CHAPTER I: The Problem and its Background
Study skills are fundamental to academic competence. Effective study skills are associated with positive out comes across multiple academic content areas and for diverse learners.
Learning is central to all our behaviour. Each learner is unique individual with different abilities, interests, ways of thinking and responding thus these characteristics have a significant influence on ones learning style. It is being realized that students use different learning strategies. They have different methods of reading, interpreting and coding the information. Sometimes these strategies are useful, but some students develop pathological learning strategies. To study effectively the students should be aware of learning process.
In many cases, the burning crisis that grips every youth or students of today’s society is the poor reading comprehension ability and their poor study skills and habits, preventing them of all chance of a satisfying grades. Studying is a major concept of education, and if the problem continues, more and more students will be rejected from opportunities they wished they’d had. Opportunities include future education of a college, a chance to gain important knowledge, or even on opportunity to receive a high-paying job, so, the study habits of each student are important for them to pass and to graduate.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Study habit is a technique or a strategy used every time a person is studying. Some students would have the same study habit or may have a different one. It depends on whether a specific study habit is effective for them. The stress on good study habits will undoubtedly improve the students’ level of performance. Study habits are important on the part of the students so that it can make use of their time effectively and purposely instead of wasting their time with insufficient study accomplishments.
It is a common knowledge that many students fail in studying; even those who work hard often study in ways considered unproductive. Several others are just contented with barely passing grades, never developing their skills and abilities to the highest level attainable. What to study, where to study and how to study are indispensable to every student in class. In fact, proper study habits are the tool for acquiring deeper understanding in different subjects.
Good study habits largely influence the level of performance of the student on the subject. In view of this, the researcher proposes to conduct their study on the study habits of students to help the teachers raise the level of performance of their students through the development of proper study habits. The growing number of low performers on the subject point to the need for the redirection and development of students study attitudes and practices in the teaching learning process. The research work is an attempt to address to this need.
This study is about the theorems of different authors who studied the different kinds of study habits. (a.) Dr. Larry J. Solomon (2002).
Many students entering college in the 21st century are poorly prepared for college work. Most have poor or no study habits, i.e., routines that are necessary for academic success. More and more students are entering college without the ability or know-how for taking notes and for critical or logical reasoning. Many do not plan their study time and do not know how to organize subject materials in order to learn and succeed. Unfortunately, if effective study routines are not learned or taught before entering college, as they should, the students must learn them during their freshman year and this must then be regarded as remedial work. Without good study habits, a student will not be likely to succeed. (b.) John B. Campbell (1982).
Prediction derived from Eysenck’s Theory of Personality were tested in two samples by relating extraversion scores to library study locations, frequency of study breaks, and self-report of factors which influence study location. The predicted main effects for study location were found with extraverts occupying locations that provided greater external stimulation. Positive correlations were consistently found between extraversion preferred level of noise, preferred level of socializing opportunities and rated importance of socializing opportunities. The prediction that extraverts would take more frequent study breaks was supported in sample 1 but not replicated in sample 2. The data are interpreted as providing direct support for Eysenck’s Theory of Behavioral Differences and mixed indirect support for his Theory of Neurological Differences between introverts and extraverts (c.) Dorothy E. Jhonson
In her “Behavioural System Model”. She stated that behavioural system encompasses the patterned, repetitive and purposeful ways of behaving. These ways of behaving from an organized and integrated functional unit that determines and limits the interaction between the person and his or her environment. Usually the behaviour can be described and explained. A person as a behavioural system tries to achieve stability and balance by adjustments and adaptations that are successful to some degree for efficient and effective functioning. The system is usually flexible enough to accommodate the influences affecting it. Therefore, it is a well-explained that through little efforts on modifying a student’s habit in studying, they can develop an organized pattern of behaviour useful to their goal of becoming a successful student who has good academic performances. This theory clearly supports this study that study habits are relevant to academic performance.
The researcher’s topic is all about the study habits of various college students of Arellano University – Pasig. The researcher should determine the Study Habits of college students and also try to determine what kind of habit is more effective for their studies. The input of this problem is all about the profile of the students. The students must fill-up the information sheet and include their Name (optional), Gender, Age, Year & Course. They should also state their different study habits that they are doing in school or at home. The process in this problem is to know the study habits of College students in, the test of significant and some suggestions of the Professors and at the same time the suggestions of the students, through survey type. The output of the researcher’s problem, after the survey that he or she will do the study habits of the selected students must improve and it should be known by the students.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aimed to assessed the study habits of the selected college students of AU – Pasig
1.How far in advance do you start studying for finals?
2.What time of day do you do the most studying?
3.On average, how many hours do you study for finals?
4.What is your favourite way to study?
5.Where is your favourite place to study?
6.What is your favourite study break?
7.Do you feel increased stress or anxiety leading up to exam time?
It is predominantly used to understand learning preferences that students use to receive and/or process information. Obviously, the ideal is to create instruction that will address all three learning styles: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic. Somehow, it affects the students because of their study habits and it may be good or bad.
Study habits are the ways that you study – the habits that you have formed during your school years. Study habits can be good ones, or bad ones. Good study habits include being organize, keeping good and neat notes, reading your textbooks, listening well in class, and working every day. Bad study habits include skipping class, not doing your work and responsibility, watching television or playing video or computer games instead of studying and reviewing your lessons, you will your work and definitely failed your subjects.
Study habit is the regular tendency or practice in studying. It is one that is somehow hard to give up. You need a study habits that will work for you: the results would be completed school work turned in on time and that you have learned what you need to pass tests. Your habits may not match everyone’s since each person has their own speed of learning – you develop the habits you need to be successful.
There are some strategies in way of learning. And some of it are: 1.Setting a particular tie and place to do homeworks, school assignments and projects. 2.Outlining and rewriting notes.
3.Studying with friends.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The proposed research will determine the differences and the common factors that may affect the study habits. This kind of research may let the students know their problems in terms of studying. By this, they will be aware about the study skills and how to improve in learning knowledgeable things. We can also expect that through this study, the two schools that we surveyed will develop some strategies or solutions in regard to this matter. If we come up with the majority of the students who have poor study habits, then the school can also help the students to avoid this act, of course with the cooperation of the parents. And also these students will know how it is to have a good study habit. This will also examine the students in their main motivators, as well as their materials used for study. It will help the min critical reflection in skills outcome such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing. The main purpose of this research is to enable the child to learn, whereas the teacher’s task is to facilitate the learning process and develop study habits and right attitude toward learning. This study will be significant to the following people:
Students. This will help them determine the effects of their own study habits to their academic performances. Students will be able to know and identify the most effective study habits to be applied for the future tests and examinations. They will be able to realize some of their poor study and choose whether to practice it for their own benefit. Teachers. This will enable them to be informed of the perception of students about their subjects. This will help them in order to make a move in helping the students in their grades and whether to make changes on their standards of teaching. School administration. The school administrations may benefit from this study by encouraging the students from different courses to acquire good grades through effective study habits that ultimately leads them to successfully passing the board exams. More so, this can be basis of improving curricular design and content that matches the nature of millennial generation. Parents. This will make them aware of their child’s behaviour towards studying or learning. To make them understand the study habits of their child really affects his or her academic performances in school and for them to help their students about it. Future researchers. Since research and education are a lifetime goal, the study may motivate the future researchers to the furtherance of this study to broader perspectives like not just limiting on the study habits but also self-confidence, value
system and resiliency.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this research is the college students Arellano University – Pasig. The limitations of this research are only those students enrolled in Arellano University – Pasig. Only those students of AU – Pasig are allowed to participate in this research. It gives concern to how they give efforts to their studies and on how they prioritize their education.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.Study – The devotion of time and attention to acquiring knowledge on an academic subject, esp. by means of books. 2.Habits – A settled or regular tendency or practice, esp. one that is hard to give up. 3.Study Habits – The behaviours used when preparing for tests or learning academic material. 4.Factor – “one of the elements contributing to a particular result or situation”. In this study, it refers to the elements that contribute t the improvement and development of the study habits of freshmen students. 5.Academic Performance – It refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different task give to them by the teachers. 6.Extraversion – (psychology) an extroverted disposition; concern with what is outside the self. 7.Reading Comprehension – is defined as the level of understanding of a text/message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message. 8.Cloze test – (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. 9.Develop – To bring from latency to or toward; Grow or cause to grow and become more mature, advanced, or elaborate. 10.Survey methodology – studies the sampling of individual units from a population and the associated survey data collection techniques, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
CHAPTER II: Review of Related Literature and Studies
According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008),they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presuppose that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best. “Don’t get too comfortable–a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. consider a “do not disturb” sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC.
A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if the college success can be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory (SAI). The inventory was developed in Britain and contains 47 items which attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1) motivation,(2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions toward academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were asked to express their attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude Inventory. There were 996 students in the sample population (413 males and583 females). A measure of ability (composite American College Test score)and academic performance (cumula grade-point average) were obtained for each student sampled. The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute a statistically significant amount of variance beyond an ability measure for males and females. (Mark E. Thompson, 2005)According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study
habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with anew acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so.” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said.
According to Pogue (2000), what is true about study habits was that more than thirty years ago still rings true today-students fail because they do not know how to study. The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. It’s a common scene if some college students fail to finish a passing requirement for a subject course. What is lacking is their ignorance of developing good study habits that are necessary for good academic performance. And to worsen their ignorance are their psychological conception of giving up so easily and the tempting distractions of the surrounding that lead them to a zero percent possibility of creating their own ideal habits. So, it has become a major trouble to college students who are known to be suffocated with loads of works from school. To elaborate more about sound study habits, Rothkopf (1982) referred to it as to whether students study at the same time each day, whether they shut off radio, television while reading and whether they paraphrase and write down what they have read during the practical instructions. Study habit also describes some external activities which serve to activate and facilitate the internal process of learning. Study habit is the daily routine of students with regards to their academic duties and responsibilities. Each student has his own study habits varying on his preferences with the place and time of studying, techniques in studying and more. It will depend upon the person if he will not get bored to browse notes and can procrastinate (postpone doing something) the distractions such as social networking, media exposure, gaming addiction and more. So these are reasons writers and researchers set some learning styles on related activities to effective studying. Based on the findings of Othis (1995), effective study skills usually come down to two factors: motivation and style. Motivation is the enthusiasm of a person to do something. Learning style is the method used by a certain student/person to study much easier and more efficiently. The following external activities as proposed by Rothkopf encourage students to develop good study habits and aid efficient learning. The oldest method was created by Robinson (1970). The SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite) is a method for active elaboration of material that you read, say in a textbook. Reading instruments are the best sources of information college students need when studying. Since the start of the basic education of a person, he is tied to reading for purposes like finishing home works and making research papers. Robinson gave a systematic way of understanding the concepts written in literary and articles. Before reading, skim the title, pictures, introductory paragraphs and summaries (Survey). Next is to ask questions about what you skim (Question). Third, look answers to the questions by reading (Read). Lastly, summarize it in your own words (Recite). In addition to Robinson’s conclusion, based on the findings of Seif (1997), reading comprehension skills are invaluable tools that contribute to better learning. They include skimming, scanning, critical reading and inquiry reading The difference of skimming and scanning is that skimming is the manner when you look at the main topic of the book while scanning is the fast movement of the eye to look for the main idea of paragraphs. Critical reading is when you state opinions about a certain paragraph while inquiry reading is the state when you find specific information without considering any emotions. Usually, scanning and inquiry reading are used by students to make their home works and projects. As stated by Abderisak (2007), time is an essential key. You cannot study properly without considering it; hence time management is most certainly a study technique in itself. Given the hectic schedules of college students which need balance between academics and extra activities makes time management really important. The schedule you develop should guide you in how to allocate the available time among academic works, extracurricular activities and social life.
Based on the account of Li (2009), there’s no need to force yourself to study 6 hours every day – that’s sweatshop labour! Instead we recommend a consistent 3-4 hours of study each school day as a healthy amount. That is why it is advisable to manage a schedule to prevent overloading school works. Many students spent much time of the allotted sleeping hours to cram their assignments that are due for tomorrow. It is unhealthy not to sleep for enough hours because it causes tardiness and tiredness during lectures. To support Aberisak’s and Li’s proposals, Landsberger (2007) noted that having a regular time and place for studying lessons, and making decisions about priorities concerning time and goals make a good study habit. Studying is a matter of prioritizing. If students let themselves be lured by the distractions stated above, it will cost them no good. As mentioned by Li, there should be at least three hours designated for studying to meet the goals of performing well in class. A student should also choose a place conducive for a better learning. It is where students can relax and concentrate on understanding the hand-outs and articles essential for the topic. As stressed by Zolten & Long (1997), a student should know his personal responsibility over what one does and does not do during his studies. When studying, one must be aware of all the dos and the don’ts of learning. As cited by Landsberger, prioritization makes good habits. It should be on the mindset of students that there are only two possible outcomes: to study and to succeed or to fail.
Based on the studies of Richards (2009), it will be a big help to divide up large tasks into smaller ones. Li’s proposal to limit study time can turn out by dividing large tasks to smaller ones. It is best to divide tasks to specific dates depending on the proximity of the deadline. As a result, a student can have more time to do the other requirements for other subjects. For an easier division of tasks, Covey (2007) proposed that being organized in terms of notes, lessons and materials makes studying less complicated. Organizing notes, lectures and other paraphernalia can save time for studying. It is a problem to some to find the information that they need because previous notes are not organized and are sometimes misplaced somewhere. With the onset of the modern technologies, Liu (2005) proposed that study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affect the study habits. It is always easier to find information from the Internet. But the main problem here is the presence of social networking sites.
Instead of adding information to the brain, students tend to read personal information about personalities and enjoy themselves through LAN-connected online games. So, sometimes, the Internet can be considered as a boon turning to a bane. But the above proposals were slightly opposed by the work by Gladen (2009) which mentioned that there is no definitive way to define good study skills. As every student is different and works well using different strategies. However, good students are ones who have a strong work ethic, stay organized and look for help when needed. As explained in Rothkopf’s citation, each student has its own study habits varying on preferences on different factors. As students little by little progress and learn from their experiences, they also little by little discover their own study habits. A certain study habit may be effective to one student but it doesn’t go the same way with another student. It is always in the perception of people that is usually hard to adjust.
The millennial generation is presenting challenges and opportunities particularly to adult education. Adult education, with the growth of technology and the array of choices seems, at first glance to be particularly well matched to the needs of this rising generation. Some of the identified characteristics by millennial students about learning are: learning moves from dependency to self-directedness, rooted in experience, linked to social roles and it changes from delayed learning to fast application and subject focus to performance. Millennial learners are generally described to bring their own history, strengths and challenges to college grounds. These students are used to being assessed, and prefer clear goals and feedback. In the light of this study, the researches presented the different characteristics of a millennial student. Researchers want to present how these students differ from the previous generation and specifically how they manage and deal with their study habits. Millennial students represent most of the individuals nowadays and are engaged more on the technological advancements. And it was clearly stated that technology and globalization have already transformed the world and the individuals; learning provides the tools to respond and take a hold of this transformation. As part of this millennial generation, researches have embraced the study about how these students adapt to their new environment and co-relate it with their study habits. Interestingly, there is an easy access to the respondents since all are part of the millennial generation. In conclusion, millennial learners tend to be positive, practical, and appreciate structure and schedules as a way to cope with busy lives. Millennial learners may have some striking personality differences with Generation X students, although the evidence is based on limited study. These students are used to being assessed, and prefer clear goals and feedback. They have developed skills in teamwork, creating social networks and organization. Some Millennial learners have had more sophisticated technology at home than at school, and may reasonably believe they have better grasp of technology than their parents or teachers. Because of technology, millennial learners are used to learning in an associative, chunky, non-linear style, and are able to combine different information in new ways. These students are exposed to a diverse variety of media in which to learn, and prefer visual and audio learning, with a focus on activity and achievement. Millennial students have high expectations for a learning environment, no matter if it’s by computer or in person. The key is interactivity, whether be it on a computer or in class. They need the feeling of connection and feedback, quickly.
CHAPTER III: Methodology
This study utilized a quantitative descriptive type of research. It is a method designed to gather pertinent information about a certain phenomenon. Its purpose is to observe and document aspects of situation as it naturally occurs.
This study attempted to determine the study habits of college students