Social and Biological reproduction (mostly women dominated)

Disadvantaged groups (notes)

In Canadian Societies the group that are looked upon as disadvantaged, are suspected to increases in poverty. The groups are;

Persons with Disability
Aboriginal People


Increasingly evident is that women’s economic dependency within a patriarchal society has made poverty very likely
Known as Feminization of poverty; means that, without the support of a man, a women is likely to be poor. (Stats on pg.206)
At every stage of their lives, women are more prone to poverty than men, and more likely to be trapped, and eventually die, in a life of poverty

The household as an economic unit

Private Realm

Public Realm

Productive Labour, earning an income (dominated by men)

Women Men

* Double Ghetto

Unpaid Domestic Labour *Highly paid, high-status
Poorly Paid (low-status pink- white-collar, physical blue

Collar jobs in paid work force collar

* Private Realm *Public Realm

greater suitability for -greater suitability for hard

soft, emotional, passive, & nurturant cold aggressive,

roles of wife, mother, and overall caregiver competitive marketplace

Traditional Pink Collar sectors clerical, teaching, nursing, social work, and domestic violence.

~ Double Day- to do a full day’s work outside of the home during the day, followed by the equivalent amount of time doing domestic labour required to keep the household operating.

~ Women were “pushed” into the labour force as result of economic downturn (recession). Single income homes were experiencing economic difficulties.

~ 1989, 58% Canadian women in paid labour force

~ Women are getting “pulled” out off traditional pink-collar jobs.

~ Technological Changes

– Bule-collar jobs are been lost, typically male dominated

– Unemployment in bule-collar areas has pushed women into the labour force, in some cases have become the sole breadwinner

– Has opened vast opportunities for traditional female-dominated women, example clerical work.

~ Lone Parents

– In 1991, lone-parents made up 13% of all Canadian families (separation, divorce, widowhood, and single parents after or no marriage.

– Female lone-parents tend to be young, less educated, and more likely to live in poverty

– 1991 30% of poor families were lone mothers.

– Become dependent on sate and face systemic blocks to their opportunities to “get off the system.”

– Excludes women from getting enough education and training to develop a career that might eventually lead to economic independence (early pregnancy)

– Old women, outlive male counterparts, may find themselves impoverished , living in a fixed income and all alone.

– Growing visibility of homeless women.

~ Children

– 1million children growing in poverty

– 1 out of 5 children living in poverty

– Children are more vulnerable to poverty, dependent, economically as well as emotionally, on the family unit (if the family is poor so are the children)

– Causes of poverty; chronic illness, physical disability, or emotional difficulties; poor academics attainment; dropping out of high school; living in unsafe housing; smoking; and early pregnancy.

~ Persons With Disabilities

Defined as ” any restrictions or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being”

– Considered FREAKS at first, b/c unentitled to work

– Routinely discriminated against in the job market

– Depend on state support, incomes tend to be low and geared at providing a subsistence level of survival.

– Gender and disability are a bad combo!! Stats on pg’s 212-213

~ Aboriginal People

– Strong likelihood of poverty, disease, and short lifespan

– History of hatred, discrimination, violence against them, and imperialistic state

– Structurally maintained in a situation of poverty example reserves

– SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION and racism at the hands of schools, and employers

Consequences Of Poverty

~ Poor-Quality Food & Health

– Families buy cheap food, usually additives and high fat content are common in low-priced foods

– Consuming high does causes cancer such as chroinic disease (always related to poverty)

– Lack of educations, cause of poor diet

– Illness during winter, can’t afford expensive winter clothing

– Food banks and shelters given to help the poor

– 40% are children at food banks

– 40% that use tat use the food bank are people with high school diplomas or more

~ Welfare

– Below the low-income cutoffs.

– 63% of recipients were families in 1990.

~ Homelessness

– Is a category for those who have no fixed address.

– Live in a capitalist society, considered “underclass”

– NO one know how many homeless people there are b/c no one monitors them

– Public Sector –fixed address, phone #, SIN#, driver’s licence, health insurance, bank account, and Paid employment

– Homeless people considered less than human, and belong in the gutter (humanity, is homefulness and property ownership.

– Rely on Soup kitchens, food banks, emergency shelters, public washrooms, public transportation, public libraries, and all-night doughnut shops

– Women’ economic dependency means that they are more vulnerable to becoming homeless.

– Concealed homelessness – means the condition of living temporarily with friends or family.

– Potential homelessness—means those, particularly women, who could be homeless at any time or will be soon. Dependency on male breadwinners whose paid labour provides a roof over their heads, these women are not yet homeless.

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