Acids, Bases, and Neutrals Essay

Acids, Bases, and Neutrals Essay.

Experiment

Acids, Bases, and Neutrals

Problem

Are common house-hold products pH balanced and neutral?

Information Gathered

pH measures how acidic or alkaline a solution is. The pH scale ranges from 0-14. Solutions that range from 0-6 are considered to be acidic. Solutions that are on the acidic end of the scale are low in pH, high in hydrogen ion, and low in hydroxyl ions. An acid has a sour taste, hence, will react to metal and will be corrosive; therefore, they are considered as an electrolyte because it conducts an electrical charge.

Such examples of acids that are hydrochloric acid, citric acid and vinegar. Solutions that are bases on the pH scale range from 8-14. Bases are high in pH, low in hydrogen ion and high in hydroxyl ion. Bases have a bitter taste and a slippery feel. Bases dissolve in water and are also an electrolyte. Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide and cleaning products. Solutions that are neutral have an equal amount of hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion.

An example of this is blood. Solutions that are neutral on the pH scale range are 7.

Hypothesis

It has been estimated that out of the first ten products, that five of them would be bases, three would be acids, and two would be neutral. It was also estimated that out of the last ten products, that nine of them would be acids and one would be a base. There was an estimation of twenty products.

Acids, Bases, and Neutrals Essay

Acids, Bases and Natural Indicators Essay

Acids, Bases and Natural Indicators Essay.

Nowadys, indicators have become technologically advanced and can be used for the main purpose of indicating whether something is acidic, basic or neutral. This is possible because in solutions of different pH, the colour of the inidcator will change simultaneously with pH change. This is made possible by pigments in the indicators. Hand made indicators include universal indicator, methyl orange, phenolphthalein and many more.

Acids and bases are diverse in this world. They are everywhere ranging from foods to trees to rocks and many more. Indicators can be used to determine whether these substances are acidic, basic or neutral.

Manufactured indicators are one type and the second type is natural indicators. Believe it or not, the majority of fruits, vegetables and flowers contain pigments which may be used as acid-base indicators. For example, Red cabbage contains within its leaves a red pigment called anthocyanin. This is present in many other vegetables such as capsicum, carrot, tulips and many more. This anthocyanin has the ability to change colour in a variety of pH due to certain chemical reactions that take place involving H+ and OH- ions.

Read on to discover the chemistry involved in these reactions.

Anthocyanins are complex molecules that have the ability to add and/or subtract hydroxide (OH-) ions. When anthocyanin is added to acidic solutions, hydroxide (OH-) ions will leave the anthocyanin molecule. On the other hand, when anthocyanin is added to basic solutions, the OH- ions from the water will attach themselves to the anthocyanin molecule.Therefore, anthocyanin is general name given to a series of similar compounds each with a different number of OH- ions attached. Anthocyanin is an indicator for the reason that each form of the compound reacts with light differently so that each form is a different colour

Anthocyanin can be extracted from natural plants and vegetables in many ways. A very common way of extracting anthocyanin form plants is to place the plant in low boiling point alcohols which have been acidified with HCl and boiling for a while.

There are other methods of extracting anthocyanin from vegetables. One very common method is boiling the vegetable in distilled water and waiting till boiling starts. The water reacts with the anthocyanin pigment which allows wxperimenters to use this water as the indicator.

Anthocyanin presents many vegetables such as beets, berries, cherries, fiji apples, eggplant, grapes etc with the red-purplish colour.

Anthocyanin gives colour to plants for a reason. This colour of plants and flowers helps attract pollinating animals to the flowers and aslo animals which help in seed dispersal.

Acids, Bases and Natural Indicators Essay