Spirituality is a broader perspective involving different views and ideas. Philosophy associates spirituality with human search for significance and meaningfulness of life. Pluralism reflects collective beliefs of different religions and cultures. Postmodernism represents modern views that contradict from religious and spiritual ideas. The worldwide view of people varies due to their connections with different cultures, religions, and faith. Prime reality reflects the concerns related to the existence of God. All elisions confirm the existence of God while the notion relies more on faith than proof. Prime reality depicts connection with spiritualism as it motivates people o search the purpose of life and existence. The concept of prime reality also addresses the idea of divine awareness that leads to true fundamental self. Christian theism reveals the infinity and divinity of God representing him as sovereign, omniscient and imminent. Prime reality is not a mere assumption but basic belief of life which human identifies as the purpose of life. In Christianity, prime reality is what God disclosed in the Holy Scripture emphasizing on the supreme authority of God in the creation of the universe. Through God created the universe but he transferred the operating power to the people. Postmodernism and scientism reject the religious illustration of prime reality and associated reality with thinking. (Cowen, 2014).
The second aspect addresses the nature of external reality that appears in subjective and objective forms. The question about the nature of the world around us highlights the idea of the existence of another world. People access visible universe through ordinary consciousness and the invisible world through altered states of consciousness. In Christian theism, the external world is the reality created by God and possesses the governing power. However, Deism and Naturalism represent different views on the reality of the world. According to Deism, the external world reflects the uniformity of cause while Naturalism emphasizes on subjective and objective reality. Human beings after death leave the physical world but live in the spiritual world (Peterson, 2014).
Spirituality also reveals the information related to the creation of human beings under God’s image. God naturally created humans as intelligent, moral and self-transcendent thus possessing good qualities. God give them freedom of making choices in their lives however Christian theism emphasizes on taking responsible roles and living according to God’s will. It recognizes humans as divine beings who after leaving the universe returns to the divine world. Humans in the world grow in the awareness that results in their transformations. Postmodernism and scientism reject the idea of divinity or God’s creativity. It demonstrates that human beings transform themselves through learning (Cowen, 2014). To understand spirituality one needs to understand the concept of death and what happens after death. Spirituality explains that after death a human being ceases to exist in the physical world, but the soul continues to survive. Death separates the body from the soul, and it lives in the external world that is an eternal world. Christian theism illustrates that a death does not end the journey of humans as they live in eternal world. Souls exist as separate entities living in another form in the eternal world. Postmodernism and scientism represents a different view of human death and states that life ceases to exist after death. It rejects the idea of soul’s immortality of eternal world (Peterson, 2014).
It is possible to know anything at all because God gave the ability of learning and revealing facts about the world. The natural ability of thinking allows people to use their minds and explore the world and information related to the creation of world. However, the idea of knowing anything leads o the question; Are humans capable of knowing the truth? Different worldwide views prevail regarding the knowable and truth. Christians believe that what human knows is because God wanted them to know. The notion reflects the idea that humans are unable to reveal anything on their own. Under such belief, truth becomes absolute and reliable. Other beliefs illustrate that truth is what people want it to be. Postmodernism rejects the ideology of absolute truth reflecting that humans can reveal the truth by using knowledge (Cowen, 2014).
People’s knowledge of ethics and religion allow them to identify what is right and wrong. God remains the central authority behind ethics because people associate right and wrong with reward and punishment. The idea also reflects that believers will be able to distinguish between right and won. Non-believers will e unable to differentiate between right and wrong. Cultures and beliefs of people influence their judgment regarding right and wrong however knowledge guides them to take certain actions. According to Christina theism, people will use their religious knowledge and choose right to act according to God’s standards. Postmodernism does not rely on the ideas of punishment and reward. Philosophical knowledge related to ethics restricts people from choosing wrong (Shelly & Miller, 2009).
The meaning of human history reveals the information related to the existence of humans since world’s creation. Christians rely on historical events related to human existence, life and death to find the meaning of life and world. Human beings rely on past experiences and history for searching answers to many questions. Historical examinations and evidence allow them to understand their roles and purpose of humanity. Linear historical events guide humans thus allowing application of available reasoning to understand facts. Postmodernism believes that history is a study of different cultures and their perceptions related to different concepts of life. It depicts that people can believe what they what to believe.
Essay# 4 Interview
Spirituality and religion have affected the worldview of patients that also control their decisions regarding healthcare. Spirituality and religion are effective tools for managing stress in patients. Albert is a 50 years old male suffering from Parkinson’s disease that he inherited from his grandfather. At times he faces difficulty in movement and trembles that also causes stress and anxiety. He is hospitalized for three months due to the declining health and loss of balance causing difficulty in movement and performing routine activities. The present interview reveals the role of religion and spirituality on Albert’s medical condition (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018). His answers to the questions depict how much he relied on spirituality for dealing with his ailment and stress (Puchalski & Romer, 2000).
How often do you indulge yourself in spiritual or religious practice?
I have faith in God as I am a Christian but I do not engage myself in religion practice (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Do you have a connection with a spiritual person and do you contact them in a depression of difficulty?
I meet my uncle as he studied Christianity and possess qualities of a good motivator. My discussion with him allows me to see things positively that adds strength and stamina to deal with complex situations (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Do you visit the church in a state of despair or talk to a priest for feeling better?
Yes, I visit the church when I face extreme helplessness. My communication with the priest helps me on consolation (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Who do you trust more doctor or a pastor?
I trust both because I known medical treatment is important for coping with illness while the pastor is also important for encouragement (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Does your praying to God or involvement in religious practice make you feel comfortable?
I often pray to God when I feel stressed or helpless and my talking makes me feel better (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Do you think that the caregivers must adopt spirituality in their service as it increases hope among patients?
I believe the caregivers must adopt spirituality in their service because patients are undergoing physical and psychological changes. They can motivate patients to pray and interact with God (Albert, personal communication, March 23, 2018).
Overall the interview went well as the patient was able to understand the questions easily and answer them in most appropriate manner. The questioned focused entirely on the patient and his views regarding spirituality and religion. The author of the paper believes that the interview was useful as it managed to maintain continuous pace with the patient. The interview is useful for considering the role of spirituality in medical and healthcare practices. It also exhibits a need for covering other aspects of religious practices and its impact on patients’ lives. The answer to the questions helps in understanding the significance of spirituality in promoting health and wellness. The interview stresses on enhancing connectivity of patients with religious practices such as the patient identify prayer as an effective tool to gain hope and strength. It also emphasizes on assessing patient’s religious and spiritual needs (Puchalski C. , 2006).
The interview depicts some barriers and challenges faced by the interviewer as it was difficult to discuss a topic of religion in nursing. The author lacked knowledge of patient’s belief prior to the interview that restricted him from asking broader questions. Time is another barrier as the author could only gather limited information. He also exhibits limited knowledge due to an absence of adequate experience. Limitations are visible, as the author did not inquire about how often patient engages in religious activities. The ending question of the discussion depicts the need for more questions to uncover the deeper feelings of Albert associated with spirituality. The limitations exhibit the need for relating patient’s beliefs with the spiritual practices practically adopted in nursing care. The challenges also pose the need for uncovering the shortcomings of nursing assessment related to patient’s spiritual and religious beliefs. The interview highlights the significance of learning about the relationship of religion with patient’s health and how it can be adopted for improving mental condition.
Developing a structures interview through well-organized questions the author was able to uncover the feelings and beliefs of the patient regarding religion. It reveals how well Albert understands spirituality and what are his views regarding its association with his health. The tool assists in providing appropriate interventions according to the needs of Albert. The tool highlights that the patient relies more on prayer so providing his opportunity of meeting the pastor or visiting church can be effective for his treatment. It further assists in finding the strong need for praying as he mentioned that the caregivers must adopt religious practices in their service. The patient repeatedly discloses in the interview that his connection with God leads to his contentment and satisfaction. The tool uncovers the relationship of spiritual needs with the psychological well-being of the patient. The interview transmits the viewpoint of adopting religious practices as a powerful tool for addressing emotional issues such as stress, tension, sleeplessness, and despair.
During the interview, the patient amplified spiritual concerns as he states that prayer or talking to a priest helps him in dealing with his illness. The interview reveals that the spiritual and religious practice can be used to motivate Albert towards betterment. In the discussion, the patient expresses his firm beliefs on religion. It confers the idea that through encouraging Albert to connect with God can help in the process of treatment and recovery. Spiritual practice is a vital tool that encourages patient towards better physical and mental health thus improving the quality of life.
The concept of best healthcare relies not only on medical treatment but also on incorporating spirituality. Patients with serious illness undergo complex situations that affect their psychological state becoming visible in their stress and anxiety. The interview suggests that adoption of spiritual practices will allow caregivers to encourage patients towards life and wellness. The nursing staff must consider the religious and spiritual beliefs of patients during treatments as it increases the chances of recovery.
Puchalski, C. (2006). Spiritual Assessment In Clinical Practlce . Psychiatric Annals , 36 (3).
Puchalski, C., & Romer, A. (2000). Taking a spiritual history allows clinicians to understand patients more fully. J Palliat Med, 3 (1), 29-37.
Cowen, S. B. (2014). The Christian Worldview. Retrieved March 02, 2018, from https://arcapologetics.org/culture/the-christian-worldview/
Peterson, E. A. (2014). A Review of “Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing.” Journal of Religion, Disability & Health, Vol 14, No 2.
Shelly, J. A., & Miller, A. B. (2009). Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing. InterVarsity Press