The history of swine flu dates back to investigation of the 1981 Spanish influenza
Pandemic, which infected one third of the words population (an estimated 500
million people) and caused approximately 50 million deaths. Swine flu is an
acute and highly contagious respiratory disease caused by various which became
a pandemic globally. It started as an epidemic, affecting many people at the same time is referred to as a H1N1 influenza (NHSChoice2013)
Symptoms are similar to most influenza infectious such as a usual tiredness, headache, runny nose, sore throat, shortness of breath r cough, loss of appetite, aching muscles diarrhea or vomiting. The University of Southampton spin-out company Prime Design was the first company in United Kingdom to come out with a diagnostic technique for swine flu. They produced high-tech DNA detection kits which detects results faster and more accurate than traditional diagnosis techniques. They main aim is to produce synthetic DNA that matches the virus exactly, without ever having to come into contact with the flu itself. The test can identify the occurrence of swine flu within two hour. Monitoring the spread of the swine flu virus will eliminate against a possible pandemic and will contribute to the global effort to the halt disease (Sciencedaily.com accessed 2015)
The H1N1 flu virus is spread just like an ordinary cold and flu viruses and causes acute secondary respiratory infections. Swine flu is most likely spread by direct contact with repertory secretions of someone that is sick with swine flu when they cough and sneeze close to you. The droplets spread and hang suspended in the air for a while, land on surfaces and can survive up to 24 hours. Anyone who touches the surfaces can spread the virus by touching anything else for example door handles, hand rails or remote control. People usually pretentious by picking up the virus on their hands from contaminated objects and then placing them near their nose or mouth. It is also possible to breathe in the virus if it suspended in airborne droplets. People with swine flu are like contagious for one day before and up to seven days after they began to get sick with swine flu symptoms.
The virus constantly changes its form, thereby eluding them protective antibodies that people may have developed. Swine flu can be treated by two antiviral drugs which are Tami flu given as a pill and Relenza which is an inhaler. They work by preventing the flu virus from reproducing and seem to be effective at treating causes that have occurred so far it taken 48 hours of the symptoms beginning. However, the drugs must be administered at an early stage to be effective. Use of the drugs makes also make it less likely infected people will pass virus to others. This can also reduce the risk of complications and possibly shorten the illness. Tami flu like any other medications has side effects such as vomiting, stomach, diarrhea, nausea or headaches.
The severity of swine flu in humans can range from severe to mild. In its most severe form, death is a possible outcome. With the 2009 outbreak fatalities have only happened in Mexico suggesting that there are environmental factors at play which can increase the severity of the condition. The prognosis is good in mostly health people who can catch the disease then make as full recovery if treated, but older people infants, pregnant women and people with poor immune systems, fatal outcomes like respiratory failure and pneumonia and death may occur if not treated
Before the 2009 the outbreak, it was thought transmission of the swine flu virus was limited between humans. Statistics of the swine flu from the Centre of the Diseases Control CDC) show that between 2005 and early 2009, only 12 human cases of swine flu were detected in the US and none of them were fatal! Recently swine flu was not considered to be a particular devas ting disease although fatalities have occurred on occasion. During 1988, a woman from the US often Wisconsin died from swine flu only 8 days after being initially hospitalized from pneumonia. America, Australia and United Kingdom have the highest recorded incidents, this might be because of the god health record system and since flu peaks in cold temperature it promotes the survival of the virus outside the body, remaining airborne for a longer period. Too much air traffic o and from these countries like Zimbabwe, Libya, Congo which might because of less air traffic, poor health data records and less awareness and vaccination programmers in place. The lack of adequate medical facilities, surveillance programmers in these countries makes it difficult to track the transmission. (The guardian accessed 2014). The disease may vary from person to person old people, young children, people with chronic medical problems, pregnant women at risk of catching flu. It becomes sever4e and can lead to more deaths in this group, compared to a normal adult with swine flu. Swine flu mortality rates vary greatly from demographic groups. It has been recorded that infants and school going age children have the highest risk of catching swine as compared to the adult and elderly group.
Severe economic and social disruption disasters can result from epidemic or pandemic -prone infectious diseases like swine flu.
Behavioral activities such as increases trade and travel, food consumption patterns, new medical practices, mass migrants of people, human conflict can predispose individuals to swine flu. The risk of respiratory infections is increased by exposure to cigarette smoke, which can injure or damage airways. Toxic fumes industrial smoke and other air pollutants are also risk factors.
The government of public health access and allocation of resources, including access to prevention programs and post-exposure treatment interventions. Additionally, internationally political factors can have an impact, including limited or non-existent educational programs to support detection, identification and verification, and response, as well as limited or non-existent information technology and telecommunications infrastructure to establish surveillance links with high -risk areas of the globe
These arise from insufficient financial investment in research and development to produce interventions procedures, technology, processes and training mostly in poor countries. It also includes insufficient support for a large number of programs and market incentives which help develop interventions for the disease. This is another factor that predisposes individuals to the disease. Young children are prone to colds and before the immune system matures, all infants are susceptible to upper respiratory infections. Smaller nasal and sinus passages also make younger children more vulnerable to colds than older children and adults.
People with AIDS and other medical conditions that damage the immune system are extremely susceptible to serious infections. People who suffer from cancers like leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease are at risk. Patients who on chemotherapy or other medications that suppress the immune system are also prone to infection. Certain genetic disorders like sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis predispose people to respiratory infections.
A number of studies suggest that stress increase ones susceptibility to swine flu. Stress appears to increase the risk for a cold regardless of lifestyle or other health habits. And once a person catches a cold or swine flu, stress can make symptoms worse by altering specific immune factors, which cause inflammation in the airways. According to researchers, there is a link between obesity and more severe swine flu which may be explained by physical pressure on the lungs. Studies have also shown that pregnant women also at a risk for serious swine flu infection, especially in the third trimester, when the foetus and womb compress the lower parts of the lungs. This makes it harder to breathe deeply and cough forcefully and may alter blood flow win the chest. The susceptibility of young, healthy people to severe illness with the swine flu (H1N1) forms a difference from the pattern of disease recorded in seasonal epidemics. The age group and pregnant women and people with chronic lung disease can alter the susceptibility of an individual to contact the contract the condition and can face the greatest risk of severe illness. An unhealthy lifestyle maybe considered as a predisposing factor. (CIDRAP 2015)
The launch of national vaccination programs, use of disposable masks and information leaflets were put into place as prevention measures. Banners and advertisements in local newspapers to make people of where and what is going on around them. Closing schools for long periods could reduce the spread of swine flu, ease its burden on hospitals and potentially limit the number of deaths it causes. The government should make it possible for the vaccination process to be accessible to anyone and not only a group of people. People should take any type seriously if there is an outbreak of swine flu and education which is already in place must also be taken seriously and people should make an effort to be alert about the epidemic situations. Healthcare professionals should know more about the virus and pass the most recommendations on to patients. They should also let patients know that once the virus is in a community, people should follow the precautions to prevent the spread of the disease. This means protecting yourself by clean, such as doorknobs. Guidance should also be given on using gowns, masks, or gloves when handling infectious material. The protective barriers serve as extra layer of protection and can be used if an individual will be handling soiled tissues or other contaminative objects. In crowded settings or when close contact with people who may be sick cannot be avoided, a face mask may serve as a useful physical barrier whenever possible, teatement5 rather than relying on the use of face masks or respirators, close contact with people who might be ill in crowded settings should be avoided. (CDC 2009)
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing not merely the absence of diseases / infirmity (W.H.O 1948) biomedical model of health is used to reduce a number of mobility and premature mortality. The aim of this model is identify people who are at risk from a disease; it focuses on treatment rather than prevention. This type of model for instance look at the party of the body using x-ray to examine what might be wrong with inside your body so as to have a good health . If an individual is not feeling well she or he will need to consult his local GP/ doctor so that they can make a diagnosis. If there is something wrong with the person a treatment to ease the pain will be given such as antibiotics. The treatment involves is based on the belief that there is always a cure to every physical conditions. Examples of the biomedical model of health conditions or diseases are diabetes, cancer, stroke and AIDS. www.studymode.com).
The biomedical model also looks at an individual’s physical functioning and describes bad health and illness at the presence of diseases as a result of injury or infections. Its levels of interventions are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention this is whereby a disease is prevented through immunization or encourage people who smoke through education them and telling them about effects of smoking and how they can overcome. The secondary intervention focuses on the progressing of diseases such as use of x-rays and early diagnosis methods. The tertiary prevention is whereby when doctors try to reduce further disabilities and prevent reoccurrence of an illness such as rehabilitation and many other.
Social model of health concerns the sense of having support from family and friends e.g. having friends to talk to and being involved in activities with other people. It looks at the society environment. It focuses on the factors which may affect our everyday health and wellbeing. For instance things which may affect health and wellbeing are poverty, poor housing, low income, population, unhealthy diet, poor sanitation unemployment environmental which can effect pollution and diet. It also focuses on the environment for instance if someone falls during working it will look on the causes which made the person fell. The is model aims to reduce inequalities that relate to age, race, culture, gender, ethnicity, social economics status and locations often as the preventable approach. ‘In the social model instance a disability is mainly caused by the barriers that exist within society and environments and how they affect our everyday health and wellbeing.’ www.studymode.com.
It looks at discriminating against those disabilities acting as barrier and social backgrounds. It also focuses in changes in the physical, economic and physical environment. Other purpose of this model is to make sure that the manufactures of food label the food those factors which can affect a human being by banning smoking in public places as this will effect environment as well as the other. On the other hand is concerned with the way society define health and illness. Within the
Culture is a collection of common understandings or meanings that a group of people shares and passed on to the next generation. People live their lives collecting ideas and habits, expectations, values and norms which they learn along the way, sharing and transmitting from generation, ceremonies or family history varies from society to society and is mothers and makes society operate effectively. www.shvoong.com/business-management .
Based on the beliefs of the two theories, they are all useful because social order is maintained within a society. Biomedical considers health as the absence of disease. One has to be ill first before they are diagnosed and treated. Drugs and surgery are the key tools. Biomedical believes that the human body is self-equipped to resist disease and heal injuries itself. A pill for every ill is the biomedical belief that every disease can be cured by medicine but the social model is about having support with family during emotional, physical times.
The history of swine flu dates back to investigation of the 1981 Spanish influenza