The current trends of globalization in the business industry and augmenting gender and ethnic diversity are changing the attentions of the managers in a way to manage the diversity of culture in their workforce (McDaniel). The existing literature is supporting the argument that the diversity in the workforce of an organization is vital for enhancing the operational efficiency of an organization. In the United States, the women are getting empowered since last many decades. The diversity in the gender along with the races has increased the performance of the organization in the United States. The lives of the working females and their importance in the economy of the U.S. has been discussed in the later section of the current study in a decent mixture of the literature and the political and social history (McDaniel).
Media accept an essential part in passing on publicizing message over the social event of individuals, ignoring the media methods can incite passing on of phenomenal advancing mess (Vitell, Nwachukwu, and Barnes) are passed on before the wrong assembling of individuals. Media assurance by strong media configuration can provoke making of extreme impact on the gathering of spectators. The diversity of culture in the work force, high technology, and the skilled labor has the effective role in the performance of the company (Kernaghan). According to the different survey, the western countries are having the huge part of the diverse labor with in their organizations. Moreover, the comparison between the Asian and the western countries reveals that they have the more diversity in the employees. What the author is trying to investigate in the study is either the company is more productive when it is working with the diverse labor force and advanced technology as compared to the company having less diversity in labor workforce and out dated technology.
Purpose of the study
The intention is to investigate how esteems and qualities of Swedish and U.S. commercials vary on the premise of social contracts; are there any likenesses? The exploration is directed to acquire better diverse comprehension of the two nations. The establishment of the examination is a score of each Hofstede’s social measurement for Sweden and U.S. and its relationship by Markie De Mooij in advertising crosswise over societies (Hunt and Vitell).
The examination will uncover fascinating outcomes on the grounds that Hofstede score for every nation is fluctuating in an extraordinary arrangement for Sweden and Pakistan, in addition, Sweden and Pakistan are situated in two unique landmasses and vary, as it were, in topographical areas, thinking designs, political and monetary conditions, and slant towards religion and sexual orientation depiction (Thayer). The exploration is not just huge because it will feature similitudes and contrasts yet it will likewise discover, which nations and concentrate more on featuring racial angle in their advertisement.
The exploration will likewise help for diverse comprehension of Sweden and Pakistan in light of the fact that occasionally organizations (extraordinarily western and European) confront issues by consolidating esteems and attributes in their promotions (TV, magazines, and radio) which are restricted in particular culture i.e. IKEA needed to expel lady from their Saudi Arabia’s inventory which was then emphatically condemned on account of ladies rights, Saudi religious position, and solid male prevailing society (Sheehan). Recently IKEA needed to apologize over the expulsion of ladies (Straubhaar, LaRose, and Davenport).
Be that as it may, shockingly little is to be discovered concerning how associations today see and deal with a socially differing workforce. It is particularly obvious in the zone of the Swedish workplace. Due to this, the author can see that the absence of this kind of research in a Swedish setting makes a conceivable territory to think about. In this manner, it ought to be intriguing to direct an exploration with a specific end goal to examine how it is spoken to in all actuality (Straubhaar, LaRose, and Davenport).
Advertising is one of the promoting apparatuses and paid the type of correspondence intended to seek after the purchaser (Moriarty et al.). There are three fundamental elements of publicizing “Educate” capacity of commercial imparts item elements, data, and area of offers. Essentially it advises about a new item to the purchasers.
As per (Percy and Elliott) there are two groups in which client can be a part. 1. Business 2. Customer purchases, Resellers, makers, philanthropic organizations are incorporated into business showcase whereas buyer advertise incorporates family units and people who buy the item or the administrations for individual utilize. Cultures vary from each other on the premise of convictions and qualities. Distinctive Cultures have diverse esteems and qualities which are critical in one culture (gathering of individuals) may not be as essential in another culture. So societies influence the advertising conduct and inclination the business associations to advance their items and administrations agreeing the specific/particular culture for the advancement of items and administrations (de Waal Malefyt and Morais).
Understanding societies are progressively vital for worldwide publicizing, and Hofstede model of national is pertinent to worldwide promoting and advertising. The model clarifies different ideas of self, character, identity which additionally helps in contriving marking procedures (Percy and Elliott).
For this study, there was particular interest in assembling a variety of views and opinions to better understand how the client/agency relationship impacts the issue of advertising ethics. Consistent with an ethical focus, the approach will be normative rather than empirical. Regarding the goals of the research, (Sheehan) tells us that they can be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. We desired to learn about the social phenomenon that takes place between clients and their agencies as they develop various advertising messages. Assuming that one can observe the elements which make it a phenomenon, then the goal of this research is descriptive and qualitative.
(Moriarty et al.) Characterized a culture as that perplexing entire which incorporates learning, convictions, expressions, law, ethics, traditions and some other abilities and propensities obtained by man as an individual from society. To Hawkins et al., term, “obtained by man” implies that culture is socially learned. The scientist in this way takes a gander at culture as an aggregate lifestyle of individuals living respectively. Each is liable to his or her way of life, that is, the way individuals live, eat, move, trust, dress, sing, and so forth. The general examples of conduct by individuals acknowledged by them are affected by their way of life.
For culturally different organizations to work, it is sensible to accept that everybody engaged with the circumstance ought to have the capacity to deal with the regular dialect well, in the meantime as the corporate language ought to be reasonable for everyone included.
The primary research questions were:
RQ1: How the cultural diversity in the workforce affects the productivity of an organization?
RQ2: How advancement in technology affects the productivity of an organization?
RQ3: how a manager has diversified labor work better than another manager?
RQ4: What are the problem in working with people from different gender and cultures?
RQ5: What kind of ethical discussions do clients have about advertising and with whom?
The strategy of inquiry consisted of sixteen in-depth one-on-one interviews with clients primarily but not exclusively in the New York area. Six of the sixteen interviews were with subjects located in the Denver, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and Cincinnati areas. A total of seventeen interviews were conducted, but one was not used because the interviewee was not technically a client as defined in my proposal.
The original intent was to identify and secure interviewees through the Advertising Redbook. However, professional connections and referrals proved to be more successful. Twelve of the interviewees were people know to the researcher, and four were unknown. The desire was to provide examples of both. However, it was clear that at the senior levels required; it was more feasible to get interviews with known executives. Eleven interviewees were men; five were women. One respondent was Asian, two were Hispanic, and one was African American. Seven were consumer packaged goods (CPG) food marketers; four were in finance, two were in fashion/retail, one was a pharmaceutical marketer, one was a quick service restaurant (QSR) marketer and one headed up a non-profit. Three indicated that they had prior agency experience. Regarding titles, which vary by company, five were VP’s or SVP’s, four were Presidents or CEO’s, four were Directors, and three had senior or global and leader/manager in their titles (Kernaghan).
There were some ethical considerations that had to be made in this study. Most if not all of the participants are professionally well-known and are bound by confidentiality agreements not to reveal proprietary information. At the same time, they were asked to be as candid as possible. To help ensure the possibility of candor as well as the ethicality of this study, every attempt was made to respect the rights, values, and opinions of the participants. Every effort was made to ensure that their comments were anonymous and unidentifiable. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and each participant provided informed consent as evidenced by a signed consent form (Sheehan). As stated earlier, all questions were shared with them beforehand. The final study was also shared with them to ensure they were not misquoted.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of the data has been estimated using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The frequency distribution has been estimated for every variable. T-tests statistics have been calculated for the estimation of the results.
Figure 1: Impact of Cultural Diversity on Efficiency of Workforce
In the current study, the above figure shows that there was about 26 percent of the people are strongly agree that the cultural diversity has the positive impact on the employee productivity. While 45 percent agrees, 6 percent are neutral, 20 % are not agreeing, and the 3% strongly disagrees with the statement that the diversity of labor has no positive impact on employee productivity respectively.
Figure 2: Impact of Technology on Efficiency of Workforce
In the current study, the above figure shows that there was about 25 percent of the people are strongly agree that the advancement in technology has a positive impact on the employee productivity. While 52 percent agrees, 9 percent are neutral, 10 % are not agreeing, and the 4% strongly disagrees with the statement that the advancement in technology has no positive impact on employee productivity respectively.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between work diversity and improvement in efficiency of workforce
Hi: There is a significant relationship between work diversity and improvement in efficiency of workforce
Using the SPSS, the calculated value of T-Test = 2.18, that is greater than the 0.05 which means that null hypothesis is rejected and both the estimates of the study undertaken has the significant relationship between them. It means that the diversity in workforce improves the productivity of an organization.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between technological advancement and improvement in efficiency of workforce
Hi: There is a significant relationship between technological advancement and improvement in efficiency of workforce
Using the SPSS, the calculated value of T-Test = 1.09, that is greater than the 0.05 which means that null hypothesis is rejected and both the estimates of the study undertaken has the significant relationship between them. It means that the advancement in technology improves the productivity of an organization.
Limitations and Areas for Further Study
As with every study, there were some constraints in this one. As a qualitative study, it offers richness and elaboration in understanding the issues, but the results are not generalizable. Also, the optimal number of interviews for a qualitative study is always a concern. Baker & (de Waal Malefyt and Morais) advised that when trying to determine the number of interviews needed that there was no set amount. This advice comes with an understanding that one measure of having sufficient interviews is “saturation” meaning the interviewer begins to hear repetitions of the same points. This saturation was achieved, though it is possible that additional interviews would have revealed new information.
As previously stated, the topic of advertising ethics is at once well-covered, yet ripe for further research. It is recommended to move forward on two fronts: First, expand the scope of these interviews to include everyone who is part of the ecosystem, going beyond practitioners and academics as Drum Wright & Murphy did, beyond clients as this study did to include other ethical players involved in the process of advertising such as media professionals and publishers. Secondly, given that the AAF and the University of Missouri, School of Journalism have launched the Institute for Advertising Ethics, it would seem that the AAF is uniquely qualified and positioned to do a follow up quantitative survey of their members, to understand better the issues which have been raised (Sheehan). Once those two opportunities have been addressed, there is, even more, research to do among these groups regarding developing and implementing a set of best practices for advertising ethics going forward.
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