World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay

World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay.

South Africa is hosting the Soccer World Cup in the year 2010. In order to make it a huge success, the government is adopting extensive measures to provide sophisticated facilities and renovate ten stadiums in nine provinces throughout the nation. The Soccer World Cup started in the year 1930, but no African nation had ever played host to this event. Thus the 2010 soccer World Cup would be the first international soccer event to be hosted by an African nation (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

Furthermore, the concerned officials are preparing another five soccer fields to facilitate practice for the players in this event. In addition, there will be friendly matches between the teams of the different countries that are participating in this event. The 2002 World Soccer Cup was jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan. They had prepared, nearly thirty stadiums as venues for that event, nevertheless, not even twenty stadiums were utilized for this event (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

The construction cost of these stadiums is to be shared by the national government and the governments of the provinces where the event is to be held, as well as by the administrations of the cities, which are to host the event. The FIFA will also contribute to this international event. The government of South Africa is going to conduct a meeting with the officials of the Southern Africa Development Community Supreme Council on Sport in Cape Town to draft a strategy to conduct the international event and to discuss the importance of the event for the region (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

South Africa is already ahead of its schedule for hosting this event. It has sufficient time and it has already announced the names of nine cities that are to host the World Cup. The CEO of South Africa’s 2010 organizing committee, Danny Jordan declared that the FIFA had already settled seventy five percent of the contracts to the tournament and that sufficient funds would be generated out of them. According to him, the European broadcasting contracts were already signed by FIFA, which would secure US $1. 2 billion. This amount is more than what had been secured in 2002 World Cup (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006).

Expectations are that there would be more funding than that of the 2006 Germany Soccer World Cup. Danny Jordan added that they hope to generate additional revenues by providing all the details of the tournaments on mobile phones. Jordan declared that this World Cup would be organized as a world class event and that the revenues so far realized would be the greatest amongst all the World Cup events that had been conducted till date (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). The cities, which are to host this international event, are Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, Nelspruit, Polokwane and Rustenburg.

The FIFA had already approved ten stadiums for the event. Officials say that these stadiums would be ready by the year 2009, as an African Confederation Cup is to be conducted there in that year (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). South Africa has had sufficient experience in hosting international events. Moreover, it has a lot of experience in the planning and hosting of international sporting events. In the year 1995, it had hosted the Rugby World Cup, which was a huge success. In the subsequent year South Africa emerged the winner in the Africa Cup of Nations football tournament, which it had hosted.

During, these major events, South Africa conducted these events without any dispute or conflict. The visitors to those events had acknowledged the extraordinary efforts made by South Africa (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). In 1997 it hosted the World Cup of Athletics without the occurrence of any untoward incidents. A large number of foreign visitors attended that tournament. In the year 2003, it hosted the Cricket Word Cup. Although it lost in that event, cricket fans who had arrived there from different countries around the world, acclaimed the efficient manner in which the event had been conducted.

They were also attracted by the beauty of the country’s numerous tourist havens (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). South Africa is confident that it would host the 2010 FIFA World Cup in a grand manner and make it one of the major events of the century. It had set aside an amount of fifteen billion rand for this purpose. According to the finance minister, Trevor Manuel, 8. 4 billion rand would be spent on constructing new venues and technologically upgrading the present venues. The remaining amount would be spent on upgrading the infrastructure (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ).

Plans are afoot to completely overhaul the public transport system. All the major hotels have already been booked by visitors to the 2010 World Cup. The government is making arrangements to provide alternate accommodation facilities to the visitors. The government is planning to sell the tickets in the year 2008 and a great demand is anticipated for them. Three million tickets are to be made available for the sixty – four matches (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). According to the President of FIFA, Sepp Blatter, South Africa has the competence to conduct the premier international event in 2010.

He also said that South Africa would prove its ability in this regard and it would be a grand platform for it to display its natural beauty to the world. It can also demonstrate its hospitality, display its diversified cultural heritage to the world and flaunt its expertise in holding such an extraordinary event without any hindrance (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). According to the custom established by FIFA, nearly one third of the three million tickets are to be made available to the residents of South Africa and one million tickets will be reserved for sponsors, teams and organizers.

The remaining two million tickets are to be sold to foreign spectators. Irrespective of which country emerges the winner in this tournament, the ultimate victor will be South African football (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). The authorities responsible for conducting the 2010 Soccer World Cup have identified around twenty – two thousand rooms in hotels and around six thousand rooms in other places. This exercise was performed, in order to accommodate the large influx of visitors expected from all over the globe, for this momentous event.

These particulars were divulged by the minister for Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Marthinus van Schalkwyk, during the inauguration of the FIFA Tour Operator Program in Sandton. Officials of the FIFA, like its President Sepp Blatter, were sanguine that South Africa would prove its undoubted mettle in making this event a grand success (Boost for 2010 accommodation 2007). It goes without saying that an event of this magnitude, involves a gigantic number of vehicles for transporting, the spectators, the players, officials and others to the various stadia.

In anticipation of this huge requirement, Mathabatha Makonyama, the deputy director general of integrated planning and intersphere coordination, divulged that approximately six thousand minibus taxis, two thousand four hundred buses and sixty trains would have to be pressed into service. The expectation was that all the South African cars for hire would have to be deployed. Moreover, the vehicles belonging to the tourism industry would also be completely engaged. This mammoth event was expected to occur between the months of June and July in the year 2010 (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006).

A very large number of spectators are expected to attend these festivities. Approximately, a fifty thousand strong crowd of spectators would grace each match on an average. In all, it was assumed that three million tickets would be sold. The number of international soccer lovers to attend the matches was estimated at three hundred thousand. In addition, another two hundred thousand ticketless spectators were expected to arrive in South Africa (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006). Some measures suggested to reduce this gargantuan traffic are to persuade the FIFA to commence the tournament at the time of the holidays in late June.

Such a measure would not only reduce the number of vehicles on the roads, but it would also have the added advantage of permitting the use of university residences by visitors. The maximum amount of vehicles are expected to ply on the roads on the fifteenth day of this event. On that particular day, it was anticipated that some more vehicles would have to be deployed. The breakup of these additional vehicles was given as twenty – six trains, each of which could transport eight hundred passengers; and four hundred and sixty coaches that could transport fifty persons each (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006).

The 2010 Soccer World Cup is expected to prove its success, right from day one. Additional, revenues will be generated from the sale of electronic media rights. FIFA’s approval indicates that South Africa has adequate infrastructure and organizing capacity. However, skeptics predict that the event will not run smoothly (South Africa’s 2010 Cup challenge 2006). In this manner it becomes obvious, that there are a lot of logistic and other complexities involved in conducting an event of this magnitude.

Despite, the clamoring of the pessimists and nit pickers, the fact remains that South Africans have generally been very successful in whatever they do. In the field of cricket, they had been boycotted by the rest of the cricketing nations for practicing apartheid. Nevertheless, once this ban was no longer effective, they have displayed their mettle in the gentleman’s game to the rest of the World. The manner in which they conducted a major cricket tournament, won them accolades from the cricketing world.

Therefore, it would be no exaggeration, to state that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would prove to be a truly remarkable event in the history of sports. The innovativeness, planning, indomitable courage and commitment of the redoubtable South Africans will ensure such an outcome. Notes 2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems . January 2006. http://forum. southafrica-direct. com/2010-soccer-world-cup-transport-problems-t150-1. html (accessed December 24, 2007). Boost for 2010 accommodation. November 27, 2007. http://www. news24. com/News24/Sport/Soccer/0,,2-9-840_2228227,00. html (accessed December 24, 2007). Football Fever Runs High.

http://www1. southafrica. net/Cultures/en-GB/consumer. southafrica. net/Why+South+Africa/Media+Gallery/Football+Fever+Runs+High. ht (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa shifts into 2010 gear. July 10, 2006. http://www. southafrica. info/2010/2010-countdown. htm (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010. August 17, 2005. South Africa Thinks Big for Worhttp://www. worldcup2010southafrica. com/content/view/240/109/ (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa’s 2010 Cup challenge. July 7, 2006. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/africa/5141582. stm (accessed December 24, 2007).

World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay

The Social, Economical, and Environmental Impacts of Diamond Mining in Africa Essay

The Social, Economical, and Environmental Impacts of Diamond Mining in Africa Essay.

The social, economical, and environmental impacts of diamond mining in Africa For many people over generations the diamond has been a symbol of power, beauty, luxury, uniqueness, and everlasting pure love. For others the diamond has been a symbol of conflict, death, exploitation, misery, and blood shade. All the glamour and beauty attributed to diamonds might be blinding us to the impacts of its operations in Africa. In this paper we will go through a research journey to find out more about the positive and negative impacts of diamond mining in Africa and the diamond industry.

Also, this research paper will highlight the impacts of the diamond business operations socially, environmentally and economically in the diverse African continent. There are different types of diamond mining operations according to location and company strategies. Examples of diamond mining are the open pit mining (excavation to reach diamonds on the surface of the ground), underground mining (excavation up 1 mile underground), coastal mining (removal of sand and soil to find diamonds), marine mining (excavation of diamonds in the seabed).

Estimates claim that 60% of all the diamond deposits in the world are in the African continent. However it is important to note that not all countries in Africa have diamond reserve mines. In the present day the countries with diamond mining operations are: South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Zambia, Central African Republic, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Namibia, Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. Out of all these African countries the main diamond mining producers are South Africa, Botswana, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Namibia.

Each of these countries has their own particular laws, culture, language, and public policies, but all of them having in common the diamond mining activities. This complex industry employs thousands of people and generates profits around 8. 5 billions of dollars each year just from the rough diamonds. The global diamond industry is increasing and generates in jewelry sales $72 billions of dollars each year. Who are the stake holders in the diamond mining industry in Africa and who benefits the most? Today DeBeers is considered a major role player in the diamond industry.

This South African based corporation since 1896 has several operations in different African countries and is responsible for 45% of the world’s diamond markets in the present day. There are other diamond corporations of significant importance in Africa such as Petra Diamonds, Trans Hex, and Diamondcorp. According to the diamond council only 30% of the diamonds mined meet the requirements for polishing, cutting, and jewelry making. The rest of the diamonds around 70% are used are used for industrial applications such as cutting, drilling, gridding, and polishing.

The mine owners, the middle men’s, and the government of many of these countries appeared to benefit the most of the diamond mining. For example, a miner in Sierra Leone can work for days sometimes a week without finding a single diamond and therefore not making any money. When the diamond is found they sell it to a middle man in their town for a fraction of its value. Many of these rough stones end it up in trading centers like in the city of Antwerp in Belgium, China, New York, Mumbai, Tel Aviv, Thailand, and Johannesburg where they are polished and cut.

Then after that the diamond is sold at five times more than its original paid value to markets worldwide. When we consider these facts is evident that there is a high level of inequality in these industry and the revenues of diamond mining and sales are not shared equally among the individuals involved in this industry. Apparently the trading centers, jewelers, diamond corporations, mines, governments, and politicians benefit the most and in the last place the miners. The human nature of greed, disregard to others, and exploitation play a major role in this scenario.

The inequality in the diamond industry is evident when we compare the revenues between the diamond mining activities in Africa, $8. 5 Billions of dollars every year, and the global diamond sales that generate $72 Billion dollars just in diamond jewelry sale. There is a need of more infrastructure, direct sales, and empowerment in Africa so they can increase their share among the stakeholders in the diamond industry. What are the positive social impacts of diamond mining in Africa? In many African countries the diamond mining operations have an important role in contributing to social development.

For example, DeBeers diamond corporation and the government of Botswana are working together to improve social living standards for their population. In the early years right after their independence in 1966 Botswana was considered among the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of $80. According to the World Bank, today Botswana is among the most prosperous countries in Africa, with middle class and a per capita income around $6,000 per year. The operations of DeBeers in this country account for third of its gross domestic product approximately $3. 3 billions of dollars.

The diamond mining operations in Botswana helped to build roads, hospitals, schools, rural clinics, H. I. V treatment programs, and scholarships opportunities. It is important to highlight that corporate social responsibility and less corrupt government were responsible for these positive changes in the country besides of the diamonds. Another positive aspect of diamond mining is that it can certainly increase a family’s income for those who work in the industry. For example, according to statistics 38,000 of workers are employed in diamond mining just in South Africa.

By increasing the family income, households will have more resources for feeding, educating and providing care for their families. In the example of DeBeers we can see what a socially responsible corporation and a government can do towards social improvement. It is important to emphasize that the diamond mining by itself is not sustainable. But the diamond activity geared in the right direction can help maintain sustainability. There is a need of more integrated efforts between governments and diamond mining corporations to improve the living standards of their communities.

The enlightening of corporations and governments can have a significant role play in helping to shift the social parameters of those directly and indirectly involved with the diamond mining. What are the negative social impacts of diamond mining in Africa? Illegal diamond mining still an unresolved issue in the industry and can have several negative social effects. For example, the so called blood diamonds are the source of violence, deaths, and exploitation against civilians by militias. An example of this was during the Sierra Leone civil war that lasted 11 years, rebels forced civilians to mine diamonds at a gun point to finance the war against the government.

More, during these illegal diamond activity entire families were forced to dig in their own houses in search for diamonds. The victims didn’t have any financial incentive to work; instead they were constantly threatened and feared for their lives. Another negative example is that diamond mining could increase inequality within the community between those who benefit directly of the mine and those who don’t benefit from it. The increase of inequality could increase social unrest and increase in criminality rate levels.

Another negative impact could be the displacement of entire communities and interruption of livelihood can happen because of diamond mining. For example, relocation of communities to make way for mining operations is common. This can easily lead to tension between the mine, farmers and local communities. Unmet expectations for compensation for disruption and resettlement can be a permanent source of tension between communities and project developers. Diamond mining could also cause the increase of migration, immigration, population, and diseases.

This matter could be catastrophic if a community does not have the necessary infrastructure to support these changes following an installment of a diamond mining activity. For example, large arrivals of outsiders or immigrant miners not integrated into the local community or subject to its social norms can destabilize internal community power relations and this can exacerbate social tensions. In many communities the changes could have a negative impact on the youth such as to have a sense of loss that could influence them to joined militias or gangs.

Another important negative impact could the increase in poverty levels through damage in subsistence agriculture activity. For example, the family who had agriculture as a form of living now with the land displacement has to look for another activity to survive. Last, there are some diamond mining activities that are considered the most dangerous jobs because of many deaths of workers related to it. An example of this is the diving activity to recover diamonds from the river beds.

Most of the workers don’t have adequate equipment and risk their lives every day in long labor journeys of diving in murky river waters to extract soil and pebbles by hand. There are many cases of diving workers who died because of getting tangled up with the air supply precarious hoses. The diamond mining activities can be very costly to the community if they are not planned and considered carefully. In many cases, like a civil war, illegal diamond mining activities can destroy an entire community and exacerbate the social chaos. The protection of human life should be the most important goal before considering diamond mining.

A human life is something unique and irreplaceable and should always out weight the value of diamond pebbles. What could implement in the diamond industry in order to improve social development? A great problem for the governments in the African continent is the illegal activity of diamond mining and tax evasion. The diamond industry believes that 90% of their diamonds are legit and 10% are smuggled illegally from these countries. Other diamond organizations believe that this percentage could be even higher and around 20% to 40% of smuggled illegal diamonds.

The problem arises in the dilemma of who is responsible for this problem, and who should fix it. The answer is clear that both parties in specific the trading centers, buyers, and the governments of the diamond mining countries are responsible for this matter. More, they should drop their attitudes, disregard, and corruption and work closely together to solve this problem. The basic conflict of interests is that the buyers think that they are not responsible for this problem because they are paying for the diamonds. In the other hand corrupted government officials are bribed to let smugglers leave their countries with diamonds.

The trading centers say that it is hard to differentiate between a smuggled diamonds from legit diamonds. In fact, diamonds are very much easier to smuggle than drugs, because they are easy to hide and they don’t leave any smell. An average person could be carrying millions of dollars worth in diamonds in the pocket and walk around unnoticed. Trading centers, buyers, governments, should adopt more rigid policies against illegal diamond mining and smuggling. Despite of the recent improvements and certifications required illegal diamond mining and smuggling still at high.

Unfortunately the citizens of these diamond mining countries are in fact quietly suffering and paying the higher price for their government corruption and diamond trading buying centers disregard. It is time for an awakening of moral, social, economical, and environmental conscience in the world. It is time for us to understand that we are responsible for the problems we have and that we are the answer to solve them. We need true love to live by acceptable means and learn how to share. What policies have been adopted to prevent diamond smuggling?

Today the problem of blood diamonds and illegal smuggled diamonds made the governments and the diamond industry to adopt systems to prevent this illicit activity. To promote the trading of diamonds from legitimate sources and to ensure that consumers can be confident in their diamond jewelry purchases, governments, NGOs and the international diamond industry have worked together to implement a certificate of origin system, known as the Kimberley Process. The Kimberly process is a certification system that prevents diamonds from an area of conflict entering the legitimate diamond supply chain.

The Kimberley Process ensures that only rough diamonds accompanied by a government issued certificate can be imported and exported. These measurements can help to provide an assurance that the diamonds are from conflict free sources. Under this United Nations mandated system, only countries that are part of the Kimberley process can import or export rough diamonds. Today, 74 countries are members of the Kimberley Process, ensuring that more than 90% of diamonds are from conflict free sources. Anyone who imports or exports rough diamonds between these countries without a Kimberley Process certificate is breaking the law.

In addition to the Kimberley Process, the System of Warranties was developed by the World Diamond Council (WDC) to extend the Kimberley Process conflict free assurance to polished diamonds and provide a means by which consumers can be assured their diamonds are from conflict free sources. Its principal element is a declaration on the invoice accompanying every transaction (apart from the transaction directly to the consumer) of polished diamonds that declares the diamonds are not involved in funding conflict and are in compliance with United Nations resolutions.

The System of Warranties provides assurance that diamonds are from conflict free sources all the way to the diamond jewelry retailer. Another example of efforts against the illegal diamond mining activity is the World Jewelry Confederation (CIBJO); this is an international confederation of national jewelry trade organizations of more than 40 countries. In addition to their 40 countries there are 33 associate members from commercial organizations. The purpose of CIBJO is to promote transparency, standards and international cooperation in the diamond-jewelry industry, and to consider issues involving the trade worldwide.

What are the environmental impacts related to the diamond mining? The diamond mining can add a heavy burden to the environment and certainly become unsustainable. The question that arises is that are the positive aspects of diamond mining a gain for the society or does it cancel out with the losses to the environment? The diamond mining can negatively affect an environment in different ways. Mining can drastically alter the environment by removing millions of pounds of ground soil, and by adding chemical substances and toxic emissions to the air.

For example, changes in the water quality, destruction of watercourses, and potentially loss of fish through draining of rivers and lakes. Open cast mining is particularly associated with deforestation, soil erosion, land degradation, air pollution and disruption of the wild life. An example of these is the pollution through an increase of the production and emission of green house gases, since most of the mines have machinery that operates with diesel fuel. In sum, the diamond mining activities are a very complex industry that can involve many corporations, governments, workers, traders, and business men.

The diamond mining by itself is not a sustainable activity but if geared in the right way can help the sustainability of developed and underdeveloped societies. In many instances this activity can be used to improve the social standards of living throughout a close partnership of socially responsible corporations and less corrupted governments. An example of a success story is DeBeers and the government of Botswana partnership by building roads, schools, hospitals, clinics, and improving the levels of income in the country.

Despite of several efforts to make the diamond trade licit and beneficial for the society there are still issues to be considered. For example, illegal smuggling, blood diamonds, negative impacts in the social, economical, and environmental theme. The diamond mining sustainability and the environmental destruction as a legacy for future generation can raise doubts about the business. Regardless of the issues presented the diamond business was and still is a very promissory industry, and if conducted accordingly will benefit the upward social development of many communities around the world.

The Social, Economical, and Environmental Impacts of Diamond Mining in Africa Essay

Europe Africa And The Americas In 1492 To 1750 Essay

Europe Africa And The Americas In 1492 To 1750 Essay.

Throughout history, many changes have happened throughout the world. These changes shaped the world to be what is it was and also lead to other changes. For example, advances in technology, such as the creation of the magnetic compass, drastically changed exploration. However, these changes these changes did not occur without continuities. Take the bow for example, whether being used to hunt, wield in battled, or just to showcase skill, man has been using the bow for decades since the first bows were crafted.

The years of 1492 to 1750 was a period of great change in Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas that resulted in changes in economy, like the introductions of new trade routes, along with changes in society such as changes in demography, which were especially relevant in the Americas. With all of these changes also existed continuities such as, in terms of economic continuities, the rich were still employing slave labor in order to produce materials for trade and desire of the Spanish to convert people to Christianity in regards to social remained.

In the years of 1492 through 1750, many questionable choices and things occurred due to the use of new trade routes that both furthered and damaged the economy in different regions of the world, mainly Western Europe. The triangle trade was one of the most notable of these trade routes considering that it lead to so many things that affected the world because it was a trade route that connected Europe to Africa to the Americas. This trade route would be a major cause of economic change on the world because of its use to trade slaves, raw material produced in the Americas by those slaves, and along with silver from the mines of the Americas which were shipped to Western Europe.

The silver at first was an undeniable positive for Western Europe much like the export of raw materials from the colonies in the Americas. This export of materials was a great advantage to the mother countries because it means the mother countries could dedicate their land and time to other issues. Furthermore this leaves having to import theses raw materials from other countries thus giving the other counties more money which in turn gives them more power, having to pay taxes to trade route controllers, and it cuts out and political disputes that had a chance of occurring. The trade of silver on the other hand was far more controversial.

At first it was a big boom to Spain’s economy because of how valued silver was at this time. However, that all changed when the value of silver drastically dropped due to inflation. This caused Spain economic problems because it gave them a false sense of security when they spent money fighting too many wars, money that they would no longer have. Both of the silver and raw material shipped to Western Europe from the America was mined and produced by slaves sold by Africa to the Europeans which lead to growth in Africa’s economy but a drop in its population and the way of life of Africans.

Along with the arrival of the Europeans on the Americas, the trade of these slaves itself, caused changes in Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Of course Europe benefited economically but more prevalently was its effect on the demography of both the Americas and Africa. The America’s culture and population were two main effects of the trade of slaves. With the decreasing population and life expectancy of the natives of the Americas thanks to the diseases brought by the Europeans because they had no immunity, the trade of slaves slowed the rate a small amount because coming from Africa they already have some immunity to disease.

The African slaves crossbred with the Europeans as well as the natives which led to the diversification of the population. This introduced creoles and mestizos social classes caused differences in the social ladder with europeos at the top, under them were the creoles, below the were the mestizos, next the Native Americans, then the free blacks, and the slaves at the bottom. In Africa the way of life and population was drastically changed due to slave trappers and traders. Families were ripped apart and the population was decreasing as Africans were being sold as slaves to the Europeans

Slavery traces as far back as Ancient Greece and as continued all the way up to, and through the years of 1492 and 1750. They were still used for chores and for hard labor because they were cheap and replaceable. Rights and conditions of the slaves also did not change; they had no freedom, no rights, and no say, because they were still considered property by the Spanish and Portuguese. The Spanish and Portuguese bought and used slaves in fields and mines of the Americas with the majority of the slaves going to Brazil, a Portuguese colony. They used slaves rather than hiring workers or doing the work themselves because for the same reason the Ancient Greek did it; it was cheap, easy, and they were replaceable. Slave labor continued throughout these years and even continued on past the year 1750.

Another continuity of the years of 1492 and 1750 was the Spanish’s desire to convert the “barbaric” natives of the Americas to “proper” men of the Christian Faith. Some welcomed Christianity while some rejected it due to their comfort and contentment with their own religion and beliefs. The natives had previously practiced a polytheistic with human sacrifices, cannibalism, and rituals which was savage and barbaric to the Spanish. This caused the Spanish to forcibly convert the natives to Christianity with disregard of what the natives wanted. This was done by taking people including children from the Americas away and teaching them the ways of Christianity and sending them back to spread those ideas to others.

The years of 1492 to 1750 held some big changes economically and socially to Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Economically, all three benefited excluding Western Europe when the inflation of silver hit. Socially, the demography of Africa was altered and the Americas drastically. Yet, not everything changed during this time period. Much of history remained constant during the period too. This included the use of slave labor in regards to economics and the Spanish desire to spread Christianity throughout the world.

Europe Africa And The Americas In 1492 To 1750 Essay

African American Criticism Essay

African American Criticism Essay.

Lois Tyson in the “African American Criticism” section of his famous book “Critical Theory Today” tried to make familiar the readers with the fundamental aspects of African American literary history. In this mission he explained different important and concerning factors which arise in the mind of the reader while reading the book. Actually to satisfy the need of the students who are ignorant or less knowledgeable about different major issues of African American History like the Great Migration, the Civil Rights movement, the Black Power Movement and many others, he wrote this book.

Moreover African American being a large population in the United States contributed immensely to the arts and literature of the American society. He also drew the attention of the readers of the book to the unjustified fact of exclusion of the African American history and culture from the authorized description of American history during 1960s. Throughout the section the author called for a major change in the self-identification and self-awareness of the African Americans in the late 1960s.

Moreover he also pointed out the fact that then many African Americans were victims of internalized racism which “results from the psychological programming by which a racist society indoctrinates people of color to believe in white superiority” (Tyson 383). Mentioning some examples the author showed that this internalized racism sometimes led to intra-racial racism by giving birth to severe discriminations to the black people. This intra-racial racism had its own adverse effects on the socio economic structure of the Postcolonial American society.

Readers also come to know that apart from being the victims of both internalized racism and intra-racial racism which have devastating psychological effects among the African Americans, they also suffered from “economic hardship and social marginalization caused by institutionalized racism” (Tyson 383). The story also nicely portrays that how these African Americans experienced “double consciousness” or “double vision” in this Postcolonial American society. Actually they have to follow two different cultures.

The first is original black culture which is followed at the home and the other is European culture gifted by the white-skinned Americans which is followed at the school or college or workplace. This book also discusses the evolution of American literature and the influence of Afro centric literature on it. Critics often agree that most of the African American literature highlighted different sociological and political issues which greatly influence the lives of African Americans.

So far what we have discussed the different aspects of African American Criticism and the much awaited response which came into play to make this artifact a grand success and thus helping the African Americans to get a congenial and favorable environment to live in. Thus the book was able to portray the conditions of African Americans giving much importance to their history and criticized the whole thing with a positive attitude which left a deep impact on a large number of people. Works Cited Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. , 1999.

African American Criticism Essay

Animal Poaching Essay

Animal Poaching Essay.

What are your opinions on animal poaching? Do you think it is fair and commendable when a poacher brings home a rhino’s horn or an elephant’s tusk? A death of an animal is somehow seen as a commendable act in some disgusting way.

Animal poaching is a terrible action in which humans partake. They somehow find enjoyment out of it, which I feel is astonishing. How can humans feel that they have a right to take the life of an animal? If it is against the law for a human’s life then it should be for an animal as well.

Maybe not as harsh as murder yet it should still be a crime in which people do not commit.

There are game reserves, which have to protect the numbers of certain animals so they can be preserved and not poached. The numbers for the Big Five has to be kept under great secret, as they need to protect these animals the most as they are at higher risk.

If a large number of these animals are killed they are at a great chance of their species becoming extinct which is a major downfall as it not only affects other animals but it affects us humans greatly. This is because of the effect it may have on the vicious food chain.

Animals from all around the world are such beautiful creatures that add to the amazing beauty of every country. In South Africa we have the black and white rhinos, elephants, giraffes, packs of lions and the list carries on.

Without these animals what would our country be like? Just imagine South Africa with no wildlife, any nature and game reserves. It would feel incomplete. So why are people lowering the chances of their future families on being able to witness such tremendous wildlife. If you were lucky enough to experience such a wonderful thing in life, why would you deny it or take it away from anyone else?

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Animal Poaching Essay

George Alagiah’s Passage To Africa Essay

George Alagiah’s Passage To Africa Essay.

In a passage to Africa George Alagiah conveys his feelings about journalism during the course of his stay in Somalia through the use of various different language and literary devices. In a passage to Africa George Alagiah uses powerful and emotive language to show is views about journalism. An example of this is shown in the quotation: ‘that went beyond pity and revulsion’ , ‘revulsion’ has strong connotations of horror and disease so it marked the reader sympathise with the nature of the terrible scene that Alagiah is encountering in the village which he is observing.

Another quotation that shows this is: ‘normally inured to stories of suffering, accustomed to the evidence of deprivation’, this quotation shows the way that Alagiah is hardened by the experiences that he has faced through the word ‘inured’ meaning immune to in conjunction with the words ‘suffering’ and ‘deprivation’, both of which have extensive connotations of evil and terrible hardship on those that it refers to, overall showing that Alagiah was steadfast to the other horrors that were unfolding around him and that the event he had just witnessed ahs managed to break his immunity of disconnection between him and the subject of his journalism.

These quotations all show that Alagiah used emotive and powerfully connotated words to show the disconnection and connections with the journalist and subject. In the text Alagiah also uses a variety of sentence structures to show his views an observational journalist. An example of this is: ‘I saw that face for only a few seconds, a fleeting meeting of eyes’, the use of the above sentence structure shows that this very brief moment had deeply impacted Alagiah’s views on the way that he considered his role as a passive observer. Another example of this is the quote: ‘normally inured to stories of suffering, accustomed to the evidence of deprivation’, the way that the sentence is structured shows that Alagiah is meaning to portray a list to show how he feels about the way that a journalist can be susceptible to becoming accustomed to the terrible scenes that are unfolding before there eyes.

In ‘a passage to Africa’ Alagiah uses a range of literary devices to show how he feels about journalism. An example of his use of literary devices on the following quotation: ‘If he was embarrassed to be weakened by conflict and ground down by hunger, how should I feel standing there so strong and confident?’, this reflective anecdote shows that as Alagiah is there he is still reflecting on the way that he is so content and nourished while the people he is standing amongst are suffering terribly. Another example of literary devices in the quotation: ‘what was it about that smile?’, this rhetorical question shows how Alagiah is inquisitive into the thinking of the people he observes. These literary devices show his beliefs about journalism through the way he writes his reports. In conclusion is a passage to Africa George Alagiah uses a variety of language, sentence structures and literary devices to show his beliefs about journalism and the relationship between him and the people he writes about.

George Alagiah’s Passage To Africa Essay

African Philosophy Essay

African Philosophy Essay.


The problem is that we have a learner who has come from a different province to attend our school and has a problem socialising with the other children. She does not have any friends and is always alone. As a teacher, I believe it is my duty to try and help her. Nobody should have to be left feeling alone and out of place. She needs to fit in with the other learners. I would have to show them that they need to treat one another with kindness.

African philosophy teaches us to build communities so I decided to use it in trying to solve this problem. It also teaches us to treat others with respect and dignity. I will focus on the central ethical idea in traditional thought which is Ubuntu. It encourages us to be humble human beings.


African philosophy stems from tradition and emphasises on the community and puts that at the centre of life. It is a way of thinking.

It promotes African identity and provides cultural unity. It is the response of the troubles of Africa, where intellects rejected the westerner’s domination by proving them wrong with regards to their belief that Africans were unable to develop a rational and scientific thought. African philosophy instils decent values in people and teaches us to love our neighbours and that we have a duty towards them. It consists of four different methods. Firstly, Ehtnic philosophy –also defined as “the philosophy of Africa “, consists of religious and moral beliefs and contains people’s view of life and the experience of human beings. Secondly, Sage (wisdom) philosophy- focuses on individuals who are wise and far sighted and can think critically. Thirdly, Political philosophy -is very unique and different from the others.

It is expected to be an African political philosophy, unlike capitalist, socialist or communist politics. Lastly, Pure philosophy -is philosophy done in areas such as empiricism, critical rationalism and existentialism. African philosophy also includes the principles of Ubuntu. Ubuntu, meaning “humanity” is related to well being and happiness. It is about caring and sharing, and forgiveness and reconciliation. It promotes peace and unity, and discourages discrimination. A fuller meaning of ubuntu is “I am because you are”.

This means that we exist and develop only in relationships with others. It teaches us to live in harmony irrespective of our differences. Everybody should be made to feel important. Ubuntuism is meant to instil good values in a person, where you put the needs of other people before your own. African philosophy and ubuntuism emphasises on the importance of being kind and considerate to others.

By making the learners aware of the ubuntu principles, I most certainly believe that it would make a huge difference in the way they behave and react towards the new learner. A community is expected to make any person feel welcome and in the same way, so should the learners. They need to make her a part of the group. She should be able to fit in comfortably and feel a sense of belonging.


The advantages of African philosophy are that it encourages the building of communities. It gives us a deeper understanding of ourselves. It teaches us the importance of culture and tradition and the need for it in our life. It shows us that we should love and appreciate all human beings. We should treat everyone equally. It promotes African identity and makes us feel proud to be Africans. However, there are also disadvantages to the African philosophy. It does not encourage critical thinking. It does not challenge power structures.

It is unable to accept women and men as equals. It also tends to ignore the needs of the individual. It tolerates superstitious practices and is not widely accepted. It relies too much on tradition. Children should be taught from an early age to show love and respect to all people irrespective of colour and creed. I would make the children aware of how important it is to follow the ubuntu principles so that everyone can be happy and feel more relaxed. African philosophy would be the best method indeed to solve this problem as it promotes peace and harmony and should be practiced by every human being.


Higgs, P. & Smith, J. 2012. Rethinking our World. Cape Town: Juta. Theoretical Frameworks in Education. Study Guide. Pretoria
Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

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African Philosophy Essay

Oral traditions Essay

Oral traditions Essay.

Many ancient scholars believed Africa had no history prior to colonialism because there was no documented evidence. Professor A.P. Newton, who was a distinguished British historian in the early 20th century, believed that there was no African history because most of the African society was illiterate before the European intrusion. ‘History’, he said, ‘only begins when men take to writing.’ He, as well as others who had the same opinion, failed to realize that African communities existed long before colonialism and so had their own history, even though it had not been put into writing at the time.

Oral traditions have played and continue to play important roles in the history of Africa as well as its present. Songs, folklores, superstitions, etc. are just some of the things that have been passed from generation to generation orally. We see the evidence of some of these superstitions in J.P. Clark’s _Abiku_ as well as Wole Soyinka’s _Abiku_.

Both poems are based on traditional superstitions and it is evident from the title, _Abiku_, which is a word from the Yoruba language of Nigeria that is used to describe a child that dies and is reborn, usually multiple times.

It is believed that such children are not of the human world, but rather belong to the spirit world and so they keep going back and forth from one world to the other unless the child’s family is able to make the child stay in the human world, using traditional methods most times. These beliefs and actions are results of oral traditions and, even with the rise of western education in Yoruba communities and Nigeria in general, continue to be upheld by some people. Clark and Soyinka are evidence of the continued dependence and belief in oral traditions by a lot of Africans, even after extensive western education.

These Africans could be doing this as an indirect rebellion against western ideas and principles that have sought to ridicule and destroy African culture. During the colonial era, the Europeans did their best to destroy African culture, especially those that had to do with superstitions and religious beliefs that did not correspond with western principles. Concepts like reincarnation were frowned upon heavily by the European missionaries seeking to change the religious beliefs of Africans and since most aspects of life were based on religion at the time, changing one’s religious beliefs meant changing one’s political, social and economic beliefs as well. However, with the rise of cultural nationalisms, Africans began to reject European standards as the ideal and focus on bringing African culture back to the forefront. Hence, we see Soyinka and Clark as well as many other African poets bringing their cultural superstitions to their literary works, even though most of them are written in European languages.

In Soyinka’s _Abiku_ poem, almost every line is made up of cultural beliefs and practices as they relate to the _Abiku_ child. He even dips into non-African oral traditions in the line that says, “remember/ this, and dig me deeper still into/ the god’s swollen foot.” (14-16). Here, Soyinka is referring to Oedipus, the Greek mythological figure, and his use of this in his poem suggests that he wants to show that oral tradition is not just an African phenomenon but rather, exists in different cultures all around the world. While, he doesn’t expand on this line, it is important because it stands out from the rest of the poem as it is not connected to Yoruba tradition at all and it makes known to its readers the fact that oral traditions are universal.

Also, Soyinka writes his poem from the subject’s point of view as a means of humanizing the character. The concept of _Abiku_ is usually explained as an other- worldly phenomenon, which made it easier for a lot of people to disassociate themselves with the idea. However, Soyinka writes his poem in first person in order to make known to people the fact that _Abiku_ children do exist and they are, in fact, human beings. He brings the _Abiku_ child to the forefront and though the rhetoric is tinged with superstitions and cultural traditions, the fact that it is being told from the child’s perspective is a humanizing effort.

There is no doubt that the poem emphasizes cultural and spiritual notions, especially through the child, however, the poem’s use of words like “Mothers” (line 26) paints a human picture in the minds of the readers. The juxtaposition of spiritual and human language used in the poem lets the readers know that both the spiritual and the human are present in this _Abiku_ child. Therefore, the poet brings to light the idea that the spiritual i.e. traditional and the human i.e. rational can exist and coincide with one another. He is saying that African culture can exist side by side with western culture and one doesn’t have to diminish the other, which is the direct opposite of what was preached by European missionaries.

Also, it is important to note that these two poets as well as most African writers are invested in the concept of Africanism. Keeping African cultures alive is important and we see the poets using their poems to remind Africans and the world in general that African culture still exists and has not been destroyed by urbanization. Oral traditions have never been completely accepted as adequate sources with which to make any kinds of analyses because of the fickle nature of the human memory and so, writing these poems allows the poets show the readers that the culture is still there and these stories and beliefs have not been forgotten. It was important for Africans in historical times to repeatedly acknowledge the oral traditions so they would not forget any parts of it and this is also one of the reasons why African writers usually add some elements of oral tradition into their works.

A lot of African communities did not have any means of recording their culture for future generations so they just made sure the younger generations became aware of these traditions from the early stages of their lives so these traditions became engrained in their minds by the time they were adults. However, with the colonization of Africa, a lot of Africans are now able read and write these oral traditions and because of this easy access, a lot of Africans have become unaware of a lot of cultural traditions that would have been passed orally. So, the writers include oral traditions in their written works to bring these stories, beliefs, practices, etc. back into the minds of Africans and the world.

This is why Soyinka and Clark include some traditional processes in their poetry. Soyinka writes about the charms that people believed would keep the _Abiku_ child from going back to the spirit world… “Must I weep for goats and cowries/for palm oil and sprinkled ash?” He takes the reader into the world of the _Abiku,_ using cultural rituals, which then reminds the Africans who had forgotten and informs those who were not privy to this information initially. Clark takes his readers into the immediate environment of the _Abiku_ child, both the physical environment and the spiritual environment… “Do stay out on the baobab tree/follow where you please your kindred spirits/if indoors is not enough for you.”

In conclusion, oral traditions are very important in African culture as well as other cultures around the world and the use of written language in passing oral traditions has been helpful in bringing forgotten histories back into the minds of its people.


Fage, J. D., and British Broadcasting Corporation. Africa Discovers Her Past. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Henige, David P. The Chronology of Oral Tradition: Quest for a Chimera. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974.

Adesanmi, Pius. You’re Not a Country, Africa: A Personal History of the African Present. Johannesburg: Penguin Books (South Africa), 2011.

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Oral traditions Essay

Human rights in South Africa Essay

Human rights in South Africa Essay.

Summary: Stephen Lewis is attempting to get Canadians to support a grassroot aids project in hopes of raising money in numerous ways. These ways are referred to as dares and Canadian citizens are encouraged to participate in various dares to raise money. Since Canada was in an economic recession at this time they were not able to participate in donating money to Africa, Throughout this project, Stephen Lewis raised $12,000,000 between 50,000 people. This had a large implication on the economy since Canada was in a recession and were not able to help.

Article #2: Compulsory Testing

This article is about South Africans being discriminated against their human rights South Africans are now required to test for HIV aids because they have one of the largest infected populations in the world. “Up to six million people in South Africa – around 17 per cent of the population – are believed to be HIV positive or suffering from Aids”. The provincial government’s proposal to introduce mandatory testing follows concerns many people are unaware of the fact they are infected.

Article # 3: South Africans admit lousy job fighting AIDS.

South Africa is the largest AID infected country in the world. Leaders in South Africa admit to mismanaging the AIDS crisis there. They denied that HIV was the cause of AIDS and prescribed the wrong medication to people with this sickness. This ultimately had a health effect on the people of South Africa. It has an impact on unborn babies. According to researchers, 37,000 babies will be infected with Hiv Aids in the next 6 years.

Human rights in South Africa Essay

Project: South African Aluminum Essay

Project: South African Aluminum Essay.

At the beginning of 1994, Alusaf was considering building the world’s largest greenfield primary aluminum smelter, a 466,000-ton-per-year smelter at Richard’s Bay, a deepwater port on the east coast of South Africa’s province of Kwa-Zulu Natal. Alusaf was the sole primary aluminum producer in South Africa, operating 170,000 tpy of capacity at the existing “Bayside” facility at Richard’s Bay. Alusaf’s 1993 revenues were $220. 2 million, up 1% from 1992. Income was $8. 6 million, up 122% from 1992. A feasibility study for the proposed “Hillside” smelter had been completed over the past two years.

During this time, South Africa’s political regime had undergone a dramatic transformation with the 1993 passing of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) Bill. This bill removed absolute power from the hands of whites and created a multi-racial body that would share responsibility for organizing and overseeing the general elections to be held in April 1994. Within days, Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Congress party, addressed the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid in New York, calling on the international community to lift sanctions against South Africa.

The European Union, the Organization of African Unity, Canada, China, Sweden, Singapore, India, and the United States all responded quickly with announcements that they would begin the process of restoring normal economic relations with South Africa. Aluminum prices had fallen dramatically since the feasibility study was begun, as Russian aluminum continued to flood the market. Now, with aluminum prices near their all-time low in real terms in early 1994, Alusaf had to decide whether to embark on this massive project.

The South African Aluminum Industry The South African aluminum industry’s origins could be traced to investments made by Alcan in the 1940s. As part of its efforts to create demand for its ingot, Alcan built semifabrication capacity in South Africa to serve the local market. A government-coordinated development effort at the port of Richard’s Bay, together with a desire to reduce dependence on imported ingot, led to construction of South Africa’s first primary production facility nearly 25 years later.

The original Bayside plant came onstream in 1972 with ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Kenneth S. Corts prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.

hbsp. harvard. edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only in PGDM 1st Year – 1007 by Rakhi Singh at IILM Institute for Business and Management, Gurgaon (IILM-IBM, Gurgaon) from October 2013 to April 2014. 799-130 Aluminum Smelting in South Africa: Alusaf’s Hillside Project capacity of approximately 85,000 tpy.

Less than a quarter of Bayside’s production was exported. Ten years later, the Bayside plant was expanded through the relocation to Richard’s Bay of a similarly sized plant in Niigata, Japan, that had been shut down due to escalating energy costs. Over three quarters of the new plant’s production was exported as ingot. In 1989, South African mining and metals giant Gencor acquired a controlling interest in Alusaf. The other primary shareholders were Swiss aluminum producer Alusuisse and South Africa’s quasigovernmental Industrial Development Corporation (IDC).

Gencor was founded in 1980 by the merger of two major mining companies, each founded in the late nineteenth century. Since that merger, Gencor had been a diversified financial, mining and industrial conglomerate. In May 1993, Gencor announced it was spinning off its financial and industrial interests in order to refocus on its mining, metals, and minerals businesses. In addition to Alusaf, the companies retained in the “unbundled” Gencor included the world’s third-largest gold producer, the world’s second-largest platinum producer, the world’s largest producer of ferroalloys, and the world’s largest supplier of titanium dioxide feedstock.

Basic financial results for Gencor are given in Table A. Table Aduction of secondary aluminum had held relatively steady at about 30,000 tpy since 1980. Together with primary production, this brought total domestic production to about 200,000 tpy (see Exhibit 1). In 1994, semifabrication in South Africa remained primarily focused on domestic demand. South African aluminum exports totaled approximately 100,000 tpy, of which 20,000 tpy were semifabricated products and 80,000 tpy were ingot.

Domestic consumption totaled about 130,000 tpy, of which about 30,000 was imported products (see Exhibit 2). The Hillside Project Escom, South Africa’s electrical power utility, initiated discussion of the Hillside project with Alusaf in mid-1991. With aluminum prices around $1,300 per ton, Alusaf had suggested to Escom that the Bayside smelter was not economically viable given market conditions and might be shut down. Escom responded with an offer to reduce power rates dramatically if Bayside were kept open and an additional facility at Richard’s Bay constructed.

Escom offered to supply the smelter’s approximately 680 Mw electricity requirements under an unusual long-term contract. About half the world’s smelters operated under contracts guaranteeing discounted electricity for multiple years; often these contracts tied the price of electricity to the price 2 This document is authorized for use only in PGDM 1st Year – 1007 by Rakhi Singh at IILM Institute for Business and Management, Gurgaon (IILM-IBM, Gurgaon) from October 2013 to April 2014. Aluminum Smelting in South Africa: Alusaf’s Hillside Project 799-130

of aluminum and employed complicated formulas that imposed caps and floors on prices. The 25year Escom/Alusaf contract was unique in its simplicity: Alusaf would pay Escom 16% of the per-ton price of aluminum for every ton of aluminum produced, assuming the plant produced at its designed efficiency. While the contract did contain provisions protecting Escom from inefficient production, it did not protect Escom against fluctuations in the price of aluminum. Escom and Alusaf were also discussing whether Escom might take an equity stake in the facility.

As a result of high growth projections in the 1970s, Escom had built enormous generating capacity of 38,000 Mw, of which 8,000 Mw now stood idle. Rob Barbour, managing director of Alusaf, claimed that the high energy requirements of aluminum production made aluminum essentially “frozen energy” and that therefore Alusaf “will become an exporter of South African energy with i high value-added. ” For provision of all the basic engineering and technology for the plant, Alusaf planned to contract with Pechiney, the French firm whose technology had been used in over three quarters of all recent smelter projects.

Lacking bauxite and alumina operations, Alusaf intended to import the full 900,000 tpy alumina requirement of the new smelter and had negotiated a tentative alumina supply agreement with Alcoa of Australia and Billiton (a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell). This contract tied the price of alumina to the price of aluminum, a common contracting practice employed by about half the world’s smelters. For the Hillside plant, this contract ensured that per-ton alumina and power costs would always amount to 41% of the price of aluminum.

Estimates for other operating costs at Hillside are given in Table B. Capital costs were estimated to total $2 billion. Table B Hillside’s Projected Operating Costs ($ per ton) Other raw materials $143 Plant power and fuel 17 Consumables 32 Maintenance Labor Freight 38 68 40 General and administrative 32 Before the feasibility study was complete, Barbour announced that he believed there was a “high probability” the smelter would be approved. “In the meantime we hope to deter others from thinking about aluminum smelter projects,” he added.

“We want to frighten them off by convincing ii them that this one is unstoppable. ” The Decision In early 1994, tentative contracts for power, alumina, and the smelting technology were all in place, and willing investors had been lined up. The financing plan called for $1. 9 billion of new capital to be raised, about $830 million of it in equity. Gencor was to contribute $340 million in 3 This document is authorized for use only in PGDM 1st Year – 1007 by Rakhi Singh at IILM Institute for Business and Management, Gurgaon (IILM-IBM, Gurgaon) from October 2013 to April 2014.

799-130 Aluminum Smelting in South Africa: Alusaf’s Hillside Project equity, the IDC $270 million in equity, other local institutions $140 million in equity, and Escom $80 million in convertible debt. Three new smelters using the Pechiney technology had been completed in recent months. Now, Hillside was the only planned smelter project, and a number of other proposed projects had been cancelled. Equipment suppliers were quoting Alusaf prices 20% to 30% below those supplied for the feasibility study, and the capital cost of the new plant was now projected to total only $1.

6 billion. At the beginning of 1994, aluminum prices stood at $1,110. Aluminum-producing countries had scheduled meetings in the coming months to address the world glut of aluminum, but it was unclear whether prices would recover anytime soon. Barbour wondered whether he should commit to this enormous and ambitious project in the face of these uncertain industry conditions. 4 This document is authorized for use only in PGDM 1st Year – 1007 by Rakhi Singh at IILM Institute for Business and Management, Gurgaon (IILM-IBM, Gurgaon) from October 2013 to April 2014.

Project: South African Aluminum Essay