A brief overview of each of the seven designated educational philosophies:

A brief overview of each of the seven designated educational philosophies:


Behaviourism is a philosophy that focuses on observable behaviors and external stimuli.
In education, behaviorism emphasizes structured, teacher-centred learning with clear objectives and rewards or punishments to reinforce desired behaviors.
Learning is seen as a response to stimuli, and repetition and reinforcement play a significant role in shaping student behavior.


Essentialism advocates for a traditional and structured curriculum that emphasizes essential subjects, such as mathematics, science, literature, and history.
The goal is to transmit cultural and societal knowledge and values to students.
Essentialism emphasizes teacher-centred instruction, standardized testing, and a focus on academic rigor.


Existentialism in education emphasizes individuality, freedom, and choice.
It encourages students to explore their own values, meaning in life, and personal responsibility.
Learning is often student-centred, and the curriculum may be less structured, allowing for self-directed exploration.


Perennialism focuses on the idea that certain knowledge and ideas are timeless and should form the core of education.
It emphasizes the study of classic works, great books, and the liberal arts.
Perennialism seeks to cultivate intellectual and moral virtues in students and values a structured, teacher-centred approach.


Progressivism is student-centred and experiential, emphasizing problem-solving and critical thinking.
It values active learning, group projects, and hands-on experiences.
The curriculum is often tailored to students’ interests and experiences, focusing on real-world application of knowledge.

Reconstructionism, also known as social reconstructionism, aims to transform society through education.
It emphasizes addressing societal issues and challenges, such as social justice, ethics, and political engagement.
Curriculum often involves critical examination of social problems and encourages students to be agents of change.


Scholasticism, rooted in medieval European philosophy, focuses on integrating faith and reason.
It often involves the study of theology and philosophy alongside other subjects.
Scholasticism seeks to reconcile religious beliefs with intellectual inquiry and encourages critical thinking within the framework of faith.
Each of these educational philosophies represents a distinct approach to teaching and learning, with varying views on the role of the teacher, the curriculum, and the purpose of education. Educators often draw from multiple philosophies to create a balanced and effective approach to teaching that aligns with their educational goals and the needs of their students.

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