Theoretical nursing is made up of statements which guides the nursing practice, provides directions on how nursing research must be conducted and proposes the answers to the nursing questions which might be generated during nursing in practice. Therefore, theoretical nursing involves the use of the existing nursing theories, testing and development of the nursing theories. In the nursing discipline the theory must be the driving force across all levels of the nursing curriculum (Utley, 2010). It is of great importance for the nursing theory to guide the nursing practice and nursing research in realizing full potential for the discipline. In the nursing practice, the research, practice and theory are seen as cyclical. In practice, the nursing discipline suggests hypothesis, ask questions, generate researchable questions and conceptualize of the theory guide (Bert, 2010). As a result, the nursing theory begins and ends with the practice. The nursing theories do exists in order to challenge the existing practice, remodel the structures of the principles and rules and create new strategies to practice. Therefore, the research, theory and nursing practice normally works together to define the nursing science and more so position the nursing discipline as a professional. In order to accomplish this, the theory must be integrated in all educational programs. The purpose of the work is to demonstrate how the nursing theory may be integrated throughout the nursing education programs.
The formative and summative measures which might be used at the course level
The formative and summative assessment in the associate degree nursing level is based on the viewing the research and theory in terms of meta-paradigm. The nursing meta-paradigm shall be based on the nursing, health, environment and the person. The meta-paradigm shall be used as framework for organizing the Associate Degree in nursing curricula (Grooschner, 2012). In the course at the degree level the nursing students are introduced into the meta-paradigm in order to enable them realize their nursing role in the society and more so apply their nursing processes. Therefore, nursing at this level is believed to be implicitly and explicitly as identified by the theory. The formative assessment measures at the associate degree nursing may include: identification of the theory based nursing practice, using the meta-paradigm in the nursing process and using the meta-paradigm to view the role of the nursing and nurses in the society (Grooschner, 2012). On the other hand, the summative assessment measures in the associate degree nursing may include: using the research findings in connection with the nursing professional, the meta-paradigm are used in the nursing field data collection and the meta-paradigm are fundamental in identification of the researchable nursing problems.
At the Bacculaureate Nursing level the practice theory research cycle is used to articulate the ideas. The course at this level normally uses the theoretical thinking to conceptualize the components and identifies the goal of the research in terms of theory testing and building (Galluzzo, 2012). The formative assessment measures at this level may include: the nursing practice is viewed as theory based, understands how different nursing models view the meta-paradigm and apply the theoretical thinking in the nursing process. The summative assessments measures at this level shall be: identifying the researchable clinical problems, participate in the data collection process and implementation of the findings, the practice theory research cycle assists in the selection of the data collection methods and assists the researchers in gaining access to clinical sites. The formative assessment measures in the Master prepared nursing included: the nursing practices shall be based on the nursing theory, there shall be critiques and analyzes of the nursing theories and models and leadership shall exists for use in the nursing theory in practice. Nonetheless, the summative assessment measures for the Master prepared nursing shall include: collaboration of the research plan, appraisal of the relevant clinical findings, creation of supportive research climate and shall provide leadership for integrating the findings in practice.
The Doctorate prepared nursing formative assessment measures shall be based on the nursing theories which shall be used to design the studies, generate new nursing theories and test the evolving nursing theories. Nevertheless, the summative practice theory research cycle shall enable the researchers to conduct researches which shall aim at generating new theories while at the same time testing them.
The evaluation measures to be utilized at the faculty level
There are different measures which shall be utilized at the faculty level to evaluate the nursing practice. At the Associate degree nursing faculty level the meta-paradigm themes and concepts shall be used in evaluating the appropriate intervention measures which might be adopted upon the common health deviations (Osorio &Visscher, 2005). Understanding the different Meta-paradigms in terms of the people involved, the nursing environment, the health sector and the nursing practice in general shall ensure that the theorists and the researchers their knowledge and principles to cater and handle the complex health conditions which might come on their way. The Baccalaureate Nursing level shall introduce the perspectives of the specific nursing theorists to intervene the aspects related to the disease prevention and health promotion of the groups and individuals. The moment the research meta-paradigm are realized this level ensures that the themes and the concepts are described according to expectations of each and every theorist or researchers. The fact that each meta-paradigm group has they specific needs and expectation it is the role of the researchers to design specific intervention measures for each group.
At the Master’s Prepared Nursing level, the models shall be used to evaluate the theories in practice. The researchers and theorists shall endeavor to use appropriate theoretical base to evaluate the appropriate nursing interventions required to meet the complex needs of the health programs for the groups and individuals in the society and in the nursing environment (Horen, et al. 2015). The nursing theory under the Masters Nursing Level shall use the nursing theory shall appropriate guidelines for criticizing and analyzing the appropriate intervention measures while dealing with complex nursing situations. In the Post Doctorate Prepared Nursing level, the different theory paradigms of science shall be used to compare and contrast the appropriate approaches to the theory development. In addition, the process of theory building and the nursing epistemology shall be used to describe step by step theory building as well as develop the nursing theories based on the researches which have been conducted (Jamaeson, 2007). The researchers and the theorists shall use the theory development approaches to evaluate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the building the new nursing theories while at the same time supplementing theoretical nursing paradigm cycle.
The formative and summative evaluation measures likely to be used in the program level 4
Formative assessment measures at Post Doctorate education level Summative assessment measures at Post Doctorate Prepared Nursing level
· Just like any other level of nursing, this level shall endeavor to generate new research nursing theories which have never been in practice previously through new researches and discoveries.
· In order to establish whether the nursing theories and researches shall be practicable in the real nursing field, the theorists and the researchers shall ensure that they evaluate and tests the theories effectiveness in the nursing environment.
· At this level, the scientists and the nursing theorists shall endeavor to develop systematic programs of research.
· They shall coordinate the funded research programs in nursing.
· The nursing theorists and researchers shall establish a sustainable membership that will set a tone for the theory based practice.
· The theorists and researchers at the post doctorate level endeavor to adopt the existing theories discovered previously to design new studies for further study in nursing.
· Through discoveries of new theories and researches the researchers and the learners shall be in a better position to generate new knowledge in the nursing field.
· The level would enable the researchers, learners and theorists to ensure that the practice theory research cycle(Research-Theory-Practice-Practice- Theory- theory) remains in practice.
· The postdoctoral study shall assist the nursing developers and researchers to develop systematic nursing programs and researches which shall significantly contribute towards development of the nursing science.
· The theorists and researchers shall bring together the funded research to refine or add the theoretical knowledge in the unique nursing field.
· The formation of the scientific nursing community shall serve as the mentors for the new nursing researchers.