There are 3 levels of prevention. The common goal is improve health by promoting positive health promotion behavior changes (Falkner, 2018). Primary prevention focus on people who are well, with no illness or injury. This type of prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it ever occurs. Some examples of primary prevention include immunization and education about healthy and safe habits. Secondary prevention focus on people who are at risk of a health problem. This type of prevention try to detect a disease in its earliest stages, before symptoms appear, and intervene if needed to slow or stop its progression. Some examples of secondary prevention include screening, early interventions and treatments. Tertiary prevention focus on individual with health problems. This type of prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects. The principal goal is to reduce complications or disability. Some examples include rehabilitation, support groups, and patient education to prevent further complications.
Health Education can be applied at all three levels of disease prevention and can be of great help. The educational needs varies according to the level of prevention in which the individual is found and the patient readiness to adopt changes. The Transtheoretical model of nursing helps the nurse to identify patient readiness to accept changes. The TTM posits that individuals move through different stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. For each stage of change, different intervention strategies are applied.