At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the:
8. Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?
9. Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and the perception of thirst are stimulated by a(n):
10. Thirst activates osmoreceptors by an increase in which blood plasma?
11. It is true that natriuretic peptides:
12. When changes in total body water are accompanied by proportional changes in electrolytes, what type of alteration occurs?
13. Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?
14. What mechanism can cause hypernatremia?
15. What causes the clinical manifestations of confusion, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, and coma in hypernatremia?
16. Vomiting-induced metabolic alkalosis, resulting in the loss of chloride, causes:
17. The pathophysiologic process of edema is related to which mechanism?
18. Insulin is used to treat hyperkalemia because it:
19. A major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses is the ratio between:
20. During acidosis, the body compensates for the increase in serum hydrogen ions by shifting hydrogen ions into the cell in exchange for which electrolyte?
21. Causes of hyperkalemia include:
22. In hyperkalemia, what change occurs to the cells’ resting membrane potential?
23. The calcium and phosphate balance is influenced by which three substances?
24. It is true that Kussmaul respirations indicate:
25. An excessive use of magnesium-containing antacids and aluminum-containing antacids can result in:
26. The most common cause of hypermagnesemia is:
27. Physiologic pH is maintained at approximately 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of:
28. Which arterial pH will initiate the formation of ammonium (NH4) from ammonia (NH3), referred to as academia, in the tubular lumen of the kidney?
29. Two thirds of the body’s water is found in its:
30. It is true that when insulin is administered:
31. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure results in edema because of:
32. The existence of hyperkalemia is likely to result in which changes to a person’s