Should Human Cloning Be Allowed? Essay

Should Human Cloning Be Allowed? Essay.

Cloning in general has been a rising debated issue across the globe since before Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1996.The success of being able to clone animal brought scientists to wonder about a more challenging task, cloning humans. This challenging task is morally wrong and should not be stood for. However, some people seem not to realize the negative aspects that cloning would bring into a world which is already nuisance. We cannot deny that cloning may help in saving one’s life or making someone’s life better but will it cause nuisance to the society with the misuse of the cloning process?

First of all, the advantage of cloning is this process provide organs for transplantation where if vital organ in human body is cloned and served as a backup system.

The cloned body parts like heart, lungs liver and many more could be a lifesaver. Furthermore, when the organ failed to function well, it may be replaced with the cloned organs.

Moreover, the doctors can clone identical organs like kidney so that the patient will not face risk of rejection of the kidney after operation. Thus, it will be safer and directly benefit the patients. In the case of accident victims, or transplant patients, obtaining the needed tissues, or organ parts in a timely manner can mean the difference between life and death. In this situation, the ability of being able to produce needed tissue materials and organs in the lab would provide a timely source of treatment. In short, cloning helps to save one’s life.

Recently, the success rate of current infertility treatments is very low. Further, the couple has to go through tormenting procedures with a small chance of getting a child. The advent of cloning technology will make it possible for infertile couples to have child than ever before where the cloned embryos are implanted into their bodies. This method, while providing couples with the chance to conceive, and also the capability to determine the gender of an embryo, which would make it possible to select which embryo lives and which one dies depending on its gender. Thus, cloning may help to eliminate the mental and physical pains among the infertile couples.

Besides that, cloning has the ability to determine the health of an infant. The process of cloning can eliminate all the worrying regarding the child’s health. Scientist can alter the genes to ensure a healthy child. For example, if a mother has given birth to two children which suffered from Down’s syndrome. Doctors can manipulate and balance out the number of chromosomes in the embryo to give the mother a normal and healthy child. Through the cloning process, parents can also prevent their child from inheriting their sickness that their child might high risk of inheriting it. Thus, the cloning process might help in ensuring younger generation from inheriting unwanted genes from their parents.

In a nutshell, I strongly feel that cloning should not be banned from the society as this process has contribute lots of advantages to the society and provide a better life for the future generations. Every coin has two sides, cloning has its flip side too. Nevertheless, we cannot deny that cloning might cause nuisances to the society if it is misused by other irresponsible homo sapiens for their own benefit. However if it is used in an appropriate manner, it will contribute lots of pros to the world.

Should Human Cloning Be Allowed? Essay

Bone Forensic Anthropologists Essay

Bone Forensic Anthropologists Essay.

1 How did your findings compare to the rest of your team and to the actual data provided by your teacher? What could account for any variation?

2 Why do you think the pelvis is often the first bone forensic anthropologists look to in determining sex from skeletal remains? The pelvis is the first bone anthropologist look at because a male can not fit a human head through their pelvis. A female (the one that is pregnant) can fit a babies head through her pelvis because its wide enough and doesnt have anything blocking where the baby comes out at.

3 The developmental occurrences you used to determine age stopped at age 25. What are other clues a forensic anthropologist may be able to use to determine age if the bones belong to a person over age 25? Determining the age of a sub-adult skeleton is examination of the teeth and jaw by a forensic anthropologist. However, a comparative analysis may be made using the skull sutures and epiphyseal fusion in the young-adult skeleton.

Sutures are the zigzag “seams” where the bones of the skull meet. Endocranial sutures (inside the skull) are more reliable as an aging method than is ectocranial suture analysis.

4 What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative evidence? Explain how both types of measurements played a role in this activity. Quantitative data Observations that do not involve numbers. These observations were definitely used in this activity when we obsered things like “heart-shaped vs. round pelvis” or “blunt vs. sharp upper eye sockets. Quantitative observations are numerical observations. We also used these in this activity for measurements on the sub-pubic angle, the length of leg and arm bones, the nasal index, etc.

5 To analyze the long bones, the femur and the humerus, you looked at bone markings such as condyles, tuberosities and trochanters. Look back at the photographs and at the bone markings on your Maniken®. How would you describe these markings in your own words? Which features do you think separate each class of markings from the others?

1. In this activity, you were able to analyze skeletal remains in order to determine four particular traits of an individual. In a real life situation, scientists could provide a more detailed description of the individual based on additional information that can be acquired from the bones of this person. Describe at least two other pieces of information you could possibly learn from bone. Make sure to provide a specific example for each piece of information.

Bone Forensic Anthropologists Essay

Dealing with the Disintegration of Central Control Essay

Dealing with the Disintegration of Central Control Essay.

1. What hormonal problem could be causing these symptoms?

Eric’s symptoms include: large hands and feet, low thyroid activity, low cortisone levels, low testosterone levels, high growth hormone levels, and swelling in his right knee. Since most of Eric’s symptoms are hormonal, he is clearly having an endocrine gland problem. Cortisone, testosterone, and growth hormone levels are being affected, it is likely that he his having a hormonal problem within his anterior pituitary gland, because all three of these hormones are regulated by a horomone that this gland secretes.

Cortisone is controlled by ACTH, testosterone by LH and FSH, and growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland itself. Not to mention, the thyroid is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone, which is also released by the anterior pituitary gland. 2. Why would joint damage be associated with rapid growth and low testosterone levels?

Rapid growth can lead to joint damage as the accelerated bone growth disrupts the supply of blood to cartilage.

Joint damage can also be caused by low testosterone levels. Low testosterone levels play a role in a joint disorder called osteoarthritis.

Part 2:
1. Should Dr. Kidd tell Eric that he is probably sterile? Why would he be sterile?

Yes, Dr. Kidd should tell Eric that he is probably sterile. Eric could potentially be sterile due to the low levels of testosterone. Low testosterone levels lead to a low sperm count, leading to being sterile. 2. Is there anything that they could try to do to stimulate spermatogenesis? Why is the absence of facial hair important?

Eric could try follicle stimulating hormone in order stimulate spermatogenesis. The absence of facial hair is important because it may be related to a lack of gonadal stimulant which causes the condition called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which results in a decrease or loss of bodily hair. This can also affect development at puberty, resulting in underdeveloped testicles, which once again affects fertility.

Part 3:
1. Why was he growing facial hair?

Eric is now growing facial hair due to the the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that he had injected. hCG acts like FSH and LH and triggers a variety of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair. 2. Why did he need jaw surgery?

Eric needed jaw surgery because although having too much growth hormone in childhood causes gigantism, later on in adolescence results in acromegaly. Acromegaly is marked by differential growth; bones that have aleady fused do not grow, but other parts in the body may continue to do so. Acromegaly is common in areas such as the hands, feet, and jaw. As a result, Eric’s lower jaw grew, but his upper jaw did not, which caused a misalighnment.

Part 4:
1. Why are his kidneys so active at night?

Eric’s kidneys are so active at night because he doesn’t make enough of the antiduretic hormone. 2. What hormone could be involved? (unpredictable shock responces) Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands, such as steroids could be involved in causing unpredictable shock responces. 3. If the pituitary is so important, and if Eric is not getting replacements of hormones the pituitary makes (except for ADH), why isn’t he dead?

Eric isn’t dead because you can live without a pituitary, so long as you are on replacement hormones for those organs controlled by the pituitary.

Dealing with the Disintegration of Central Control Essay

The pathway of air in amphibians, birds, fish, and humans. Essay

The pathway of air in amphibians, birds, fish, and humans. Essay.

How are they alike, and different? Is one more efficient than another? Gills/Lungs?HumansIn humans air travels into the mouth, or nose, and into the nasal cavity, followed by pharynx. The pharynx is where food and air cross paths. The pharynx increases the chance of choking, but also allows breathing when exercising and respiration though the mouth, if the nose is closed. Next, epiglottis opens allowing air to move into the glottis, and pass the larynx (voice box). After this air makes its way into the trachea which cleans the air with cilia.

The cilia move in the trachea and remove viruses, dust, or other unwanted material by trapping it in mucus.

The mucus is than moved up the trachea into the pharynx where it is sent to the digestive system. The trachea then leads into two different routes, called the bronchi. The bronchi than branches out into many different passages called the bronchioles. The bronchioles is attached to alveoli which is surrounded by capillaries.

The alveoli diffuse oxygen into the capillaries who take it to cells that needs it. Humans breath in with the help of the diaphragm. When the diaphragm drops, the muscles and ribs contract which causes a negative pressure in the lungs and thoracic cavity, causing air to move into the lungs. When the ribs return to their original position, and the muscle and lungs relax, air is forced out of the lungs. As air travels into the nose, and into the lungs, air is moistened, and warmed up by the body.

FishCompared to terrestrial animals fish are faced with a challenge during respiration. The challenge is how to get enough oxygen to sustain life. Water contains a fraction of oxygen compared to air. Fish also use 25 percent of their energy just to breath. Fish obtain water and oxygen though their gills. In order to open their gills, fish open their mouth, causing the opercula to close, which forces the gills to open. When the gills are open water is allowed into the respiratory system. When the fish wants to close its gills it will close its mouth, which opens the opercula and closes the gills. On the outside of the gills arches, the gills are composed of filaments that are organized into lamellae.

These lamellae have capillaries in them to absorb the oxygen from the water. The direction of the blood is opposite to the direction of the water (this is also called countercurrent). Blood is flowing in the opposite direction so it can absorb most of the oxygen, that is in the water. If the blood were to move with the water an equilibrium point may be reached and only half the oxygen would be absorbed. The countercurrent flow allows the fish to absorb 80 to 90 percent of oxygen in the water.

Respiration is similar in both fish and humans in a few ways. First, both humans and fish need moist air. Second, they both have capillaries on a type of air sac that absorbs oxygen by diffusion.

There are also many differences in the respiration between a human and a fish. First, humans use lungs, and fish use gills. Human air sacs are called alveoli, and fish air sacs are called lamellae. Fish cannot make their air moist, unlike humans. Fish use countercurrent in order to absorb oxygen and absorb 80 to 90 percent of oxygen in the air, while dont use countercurrent and humans absorb 25 percent.

Lungs are more efficient than gills, because they absorb more oxygen, and use less energy. (air as more oxygen than water does) Lungs need 1 to 2 percent of the energy in an organism, while gills need 25 percent.


Amphibians go though respiration in two different ways. The air moves down the mouth, or nostrils, into the trachea, which divides into two bronchi, followed by lungs. Most amphibians to some extent breath though their skin, which is possible because of the presence of mucus produced by glands on the surface of the body. During the winter amphibians burrow into the mud, and all respiration occurs though the skin. Amphibians use positive pressure to move air into the body. They close their nostrils and drop the floor of the mouth which pushes air into the lungs.

There are many similarities between Amphibians and Humans, such as they both have trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Humans and Amphibians also breath by using negative pressure. The difference between human and amphibian respiration is that amphibians can breath though their skin. Amphibians close their nostrils, and drop the floor of their mouth, to move air into the lungs. Humans drop the diaphragm and contract muscles.

In terms of efficacy the human respiratory system is better. The respiratory system of the frog relies a lot on its environment. Since most of the respiration occurs though the skin, amphibian must be in a moist and damp place. An animal with lungs will never have to worry about the environment when it comes to its respiratory system.

BirdsAir travels though the nares (nostrils), into the nasal cavity, though the larynx and into the trachea. Air than arrives at the syrinx, which is the point just before the tracheadivides into two. Below the syrinx, the trachea splits into two different passage ways. The air travels though the trachea and into the posterior air sacs. Than a small amount of air will pass through the caudal air sacs to the lungs. Birds have a unusual breathing pattern; they will inhale 2 times and exhale 2 times for air to enter and exist the body. During the first exhalation the air moves from the posterior air sacs though the ventrobronchi and dorsobronchi into the lungs. The dorsobronchi is further divided into air capillaries. Blood capillaries flow though the air capillaries and oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.

When the bird inhales the second time the air moves into the cranial air sacs. On the second exhalation the air moves though the cranial air sacs, though the syrinx into the trachea, larynx, though he nasal cavity, and out of the nostril. Birds dont have a diaphragm, so air is moved in and out because of pressure changes in the air sacs Muscle that is located in the chest cause the sternum to be pushed outwards. This creates a negative pressure in the air sacs, which causes air to enter the respiratory systemThere are many similarities between birds and humans. Both humans and birds have nostrils, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, and lungs. Humans and birds inhale and exhale because of negative pressure. Birds and humans have blood capillaries which exchange gases from a sac like structure.

Like similarities there are many differences between birds and humans. First, Birds have syrinx and air sacs and humans do not. Birds must inhale and exhale two times to move air in and out of the body. Air moves though more chambers in a bird than a human. Birds contract muscle and move sternum to breath, and humans move diaphragm, and contract ribs and muscles to breath. Oxygen enters the circulatory system though air capillaries in birds, and alveoli in humans.

The respiratory system in humans is much more efficient than birds. Bird respiratory system is not only slower, but takes more time. By the time a human takes in and releases air two times, a bird has only done it once.

Gill or Lungs?When comparing gills and lungs, lungs are the more efficient organ. Gills can absorb 80 to 90 percent of oxygen from water, but use 25 percent of the organisms energy. This may sound like gills extract a high amount of oxygen, but when you compare water and air with the same volume, you will find that water has 3 percent of the oxygen that is in air. Compared to gills, lungs absorb 25 percent oxygen from the air. This means that lungs absorb more air than gills. Animals with lungs only use 1 to 2 percent of their energy in respiration. In conclusion lungs are more efficient than gills.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ap biology 3rd Edition by Philip E. Pack, Ph.D.

Barron’s AP Biology 2nd Edition by Deborah T. Goldberg, M.S.

Biology 6th Edition by Sylvia S. Mader

The pathway of air in amphibians, birds, fish, and humans. Essay

Xylem and phloem Essay

Xylem and phloem Essay.

Plants have two separate transport systems. A network of xylem vessels transports water and mineral ions from the roots to all other parts of the plant. Phloem tubes transport food made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. Neither of these systems has a pump, this is because they are not as active as animals and do not need such rapid supplies of food. Neither xylem nor phloem transports oxygen as oxygen gets to a plants cell by diffusion.

Both stems and roots contain xylem vessels and phloem tubes. In a stem these are grouped into vascular bundles arranged in a ring. In a root these are arranged in the centre forming a structure called the stele.

Xylem tissue has the dual functions of support and transport. It contains several different types of cells these are vessel elements, traceids, fibres and parenchyma cells. In contrast to this phloem tissue is living and comprises of sieve tubes, phloem parenchyma (also known as companion cells) and phloem fibres.

In the xylem tissue the vessel elements and tracheids are the cells that are involved with the transport of water. Fibres are elongated with lignified walls that help to support the plant. They are dead cells; they have no living contents at all. Parenchyma cells are plant cells they have unthickened cellulose cell walls and contain all the organelles you would expect to see. However the parenchyma cells in xylem tissue do not usually have chloroplasts as they are not exposed to light. They can vary in shape, however most of them are isodiametric that is approximetly the same size in all directions.

In contrast in the phloem, the sieve tubes are made up of many elongated sieve elements, joined end to end vertically to form a continuous column- this also has all the organelles you would expect to see- such as a cellulose cell wall and a plasma membrane. However there is only a small amount of cytoplasm, there is no nucleus or ribosomes in the sieve tube. Each sieve element has at least one companion cell lying close beside it. Companion cells have the structure of a normal plant cell however the number of mitochondria and ribosomes is larger than normal and the cells are metabollically very active.

In the xylem, vessels are made up of many elongated vessel elements arranged end to end. Each began as a normal plant cell in whose wall a substance called lignin was laid down. Lignin is a very hard, strong substance, which is impermeable to water. As it built up around the cell, the contents of the cell died, leaving a completely empty space or lumen. However in several parts of the original cell walls, where groups of plasmodesmata were no lignin were laid down. These non-lignin areas can be seen as gaps in the thick walls of the xylem vessels, and are called pits. Pits are not open pores; they are crossed by permeable, unthickened cellulose cell wall.

The end walls of neighbouring vessel elements break down completely, to form a continuous tube running through the plant. This long, non living tube is a xylem vessel. Tracheids like vessel elements are dead cells with lignified walls, but they do not have open ends they are elongated cells with tapering ends. They have pits in their walls so water can pass from one tracheid to the next.

The evaporation of water from plants is called transpiration. When the water reaches the top of the xylem vessels it goes into the leaves. Leaves contain large air spaces because the cells in the mesophyll (middle leaf) layer are not tightly packed. The walls of the mesophyll cells are wet and some of this water evaporates into the air spaces, so that the air inside the leaf is usually saturated with water vapour. The air in the internal spaces of the leaf has direct contact with the air outside the leaf, through small pores or stomata. If there is a water potential gradient between the air inside the leaf and the air outside, then water vapour will diffuse out of the cell down this gradient. The gas diffuses out through the air spaces and stomata into the air. This loss of water vapour from the leaves of a plant is called transpiration.

As water evaporates from the cell walls of mesophyll cells, more water is drawn into them to replace it. The source of this water is the xylem vessels in the leaf. Water constantly moves out of these vessels, down a water potential gradient either into the mesophyll cells or along their cell walls. The removal of water from the top of xylem reduces the hydrostatic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure at the top of the xylem vessel becomes lower than the pressure at the bottom. This pressure difference causes water to move up the xylem vessels, causing a pressure difference between the top and bottom. The water in the xylem vessels is under tension; its walls may collapse inwards as a result of the pressure differences. Xylem vessels have strong lignified walls to stop them from collapsing in this way.

The movement of water up through xylem vessels is by mass flow. This means that all the water molecules move together, as a body of liquid.

In contrast to the structure of the xylem vessels, the sieve tubes in the phloem have end walls which when next to each other a sieve plate is formed. This is made up of the walls of both elements, perforated by large pores. Companion cells are closely associated with their neighbouring sieve elements. Numerous plasmodesmata pass through their cell walls, making direct contact between the cytoplasms of the companion cell and sieve element. The liquid inside the phloem sieve tubes is called phloem sap containing sucrose, potassium ions, amino acids, chloride ions, phosphate ions, magnesium ions, sodium ions, ATP, nitrate ions and plant group substances e.g. auxin and cytokinin.

Translocation is the term used to describe the transport of soluble organic substances within a plant. These are substances which the plant itself has made, for example sugars made by photosynthesis in the leaves, these substances are called assimilates. Assimilates are transported in phloem tissue, along with several other types of cells including companion cells, parenchyma and fibres. Phloem sap, like the contents of xylem vessels moves by mass flow.

However whereas in xylem vessels differences in pressures are produced by a water potential gradient between the soil and the air, requiring no energy input from the plant, this is not so in phloem transport. To create the pressure differences needed for mass flow in phloem, the plant has to use energy. Phloem transport can therefore be considered an active process, in contrast to the passive transport in xylem.

The pressure difference is produced by active loading of sucrose into the sieve elements at the place from which sucrose is to be transported. This is usually in a photosynthesising leaf. As sucrose is loaded onto the sieve element, this decreases the water potential in the sap inside it. Therefore water follows the sucrose into the sieve element, moving down a water potential gradient by osmosis.

There are several similarities with the transport of water, in each case liquid moves by mass flow along a pressure gradient, through tubes formed by cells stacked end to end.

Unlike water transport through xylem, which occurs through dead xylem vessels, translocation through phloem sieve tubes involved active loading of sucrose at sources, thus requiring living cells.

Xylem vessels have lignified cell walls, whereas phloem tubes do not. The presence of lignin in a cell wall prevents the movement of water and solutes across it, and so kills the cell. This does not matter in xylem, as xylem vessels do not need to be alive; indeed, it is a positive advantage to have an entirely empty tube through which water can flow unimpeded and the dead xylem vessels with their strong walls also support the plant. Sieve tubes however must remain alive, and so no lignin is deposited in their cellulose cell walls.

The end wall of xylem elements disappear completely, whereas those of phloem sieve elements form sieve plates. These sieve plates probably act as supporting structures to prevent the phloem sieve tube collapsing; xylem already has sufficient support provided by its lignified walls. The sieve plates also allow the phloem to seal itself up rapidly if damaged, for example by a grazing herbivore, rather as a blood vessel in an animal is sealed by clotting.

Phloem sap has a high turgor pressure because of its high solute content, and would leak out rapidly if the holes in the sieve plate were not quickly sealed. Moreover, phloem sap contains valuable substances such as sucrose, which the plant cannot afford to lose in large quantity. The “clotting” of phloem sap may also help to prevent the entry of micro-organisms which might feed on the nutritious sap or cause disease.

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Xylem and phloem Essay

The effects of being short Essay

The effects of being short Essay.

“I wish I were taller” is the thought that I have when all my friends are towering over me and when things are out of my reach. Even thought I am still in the stage of adolescent, I knew I am destined to be short like all of my family members. I used to be frustrated with my height, however, as I grow up, mentally, I realize the benefits of being short exceed the disadvantages.

Since short peoples tend to have short arms and legs, the obvious disadvantage of being short is the inability to get a thing that is out of reach.

For example, I have to stand on a chair to get an item from the top of a cabinet. However, the most daunting effect of being short is that short people cannot see anything other than people’s backs in the midst of tall people. They are hard to find in a crowd since they are short and are not easy to spot like finding a 5-foot person in a huge 6-foot corns field.

Being short also causes the short people to feel less dignified since the tall people look “down” upon the short people while the short people have to look “up” to them. Not only that, short people could not run as fast as the tall people because short people have shorter legs. A pair of short legs could also cause troublesome to drive a car because short people’s leg might not be long enough to reach the pedals or body too short to see beyond the wheel. When I drive, I have to adjust the seat very near to the wheel and heighten the seat so that I could see better.

It’s seem that there are a lot of bad effects for being short, but there are a lot of good advantages as well. Especially for short women, the short peoples have the power to make tall peoples feel like they are abnormal and are giants. The short females can make themselves look tall if they wanted but tall people cannot shorten their height. For example, I can wear cute little high heels while my tall friend could not because she is already tall enough. Also, since short people have short legs and arms, they take up less leg and arm space and can hide very well in a small place such as kitchen cabinet or behind a pile of clothes.

The best thing of being short is that short people can get to be a kid every Halloween and nobody would know. They would not be denied of candies and have more fun than tall people who would be considered an adult and wouldn’t be able to go trick or treat. Being a short girl like I am have a major advantage over the tall girls because I don’t have to worry about getting a boyfriend who is taller than I am. Also, short peoples wear less amount of clothing since they don’t have a long arms or legs. In addition, short people would go through a wood easily because they don’t have to push away branches that are bothering the tall people’s head.

Being a five feet tall girl, I am considered as a short person but with advantages surpass the disadvantages of being short. Even thought I still wish I were a little taller, I learn not to let my height bother me and love the person that I am, no matter what.

The effects of being short Essay