Health and Social Care

Health and Social Care

First Aid

Citation: Blake, K. (2019) What causes haemorrhage (bleeding), how to perform First Aid & More, Healthline. Healthline Media. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

Hill ford, G. (June 2016) First aid steps: Perform first aid, Red Cross. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

Macintyre, P. (2022) First Aid for burns, Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

McDonald, K. (2022) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid, Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

White, B. (2007) NHS choices. NHS. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

Williams, J. (2004) Bone fractures: Types, symptoms & treatment, Cleveland Clinic. Available at: (Accessed: July 08, 2023).

Health and Social Care

Annotation: In this document, I will be talking about first aid, what is first aid, the relevance of first aid in home care or individual homes, and how to administer emergency first aidAt the end of the session, learners should be able to define first aid and also to describe the types of Basic First Aid and treatments.

First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person with either a minor or serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery (Hill ford, 2008).

There are 5 types of Basic First Aid which are as follows:

· Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

· Bleeding

· Burns

· Choking

· Broken Bones

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is an emergency procedure consisting of chest compressions often combined with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest (McDonald, 2022).

It is a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

Those trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can help a victim of cardiac arrest to start breathing again.

The steps of CPR are as follows:

1. Check for Danger

2. Call for Help

3. Check the Victim’s Airway

4. CPR begins with 30 chest compressions, followed by two rescue breaths

5. Switch Roles with the Compressor (if available)

6. Continue Compressions until Advanced Medical help arrives


Bleeding also called haemorrhage, is the name used to describe blood loss. It can refer to blood loss inside the body, called internal bleeding, or to blood loss outside of the body, called external bleeding. Blood loss can occur in almost any area of the body (Blake, 2019).

To stop external bleeding most times, pressure needs to be applied to either the sides of the cut or on top of the cut.

Internal bleeding may not be known immediately, as such, the person will need a professional assistance.


Burns are tissue damage from hot liquids, the sun, flames, chemicals, electricity, steam and other causes (Macintyre, 2022).

Kitchen-related injuries from hot drinks, soups and microwaved foods are common among children. Major Burns need emergency medical help.

To treat a burn, immediately get the person away from the heat source to stop the burning; remove any clothing or jewellery.

Cool the burn with cool or lukewarm running water for 20 minutes as soon as possible after the injury. Never use ice, iced water, or any creams or greasy substances like butter. Keep yourself or the person warm. Use a blanket or layers of clothing, but avoid putting them on the injured area.


Choking happens when someone’s airway suddenly gets blocked, either fully or partly, so they can’t breathe or breathe properly (White, 2007).

If someone is choking, encourage them to cough.

Bend them forwards and give up to 5 back blows to try and dislodge the blockage.

If they are still choking, give up to 5 abdominal thrusts: hold around the waist and pull inwards and upwards above their belly button.

In most cases, this can be treated with a pat on the upper part of the back.

Broken Bone or Fracture

Broken bones or fracture is a break or crack in a bone (Williams, 2004).

If it is an open fracture, cover the wound with a sterile dressing or a clean non-fluffy cloth.

Apply pressure around the wound and not over the protruding bone, to control any bleeding.

Then secure the dressing with a bandage.

Advise the casualty to keep still while you support the injured part to stop it from moving.

A Short video on First Aid


On this lesson, I have defined first aid and the types of first aid, and how first aid is relevant in the care homes, care setting or in our individual homes.

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