Revolutionary Mothers Essay

Revolutionary Mothers Essay.

The American Revolution was a fight for independence from England. The war shows an assembly of the thirteen colonies and more importantly thousands of Americans. This included a variety of races, and gender. However, in Revolutionary Mothers author, Carol Berkin, mentions that women’s accomplishments during the conflict are often forgotten. Throughout the novel Berkin describes many events that showcase women’s efforts during the war. In the American Revolution women contributions were critical and essentially led to the successful outcome of the war.

The revolution in America took place for several different reasons. Out of the most significant, one can be considered the taxations on certain goods. The extreme disagreement with these taxes led to boycotts throughout the colonies. American women were one of the early protesters; the boycotts were efficient because women were a large portion of consumers (Berkin 14). The boycott of the stamp act largely involved women. Berkin claims, “In New York City a group of brides-to-be said no to their fiancés, putting a public notice in the local newspaper that they would not marry men who applied for a stamped marriage license” (14).

From this example it is evident that women were very involved. Giving up marriage because they refused to pay a British tax shows some women were very devoted. While the revolution took place husbands and older male household members were most likely off fighting in the war. With many of the tasks normally completed by males not being completed, women began to takes these chores, in addition to their own. These jobs varied; some included taking care of children, working in shops, and working on harbors (Berkin 31). Women taking on men’s jobs during the war were great contributions to the success of the war. Without the extra support from females at home everything would have been thrown out of balance. The production of certain goods would not have existed without the hard work at home. Basically, women during the revolution who had determination and involvement in a household can be considered one of the largest contributions to the war.

In American in the 1700s it was uncommon for women to join battles or war. Men were thought to protect women from violence and women were to support men with food, and etc. However, some females thought it was necessary to serve their country by joining the military. Others joined to stay close to their husbands. These women would dress up like men and attempt to enlist in the continental army. Some would succeed while others would be discovered and therefore punished. Nevertheless, women who did make it through the enlisting process and through the war were usually rewarded with payment, or appreciation (Berkin 60).

During war time in the American Revolution there were many different jobs, on and off the battle field, that were connected to the continental army. Berkin mentions, “cooks, seamstresses, washerwomen, and nurses” (58). The people who did these tasks were considered camp followers. Women were very useful for these jobs because they had experience. Men had never really learned household tasks because they were thought of as women’s jobs. “…yet men accustomed to their mothers, sisters, or wives doing the laundry balked at performing this traditionally female chore” (Berkin 56). On the other hand, many men did work as nurses, or doctors for the army. Although, when the realization that diseases and contaminants were spreading through the troops, the military set out for more nurses (Berkin 58). This gave women the opportunity to join and help out. The contributions women carried out as camp followers were highly vital to the continental army and the revolution.

The American Revolution is learned about all throughout the world and is usually described through one perspective. In popular culture the contributions women made during this war are frequently neglected. There are many theories for why this occurs. During the 1700s white men were usually the educated and informed people in America. As a result they are the individuals writing documents, biographies, essays, and more. Revolutionary stories were most like recorded by men and during that time men were thought of as superior to women. These records therefore likely had achievements by men. The future of America has more information, during the revolutionary period, regarding men rather than women. As for now, with more information on women’s contribution towards the revolution, textbook creators are so used to the one sided perspective that they do not care for the other side, or they feel the roles were insignificant.

Revolutionary Mothers describes what women went through during the American Revolution. It shows that everyone, male and female, participated or was affected by the war in some way. Displaying all sides of the conflict the novel alters the usual way of viewing the revolution. By comparing it to the common perspective it demonstrates that accepted history was written with a male bias. It was written in 1700s male perspective because they were the one who were generally educated and it was difficult for women to have documents published.

Women who participated in the American Revolution, through a variety of means, deserve the honor and recognition that everyone else received. Their contributions were just as important to the success and result of the war. Ultimately the disregard of a clear and full perspective on history is a problem and could have negative effects in the future.

Works Cited
Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Print.

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Revolutionary Mothers Essay

British imperial policy between 1763 and 1776 Essay

British imperial policy between 1763 and 1776 Essay.

Analyze the ways in which British imperial policies between 1763 and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values.

By 1763, the American colonies were becoming increasily divided from Britain. Over the next 13 years, new imperial policies led the colonies to Revolution and Independence. From 1763 and 1776 Britain began to enforce new taxes and establish restriction on colonial life; these changes led the colonies to establish new values and later to the Declaration of Independence from Britain.

After the French and Indians War England tries to avoid wars, so in 1763 they sign the Proclamation Act, in which is written that the colonist should not settle on western side of the Appalachian mountains and the Indians should not go eastward, to create a useful barrier to keep them separated.

This is seen by the colonist as an offence to their expansion and economic growth, but there is no real reaction from the colonies. The silence continues for the next few Act, which increase taxes on things of primary necessity as sugar and molasses.

But the disagreement led some people, as John Adams or Benjamin Franklin, to try to find a solution, until the Stamp Act in1765 is imposed and the colonist start to protest. They decided to stop buying English goods, and some organized a secret society, the Sons of Liberty, to terrorize the agents of the British who were trying to take taxes. Colonist feared to lose every right of freeborn Englishmen, and that they would simply be slaves of the Parliament.

In addition in 1765 England passed the Quarting Act, which imposed to the colonies to host and provide with what they wanted any soldier that needed a place to stay. England thought that this was a good way to keep the colonies controlled and don’t spend more money. The colonies were so angry, they couldn’t accept that all their work would be spent by others, that they tried to make a new Glorious Revolution. As a response, England in 1766 repeal the Sugar and Stamp Acts. However to remember who had the control, England sign the Declaratory Act, in which was said that the Parliament

British imperial policy between 1763 and 1776 Essay

Loyalist or a Patriot Essay

Loyalist or a Patriot Essay.

In the eighteenth century, during the American Revolutionary War, there were two opposing sides fighting against each other, the Patriots and the Loyalists. The Patriots rebelled against the British control, while the Loyalists, also known as “Tories” to the Patriots, remained loyal to the British crown. They chose to support the authority of the king rather than the power of the Parliament. Both driving forces had many golden opportunities to win the American Revolutionary War, but the Loyalists were unable to take advantage of their chances and that is why the war was won by the Americans and not the British.

The Patriots had many benefits and they knew how to take advantage of them as well. The Patriots were mainly fighting in the Revolution for political independence, cultural integrity, and for the protection of their land and property. They had the advantage of fighting on their own grounds and also had a vast militia to cover their whole territory. At the end, with the help of colonial army generals and considerable experience in the colonial the Patriot affairs proved to be formidable.

On the other hand there were the Loyalists, who believed they could win the war for England, unfortunately for them that this did not happen. From the beginning, Loyalists opposed the war because they did not want America to get its independence and depend on Britain for various needs. Although the British had the worlds best equipped and the most disciplined army, they were not as well prepared to fight compared to the Patriots army, which might have been a key factor in the British losing the war. The British were also unused to the American land, knowing this, the Patriots used it to their advantage. However, the most significant aspect was that the British greatly underestimated the capacity of Americans to fight.

Knowing the success of each side, choosing the Patriots would be the most sensible thing do. They were familiar with their own land, had a large militia and the support of Americans such as John Adams, Mary Ludwig Hays (Molly Pitcher), and many other men and women. Patriots wanted to declare their country independent from the rest of the countries and the Loyalists did not want this to happen. Loyalists who continued to support the British crown were considered traitors to Patriots who turned again their citizens and collaborated with a foreign army. In the end, the Patriots hard work paid off with the use of strategy and a little luck. America finally got its independence.

Loyalist or a Patriot Essay

The Disney’s America Theme Park Essay

The Disney’s America Theme Park Essay.

Disney wanted to create a place that would bring everyone together, ironically it created division within the state because of the lack of research on public opinion. Disney is known for its family-oriented multi-billion dollar theme parks. They have built an empire off of diversity, history, unforgettable characters and fun. So why wouldn’t an American-theme theme park work in one the original thirteen states?

Virginia is as American as apple-pie. Many of our found fathers and other politicians made this state their home.

Many debates and decisions that would shape our country were made here. Virginia played vital roles in both the American Revolution and the Civil War, with Richmond, Va. Being named the capital of the Confederacy. Virginia has become entrenched with American history, so one would believe that this state would have been perfect for Disney’s America theme park. But there was a big problem.

Considering we are a democracy and try to be as politically correct as possible, we sometimes fail to use some of our basic principles.

One of the issues was lack of communication with the public. Disney failed to speak with the local community to get a feel of how they felt with having such huge endeavor fall into their lap before making announcements to even create the park in their historical city. Had they reached a understanding by researching beforehand, perhaps there wouldn’t have been so much objection.

Another issue with location was the fact that it was going to be so close to a historical landmark, the Manassas Battlefield Park, only added fuel to the fire. Locals were feeling alienated even with the name of the park, Disney’s America. Not only were taking land and desecrating historical landmarks, but taking our America and claiming it. The straw that broke the camel’s back, was giving unrealistic time tables and telling the public, and insinuate that they way history was being taught was monotonous.

Public opinion can weigh heavy on business deals. In the aviation industry, public opinion weighed as heavy as an elephant when potential buyers of business jets were apprehensive to purchase these jets due to public opinion. “Vincent, the speaker at Tuesday’s meeting of the Wichita Aero Club, said that in his surveys of business jet owners and operators, 4 percent cited public opinion as a reason they might not buy a new aircraft,”(McCoy). Many taxpayers believe that the wealthy owners of these jets were getting hefty tax breaks on what they felt was luxury purchases.

The lack of research on public opinion, hindered the construction of the theme park. Disney didn’t take the time to woo the public into the idea. Instead they appealed to the politicians and came across as bulldozing their agenda and not truly and genuinely celebrating the history of America. Involving the community to embrace your project is challenging, but it worth it to have them behind you.


Darden University of Virgina. (2014). The Third Battle of Bull Run the Disney’s America Theme Park (B). Retrieved from: McCoy, Daniel. (2014). Concern about public opinion of business jet remains. Biztalk Retrieved from: Reuters. (2013). Obama Corporate Jet Tax Loophole Criticism Scares Witchita. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Your task is to read the case study, and after careful analysis, formulate a succinct response that is no longer than one single-spaced typed page with one-inch margins. No cover page is needed. You may use a separate page for references (works cited page).

Your response must include a clear identification of the most significant business problem facing Disney, prompting the public statement. Remember
this is your educated opinion which must be supported with evidence. You may find the evidence needed in the case study, but you may also use credible external sources. In addition, your response must assess the various types of organizational communication Disney used to manage the problem. Examine the different audiences/constituencies and determine how the message differed or would have differed. It is important that your paper has the three sections— introduction with a thesis, body with support for the thesis, and a conclusion

The Disney’s America Theme Park Essay

British Imperial Policies Essay

British Imperial Policies Essay.

?British imperial policies, such as taxes and laws, had a large impact on the strength of colonial resistance against British rule and the colonists commitment to their republican because they believed these policies were unjust. This resistance and commitment eventually led to America’s decision in becoming independent. Colonial resistance against british rule was strengthened as british imperial policies were more strictly enforced proceeding the end of Salutary Neglect by Lord George Grenville. As enforcement became strict, colonial opposition intensified through the use of protests and rebellions.

For example, the first direct and internal tax placed upon the colonies was the Stamp Act of 1765. This tax was placed on all paper products, and it was used to pay off debt in Britain. Because of this act, countless soldiers and british collectors were attacked by the angry colonists. The colonists would tar and feather the collectors showing Britain that they did not approve of this act at all. In order to discuss on how to rebel against the Stamp Act, colonists created the Stamp Act Congress.

Samuel Adams verbally announced his anger towards british by shouting “no taxation without representation”!

After the Stamp Act was the Townshend Acts created by king Charles Townshend. This act was an indirect tax on paper, paint, glass, and tea. In the colonies, tea was the favored drink for majority of the colonists. Just imagine how they felt when they heard the news about the tax on tea. The Townshend Acts eventually led to letters from a pennsylvania farmer. Written by John Dickinson, these letters were a statement of his verbal opposition towards british taxation. Resistance against british rule led to outrageous acts that angered and upset the colonists, but it also led to the rebel against british rule.

British imperial policies presented the path to colonial commitment to colonist’s republican values. The commitment to Republican Values were basically things that caused the colonies to reject the British government. The colonists were in favor of a republic. English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said that people would have natural rights to life, liberty

and property. One example of America’s rejection to british government would be their use of “actual representation” versus Britain’s use of “virtual representation”. Britain’s “virtual representation” is where one member of parliament represents all the colonists or the colonies no matter what their interests are. Eventually this led to America’s “actual representation” which is where they elected their own representatives which would appear in parliament and make their voice heard.

British Imperial Policies Essay

The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay

The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay.

The English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense were all written during a time of revolution in their respective countries. Although all three political writings originated in a different country, they each share several important similarities. Each document also addressed specific issues, which the others did not. The English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense all served as a bridge between their countries’ different forms of political structure.

The English Bill of Rights came after the reign of the first two Stuart kings, James I (1603-1625) and his son Charles I (1625-1649). Both kings ran into problems with the House of Commons over religious, economic and other political issues. The birth of James’s II son led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689. The revolution resulted in Mary II and her husband, William of Orange of Holland taking the Crown and signing the English Bill of Rights.

The English Bill of Rights was signed by Parliament in 1689. The English Bill of Rights placed parliamentary limitations on the authority of the crown, which is still a central part of England’s political system.

The Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris resulted after Louis XVI of France could not balance the national budget. In an attempt to correct the budget problem, Louis called the Estates General, France’s representative assembly, to convene in the hopes it would establish new taxes that would balance the nation’s budget. The convening of the Estates General had a much larger effect on France than Louis had expected. At the assembly, the forty thousand attendants wrote cahier de doleances, which listed local and national issues that needed to be addressed. The cahier of the Third Estate of the city of Paris was a document that contained the grievances of many people including: lawyers, businessmen, upper-middle-class, peasants, artisans, shopkeepers and women. Due to the Estates General, the nobility lost most of their privileges and the king lost most of his power. Later, in 1793, Louis was beheaded as a traitor.

Common Sense was a 35 page political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776. During the beginning of the American Revolution, many Americans still hoped that America could reconcile with Great Britain. Paine wrote the pamphlet as a reaction to the Battle of Lexington and Concord in April of 1775. Paine’s pamphlet expressed many American’s worries concerning Great Britain, as well as the Colonies’ hopes to create their own free independent nation. Common Sense encouraged the Second Continental Congress to create the United States of America on July 2, 1776. The pamphlet also contributed to the United States Declaration of Independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776.

There are several major similarities between the three political texts. Each text was written at a time of political revolution within their country and each was written as a reaction to current political hardships. Another major similarity all three texts shared was the importance of freely elected representatives. The timing of the documents as well as the configuration of assemblies plays a large role in the restructuring of their countries.

The English Bill of Rights and the French Cahier of the Third Estate share several important ideals. Both the English and French documents addressed religious matters. The English Bill of Rights stopped the practice of creating courts that try religious cases, while the Cahier of the Third Estate asked for religious toleration. Another major similarity between the English and French documents regarded taxes. The English Bill of Rights declared that there would be no more collecting of taxes without the permission of the Parliament. The Cahier of the Third Estate also stated that the elected officials should only establish the collecting of taxes. The final major similarity between the two documents has to do with the treatment of prisoners. The English Bill of Rights was the first document to coin the phrase “cruel and unusual punishment” when it declared that treatment of prisoners should be humane. The Cahier of the Third Estate also addressed the treatment of prisoners by banning torture.

The English Bill of Rights shared one major similarity to Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Although the French Cahier of the Third Estate did not address when assemblies should be held, both the English and American did address the issue. The English Bill of Rights declared that Parliaments should be held frequently, and Paine suggested in Common Sense that assemblies should be held every year. The concept of frequent parliamentary meeting was unheard of before this time. Previously, assemblies could go over a decade without convening.

The French Cahier of the Third Estate and Paine’s Common Sense also shared a major similarity. The Cahier of the Third Estate wanted the Kingdom to be divided into assemblies, which would be represented by freely elected officials. The Cahier of the Third Estate also wanted individual cities, towns and villages to have elected officials that would decide local issues. Thomas Paine presented a similar idea in Common Sense. Paine suggested that the colonies should be divided into districts and each district should be represented in the assembly.

Although all three documents shared similar characteristics, there were differences between the English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate and Common Sense. Each document addressed issues that were specific to their individual needs as a country. Although the problems addressed may not have been unique to their country, the fact that their political text contained a remedy to the problem is distinctive.

The English Bill of Rights addressed several issues that the other documents did not. The English Bill of Rights declared that the quartering of soldiers was against the law. Although the quartering of soldiers was present in America, Thomas Paine did not choose to address the issue in Common Sense. The English Bill of Rights also stated that the King should not have an army during a time of peace without the permission of Parliament. Neither the French or American political texts addressed this issue. The English text also gave Protestants the right to bear arms for self-defense. An important point made in the English Bill of Rights, which was not addressed in the other documents, was that of freedom of speech in Parliament.

The Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris was a very unique document. The French political texts included the greatest amount of new, unique political concepts. The Cahier of the Third Estate was the only document to state, “all men are equal in rights.” Before this time, people were granted different rights based on their social and economic standing. The Cahier of the Third Estate created great change pertaining to the execution of laws. The French document stated that citizens could not be arrested or punished without a legal trial. The document also stated that no citizen could be arrested without a just cause and an order from a judge.

The Cahier of the Third Estate went on to state that citizens had a right to call a lawyer before interrogation began. The document also declared that all citizens should receive the same punishment for their crimes, no matter their rank in society. The final major change dealing with punishments for crimes was the ending of torture and dungeons. Cleanliness and moral rules were set in place for prisons. The Cahier of the Third Estate established that prisons are for securing prisoners, not punishing them. The French political text also put an end to many other hardships including: personal servitude, compulsory military service, tampering with the mail, hunting monopolies and exclusive privileges.

Although the English Bill of Rights and the Cahier of the Third Estate were both a list of grievances, neither document attacked the current political order with the zeal that Common Sense contained. Thomas Paine ripped apart the political structure of Great Britain and declared that the American constitution should have no resemblance to that of England. Paine believed that the constitution of England was far too complex and its complexity had caused many years of hardship.

Paine also believed that hereditary succession was wrong and should not be practiced. Common Sense asserted that the American constitution should be based on “union, faith and honor.” Paine expressed two major exceptional ideas in Common Sense. Paine believed that in America a President, and not a King, should head the executive branch of government. Paine also believed that all laws should be passed by a majority of the assembly, or Congress. Paine suggested that a majority should be considered no less than three fifths of Congress.

England, France and America all went through political revolutions within a relatively close time period. As a result of the new political ideals, in each country a text was written upon which the future government was to be based. Although each of the documents contained distinct characteristics, the major ideas and end results were very similar for each country.

The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay

Townshend Acts Essay

Townshend Acts Essay.


King George III of England replaced Prime Minister Rockingham with William Pitt.  Pitt was popular in colonies having opposed the stamp Act that oppressed the colonists as he believed that the colonists also needed to be entitled to the rights as the English citizens. But when Pitt became sick, he was replaced by Charles Townshend at the helm of the government. Townshend was however not very concerned with the plight of the colonists as his predecessor, but he was rather interested in strengthening the power of the British parliament, and simultaneously would have strengthened the power of the royal officials.

He thus convinced the parliament to pass a series of laws that imposed new taxes to the colonists. The laws included special taxes on lead, paint, paper, glass and tea that were imported by the colonists (

Effects of the Townshend Act

The passing of the Acts was due to the fact that the mother country had to show the colonists that they had to pay the mother country had the right to tax them, rise revenue to pay the governors, and as well as maintaining justice.

The Act was also aimed at punishing the New York for failing to abide by the Mutiny Act (Quartering Act). These led to the deterioration of the relationship between the British and its provinces (Greene & Pole 2003 pp 135).

            There was increased chaos in the Boston city that forced the British troops to be called in to maintain peace and order, as the Townshend customs commissioners were at risk as they were the target of the public anger. The anger was sometimes directed at the redcoats who were perceived to be the British arm of encroachment. This restless in Boston led to the pelting of the soldiers in March 5th, 1770 with ice and stones.

The soldiers on the other hand opened fire to the people killing five, hence the commonly known Boston massacre (Aptheker 1960 pp 40).  For about three years that followed, the parliament was very quiet. There was a complete change of the mood in the American cities that reflected the tension and imminent confrontation that had been experienced. This was later spread to the countryside, where the mood was also became the same.

            In 1773, there were additional changes in the Tea tax that also led to the formation of the Tea Party, setting a stage for the two sides to clash (Mulcrone 2001 pp 378). The alterations that were made to the Tea Acts changed the way tea was sold and taxed, to prop up the failing Indian company. The effect of this action was the reduction of the price of tea to the colonists.

But since the colonists had been now been conditioned to the British involvement in the acts, they took actions as an issue to raise the American taxation, despite the fact that the general price had been reduced. The colonists thus reacted by turning away the British ship at the port. The governor of Boston however insisted that the ship should be allowed to dock and allow for the tea luggage to be unloaded. This made the sons of liberty who were disguised to enter the ship and dump the cargo (Galambos 1987 pp 87).

            The parliament reacted by passing the coercive Acts that temporarily closed the Boston port. The Act also cracked down on the democratic bodies and clipped the powers of the new governor, General Gage and his troops. The parliament undertook this act as a means of restoring authority rather than clarifying the constitutional arrangements.

            Throughout the American resistance on the tax policies, the ministry maintained that it was the legitimate and sovereign body which the colonists had to acquiesce. The American resistance turned to a rebellion, and later to a revolution when it was apparent that the redress claims were falling unto deaf ears, especially having gone parliament, the royal officials, and the King himself (Greene & Pole 2003 pp 157).

Therefore, with the increased petitions, the King’s administrators were being now questioned of their integrity, especially with how they acted contrary to the constitution. There were also increased cases of corruption in parliament that the petitions started to be taken directly to the King himself. The petitions directed to the King were a last test to see if the king could finally act on the grievances of colonists and address them or not. But the king also did not seem also to address the grievances of the colonists at all.

             The King’s avoidance to take action about the colonists’ matter saw the years that followed characterized by a lot of lull activities. At this point, the colonists and the British government had reached a point that was completely irreconcilable. The colonists broke ranks with their mother country when they realized that their petitions to bring about sustained parliamentary changes were futile. The King was also not ready to uphold the fundamental liberty that the colonists were yearning for so long. These thus made the American people to revolt and seek for their own independent, and broke complete ranks with the British government.

Work Cited

American Revolution, an Encyclopedia article, retrieved on 10th Dec, 2007 from

Aptheker H. The American Revolution, 1763-1783, ISBN 0717800059, International Publishers Co. 1960.

Galambos L. The New American State: Bureaucracies and Policies since World War II, ISBN 0801834902, JHU Press 1987.

Greene J.P & Pole J.R. A Companion to the American Revolution, ISBN 1405116749, Blackwell Publishing, 2003

Mulcrone, P. McGraw-Hill’s GED: The Most Complete and Reliable Study Program for GED Tests, ISBN 0071381791, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001.

Townshend Acts Essay