AERO 6120 – Aviation History (R02)

  1. AERO 6120Aviation History (R02)

Cite three historical events from Aviation History that at the same time impacted World History. Completely explain the aviation historical events you select and justify that fact that these events impacted world history as well.

Your answer, followed by this answer’s reference list, starts here-

            There have been many Aviation historical events throughout time but, only some have impacted the world’s history as well. Each event helps to improve security in the aviation world and prevent other risks from happening. It also helps to see the flaws within the system.

            One historical event is the September 9th, 2001, terrorist attacks. This is a very popular event and had a major impact on the aviation industry, not only in America but, the world. New security features and programs were put into place to prevent accidents like this from occurring again. Also, this event put more importance on aviation safety practices which lead to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) being created which is focused on aviation safety. This also showed the importance of having effective safety measures in place to keep everyone safe. Moreover, 9/11 affected the economy. This is because people were now afraid to fly, and people were selling their stocks quickly. Additionally, oil and gas prices increased due to people being afraid of the Middle East. Many people around the world started to consider all individuals from the Middle East as dangers making it hard for them to roam in peace.

            Another historical event is the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean. This was very important in both the aviation industry and the world. The flight that I am referring to was carried out by Charles Lindbergh in 1927 from New York to Paris. Today, this may seem like a regular commercial flight but, this flight helped to show the potential of the aviation industry. This made it easier for Americans to travel to different continents especially during World War II. Additionally, he removed some of the fear towards the aviation industry were removed and encouraged more growth and development within the industry. It led to increase travel, stimulating the world’s economy.

The last historical event is the first helicopter flight. This flight was carried out by Paul Cornu in 1907. The popularity of helicopters increased tremendously in the 1940s. It was used largely during the World War to help carry wounded soldiers. Additionally, helicopters are widely used today to help with emergency services such as recusing people from accidents and transporting people to the hospital. Moreover, this event affected the aviation industry because helicopters weren’t originally used as an airplane. This innovation made it easier to carry things that an aircraft couldn’t.

Reference: Davis, M. (2020, July 7). The Impact Of 9/11 On Business. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0911/the-impact-of-september-11-on-business.aspx

Wright, C. (2016, October 1). Flights that Changed the World. AOPA. https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all-news/2016/october/flight-training-magazine/flights-that-changed-the-world

  • AERO 6610Introduction to Aerospace Research (R08)

Please discuss why Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval is required before conducting human subject research. Include in the discussion the importance of participant “informed consent”. Give an example of two common ethical issues encountered in human subjects research

Your answer, followed by this answer’s reference list, starts here-

            Before any research is published, it has to be peer-reviewed by a board to ensure everything is correct and that the research hasn’t been completed before, In the aviation industry, this is the job of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). They also approve/disapprove research and modify research. They also ensure that all FDA regulations are followed. This type of research involves human subjects; therefore the IRB monitors the biomedical research. Protecting the rights and wellbeing of human subjects.

            The importance of participant “informed consent” is to ensure the participant is aware of what they are doing. Ensuring that this is something that they want to do after receiving all the pros and cons of the research. By the participant being informed, means that they are well aware of what research is about and intends to do. Therefore, they are giving their consent after being made aware of everything. This is important because it allows the participant to weigh the benefits and risk factors before making their decision. It also shows that the participant is invested and willing to help with the research. Also, this means the participant is fully aware of what they are agreeing to. Informed consent also helps the participant to trust the research more and reduces legal problems.

            One example of common ethical issues when it comes to human subject research is participants not being properly informed. Many researchers are not fully explaining the risk factors to participants, allowing the consent to something they are not fully aware of. This can lead to mental or physical issues on a participant due to being involved in something they don’t completely understand. By not being properly informed, takes away from the participant’s right to make an informed decision. This also means that a participant isn’t participating voluntarily but tricked.

            Moreover, respect for anonymity and confidentiality is also a common ethical issue. Sometimes personal information about participants is leaked to the public when research is supposed to be anonymous. This can bring harm to participants if individuals are unhappy with the research or its results. Also, sometimes participants’ information should be hidden from researchers so that the experiment isn’t biased. However, sometimes researchers are still able to acquire participants’ information. This is unethical because participants are participating with the understanding that they will be anonymous. Therefore, the information being exposed takes away their privacy and ignores their rights.

Reference: Institutional Review Boards Frequently Asked Questions. (2019,

April 18). U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-

documents/institutional-review-boards-frequently-asked-questions

Marianna, M. (n.d.). What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? | Insight Medical Publishing. Health Science Journal. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.hsj.gr/medicine/what-are-the-major-ethical-issues-in-conducting-research-is-there-a-conflict-between-the-research-ethics-and-the-nature-of-nursing.php?aid=3485

  • AERO 6611 Applied Statistics in Aerospace Research (R10)

Suppose that you are hired to work in the flight training department of an airline, and you are given the responsibility to improve the pass rate for new-hire pilots in the airline’s initial training program. You develop a new training method and would like to test its effectiveness. Describe in detail the experiment that you will conduct in otopare the effectiveness of your new training method to that of the old training method. In describing the experiment, you must state the research question, the null and alternative hypotheses, the data that will be collected, how it will be collected (and why), how participants will be selected (and why), the statistical analysis to be performed (and why it is appropriate), the level of significance to be used (and why), and exactly how you will know if the new training method is more effective.

Your answer, followed by this answer’s reference list, starts here-

            As a worker in the flight training department of an airline, it is my job to ensure that I am up to date on all training information. In order to teach someone something, you must first understand it yourself. To improve the pass rate for new-hire pilots, the new training method I would like to implement is the mental health section. I would keep the theory, practical and computer-based part of the initial training program but I would add a mental health section. In this section, I aim to see how pilots would act in certain situations and teach them to keep calm and focused during emergencies.

Research Question: How do stressful situations affect a pilot’s mental health? 

Null Hypotheses: Pilots show no increased ability to handle stressful situations after taking the mental health section of the training course.

Alternative Hypotheses: Pilots have an improved ability to handle stressful situations after taking the mental health section of the training course.

Data that will be collected: Quantitative research, meaning data will be collected and analyzed.

How data will be collected (and why): Data will be collected through interviews and systematic observation. I will be interviewing pilots who have/haven’t been involved in stressful situations to see how they dealt with and reacted to them (10 each). Systematic observation will be done to see how people respond to different stressful situations (variables) such as plane crash or engine error and how others respond to no variables.

How participants will be selected (and why): Participants for the interview will be picked from the airline with the greatest number of accidents per year and the airline with the least number of accidents per year. Participants will be selected using a survey (for pilots) for the systematic observation. The survey is intended to see pilot’s thoughts when it comes to normal, and aviation-related stressful situations such as a flat tire or running out of gas during flight.

Statistical analysis to be performed (and why it is appropriate): The statistical analysis to be performed is regression. This is appropriate because it would allow the researcher to see which variables affect the participants more. Also, for the interviews, the mean will be used, which is appropriate to show the average amount of participants who responded a certain way.

Level of significance to be used (and why): The level of significance to be used is 0.05 meaning the hypotheses will be rejected if there isn’t a significant difference between the regression and mean.

Exactly how I will know if the new training method is more effective: From this research, I will know that my training method is more effective because it will show that many people will react in stressful situations before thinking everything through. Therefore, by implementing a mental health section, people will learn to effectively control their emotions and not all the situation to take over their mind and focus on finding a solution using the training and knowledge they have with air traffic control’s assistance.

  1. AERO 6420 – Aviation Safety Investigation (R23)

Why did the United States Congress make the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) separate and independent federal agencies? Provide examples of where these two agencies could be in conflict.

Your answer, followed by this answer’s reference list, starts here-

            The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a branch in the U.S. Department of Transportation, which issues and enforces regulations over manufacturing, operating, and maintain aircraft. It aims to ensure safety within the aviation industry. They have many safety programs and resources that are used to ensure their purpose can be carried out. They also encourage innovation within the aviation industry and develop the operating system of air traffic control. Additionally, the FAA promotes safety and oversees civil aviation.

            Unlike the FAA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent agency within the US government which investigates accidents. They make reports on accidents and incidents that occur within the transportation industry. They look are aircraft, railways, ships, marine, highway, and pipeline accidents. They aim to find the probable cause of an accident and make safety recommendations to prevents future accidents and improve transportation. In addition, the NTSB provides transportation safety studies. 

            One example where the FAA and NTSB are separate and independent agencies because they are two different agencies with two different focuses. They would conflict over safety implementations. The NTSB makes safety recommendations based on accidents that have occurred whereas the FAA focuses on accident prevention and regulation. Having two different purposes, they may not trust the recommendations of each other due to it being different. Therefore, they may conflict over which safety practice is the best one to implement. NTSB looks at accidents so they understand and investigate first-hand how an accident occurs and how it can be prevented. Whereas the FAA works on safety prevention and wants to prevent the accident before it occurs.

            Another example where the FAA and NTSB would conflict is because the NTSB has more range than the FAA. The NTSB looks at all forms of transportation which give them more insight. Whereas the FAA only focuses on civil aviation. The FAA may believe that they are more equipped to provide regulations for the aviation industry because that is their main focus. The study and research only aviation-related information which would make them more equipped to handle aviation safety. On the other hand, looks at marine, aircraft, pipeline, and ship accidents. Therefore, their focus is on more than the aviation industry, suggesting they may not have enough recourses to focus on the aviation industry as much as the FAA can.

Reference: Federal Aviation Administration. (2018, May 2). US Department

of Transportation. https://www.transportation.gov/briefing-q   room/safetyfirst/federal-aviation-administration

Wikipedia contributors. (2021, April 16). National Transportation Safety

Board. Wikipedia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Transportation_Safety_Board

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB): Background and

Possible Issues for Reauthorization and Oversight. (2016, August

10). CRS Reports.

https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/R44587.html
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