Child maltreatment – included both the abuse and neglect of children.
- Child abuse – a term that is used for acts of commission – Inappropriate behaviors towards children
- Child neglect – a term used for the act of omission.
The omission is not performing an act that is usually done or expected by a ‘normal’ person. Like stopping at a scene of a traffic accident if you are a medical professional to assist, or not stopping if you are the first person, which is a crime. The commission is reforming an act that results in some harm.
Like, Glenn too much of a medication or too much oxygen or any other act that another. Think of it as omit vs. commit. It is noted in the chapter that the terminology as mentioned in many books and articles is often not clear and might be inclusive of both child neglect and abuse. However, the authors pointed out that it is important to keep in mind that the professional examination of child maltreatment has a fairly short history (early sass).
History of Maltreatment
Lloyd demands Psychiatric that edited the History of Childhood in 1974 Ancient History – A study of ancient history supports what demands stated.
Infanticide (acts of killing infants) – was the practice in many societies. There are 2 important differenced to not between ancient and modern usage of the word infanticide:
- In modern terms infancy is referred to birth – 2, while in ancient times it is birth – rays.
- Today infanticide is illegal and in ancient times it was condoned by society. Infants in ancient times were considered to be the property of their fathers and had no rights. There is evidence that in ancient Greece it was allowed for fathers to allow other men to use their sons sexually. Middle ages – laws forbidden infantile were passed.
This wasn’t a time where children had rights. Since there was a lot of poverty during this time, children were often considered allowable, and as such many of them were used for work, sold to others, Injured, and experienced other forms of maltreatment. Reformation – religious movement. During the 1 6th century the rise of Protestantism has a significant impact on how children were treated. Children were seen as children of God and as such, they had to be protected. On a negative note, humans were born with a stain of Orlando sin, a life that led to the encouragement of parents and educators to use harsh punishment when children misbehaved.
Important to note that NOT all parents accepted using such measurement in disciplining their children and instead choose to raise them with love and affection. Enlightenment – During this time, there was an improvement in how children were treated. This shift saw children – As blank/neutral slate. This view of children suggested a kinder, gentle parent, and educator. Rousseau – went even further and suggested that children were endowed with an innate sense of right and wrong. He believed that as parents and educators we should not try to mold the child but rather be sensitive to the child’s needs.
There was a shift from evil-to neutral to good. Although there was a shift in the way children were viewed and doesn’t mean that children were not being maltreated. Abuse of children particularly at the workforce continued until child labor laws were passed and enforced. By the sass, advocated for children started pushing for some legislation and by 1900 all industrialized states had some laws that dealt with child labor. The laws varied however in their seriousness of reinforcement. In 1941 – the U. S supreme court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act, which limits child labor.
Children under the age of 14 are not allowed to work. There are some exceptions but even with the exception, there are not allowed to work more than 18 hours a wok. Responding to children in crises: Orphanages existed. For example in Athens and Rome. Pope innocent Ill and Sir Thomas Moore didn’t reflect a punitive approach but rather tried to be as helpful as they can to assist children in need. Colonial America: First recorder cases of child abuse charges were recorded in the sass and involved removing children from unsuitable homes.
The Case of Mary Ellen: In SAAS.
After being left with a caregiver Mary Ellen was left at the Department of Charity and Corrections (1865). Mr. Thomas alleged that he was her father and without any proof of paternity she was given to him. Mr. Thomas died a few months later and his wife remarried. As it turned out Mary was abused by her mother and that was brought out to the attention of Ms. Wheeler. She then brought this case into the attention of the ASPIC (animal cruelty prevention!!!). Mary was protected under animal protection laws.
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPIC) Predates the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Mary Ellen was adopted by Theta’s family and eventually had her own family. As a result of this case and the attention it got, the society for children cruelty was sounded in NY. By 1899 for t Juvenile court was funded in Illinois and by 1920 all states but three had juvenile courts. In re Gaul – the process of denying due process rights to Juveniles was modified after the case of In re Gaul (1967).
This represents a major legal step in that after this case, Juveniles were granted due process rights such as the right to remain silent and the right of an attorney. Prince v. Massachusetts: another major legal step. Parents Patria: “father of his country” – asserts that the state is the ultimate guardian for children and the mentally incompetent. Professional publications related to Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American medical association, Psyching. Federal Laws in The United States Research on Maltreatment Only identifies children are studied.