Leadership Styles and Consequences in Contributing to Performance Objectives

Leadership Behaviors


Leadership Styles and Consequences in Contributing to Performance Objectives. McShane and Von Glinow (2018) list four leadership behaviors: directive, supportive, participative, and
achievement-oriented. These behaviors are shown through the situational leadership model explained below.
The behaviors can certainly stand on their own because they are styles.

Leadership Styles and Consequences in Contributing to Performance Objectives


Directive: This style is task-oriented. Here is the task, and here is the requirement. The expectation is to
complete the task in a timely manner. The expectations and completion translate into goal accomplishment
(McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). There is an authoritarian style of behavior that clearly outlines rewards for
accomplishment and disciplinary actions for failure to meet expectations. An example is a Marine Corps drill
sergeant barking an order of climbing a pole in 15 seconds. If not accomplished, the punishment is pushups.
Supportive: This style is the touchy-feely leadership behavior as it deals with the needs, status, and welfare
of employees. It is more people-oriented and provides emotional support for employees (McShane & Von
Glinow, 2015). Note: Having a heavy favor in this area can cause shortfalls in chaos and crisis management
situations as the “soft touch” has difficulty switching to an authoritarian style behavior.


Participative: This behavior engages employees in the decision-making process. It is a powerful behavior
style as it allows individuals to become stakeholders and feel self-worth with the organization.
Achievement-oriented: This behavior encourages employees to meet their full performance potential
through goal setting (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). For example, Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, failed to meet
over 20 of his stretch goals for Tesla in a year (Sitkin, Miller, & See, 2017). However, one might challenge
Sitkin, Miller and See (2017) on their comparison after reading the book Elon Musk: Tesla, Space X and the


Quest for Fantastic Future by Ashlee Vance (2015) due to Musk’s personality. He is a risk-taker. He pushes
the extreme on taking risks for bigger rewards. As an investor in Tesla stock, one may have experienced the
delay, but the returns he has achieved with stretch goals have developed, and the stock has skyrocketed, so
he is now a Wall Street darling.


Leadership Styles and Consequences in Contributing to Performance Objectives


So, leadership does matter. Leadership is like the fashion industry. It has many different looks and styles that
appeal to different people. There are many types of leadership styles, but for this unit lesson, the situational
leadership model developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard will be discussed (Straker, 2016). As a
leader, no two situations are alike. There will always be some factor that is different. Since we are looking at
the impact of leadership on performance factors, the biggest factor here is employee behavior and maturity.
Whether or not we realize it, we follow this model daily through our interactions with others. Consider parents
with multiple children, for example. Parents sometimes state that disciplinary actions that work with one child
may not work with another. The children have different personalities and maturity levels and, therefore, need
individualized reward systems. These parents are following the situational leadership model.


This model can assist you in determining the correct leadership style to implement in order to achieve quality
end results with your followers. The model addresses three major components: follower maturity, follower
motivation, and the correct leadership style to use to get the desired behavior (Straker, 2016).
Looking at the diagram below, the model is divided into four quadrants (S1–S4). Along the x axis is behavior,
and along the y axis is supportive behavior from high to low. Flowing through the quadrants are the leadership
styles to be used, which are delegate, participate/support, sell/coach, and direct/tell. As you can see, each
action relates to follower maturity and motivation level on the bottom in the horizontal box (R1–R4) with
corresponding maturity level (readiness level).