioners, but this number is shrinking. So far, Australia’s hotels, motels, apartments and other services have been cut more than 3,000 jobs, 63% of the Australian main tourist services may be further layoffs.

Solidarity of the aviation industry and tourism will naturally be immune. Australia and Australia Airlines 14 announced, as expected full-year profit will be significantly lower than previously expected, the company will cut as many as 1,750 jobs.

Qantas also said the same day, has been postponed to buy 4 Airbus A380 and 12 other aircraft. Qantas chief executive Alan Joyce said Qantas “no choice”, only to make large adjustments to ensure that the company weather the storm. He also said that if economic conditions continue to deteriorate, the company may be further layoffs.

Some economists believe that Qantas job cuts and other measures related businesses will have a negative impact on the Australian economy. However, Australian Treasurer Huaiensiwang said the Australian government’s economic stimulus plan is to gradually play a buffer role.

Immediate challenge for the Australian Tourism Export Council head 马特欣格蒂 that the Australian tourism industry has experienced many times before the fight, but later achieved a rapid recovery. He said he believed “a rainbow after the storm.”

Australia’s tourism resources are very rich, exotic natural beauty, the unique ecological environment, cultural diversity and contrast the developed economy is the basic condition for the rapid development of tourism. (A) of the inbound tourism

1968 Australia received only 24 million foreign tourists, 81 million U.S. dollars, tourism foreign exchange earnings. Into the 90’s, the Australian economy each year for the tourism industry to bring the output value of more than 200 million Australian dollars, worth of 80 billion Australian dollars. Number of Foreign Tourists in 1996 reached 416.? 50000 visits, tourism, foreign exchange 87. 0.3 billion U.S. dollars, tourism foreign exchange earnings has more than wool, coal, iron ore and wheat, and other traditional export products, became the country’s fastest growing, most foreign exchange industry.

According to the World Tourism Organization, Australia in 1998 a world where international tourism receipts, international tourists all over the continents of the world, Japan has become the largest source country of Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Britain and continental Europe, its traditional source markets. In recent years, tourists from China and Korea’s rapid growth. Purpose of travel to the main tourist resort, followed by visiting friends and relatives and business travel. (B) Outbound Tourism

Australia’s rapid economic development after World War II one of the countries? Per capita GDP in 1997 to $ 20,540 of the world high-income areas. 1990 Australian tourists going abroad for the first time broke the 200 million people in 1996 to 273.2 million overseas tourist arrivals. According to the World Tourism Organization, Australia study tour in 1991, the total expenditure reached 38. 800 million U.S. dollars, foreign travel destination ranks No. 1 in Asia, especially Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines and mainland China and other areas, and this is Oceania, Europe and North America also followed suit. (C) of the domestic tourism

Tourism has become Australia’s an important part of people’s lives, the domestic tourists in 1990 reached 58.446 million people, equivalent to the total population of more than 3 times, entertaining vacation spot. According to statistics, vacation and pleasure trips accounted for 42%, 29% visiting friends, meeting business accounted for 15%; the main way to travel with their drive to account for 3 / 4, the time spent traveling an average of 4.? 6 days. In the summer in Australia in January this year, every Christmas, New Year, but also a time when the school summer holidays, the Friends have brought people to his family or vacation, the formation of the annual peak travel. 7-8 two months in winter, is the low season

In the economic crisis environment, still won the Australian Hotels recognized international tourists. According to the Global Online Travel Group the data presented, there are more this year than last year, Australia’s most popular hotel into the Global 1000 list of hotels. The third consecutive year, Expedia Insiders Select List will be in Adelaide Majestic Roof Garden Hotel named best hotel in Australia, and the 24th highest in the world.

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Australia Essay