The global ethical issues on GPS-enabled devices vs privacy

Requirements

Topic

GPS-enabled devices vs privacy

-On-Star service

-in rental cars

-commercial vehicles

-GPS location capability in cell phones

-Geotags on photos and videos

Requirements

  • explore the topic in-depth, showing clearly the global ethical issue(s) involved, any fallacies practiced to justify actions
  • what aspects of any recognized code of standards are violated or which could be applied.  
  • Includes a clear ethical analysis and an ethical theory.
  • Ethical analysis must include materials from here

(see below)

  • explain how technology has played a key role in causing or exacerbating the global ethical dilemma.
  • Counterarguments presented and analyzed
  • minimum of 5 quality references from academic or pop culture
  • minimum 6 pgs double space
  • References must be done in IEEE style, and should start on a new page. In-line citations and reference numbering will be done in the IEEE fashion. References should be dated within the past 3 years.  Each reference is double-spaced
  • Web-based references are permissible, but should be solid articles, not blogs, forum posts, or multimedia links

Paper Format

-must include an abstract

Ethical Analysis should include info from:

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Pattern recognition skills constitute a kind of

knowledge

• Ability to detect ethical situations & make

judgments is an example of pattern

recognition

• Bynum presents a case analysis method for

computer ethics

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• 4 important questions:

– What is a policy to guide our actions?

– How does one determine whether there are

existing policies that adequately cover the

situation in question?

– How does one formulate new policies to deal

with new situations that cannot be resolved by

existing policies?

– How does one ethically justify newly formulated

policies?

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Policies to guide one’s conduct:

– Most people understand usual standards of right

& wrong within their community and can adopt

traditional solutions

– Ethical principles & practices are social

phenomena created & sustained by complex

social processes

– If behavior is outside the norms, society exerts

peer pressure (or law enforcement) to motivate

better behavior

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• For professions, behavior is also governed

by:

– Accepted standards of good practice

– Professional code of ethics

– Employer’s code of conduct

• In a “reasonably just” society, most unethical

actions are also illegal

• Policies for conduct come from laws, rules,

principles, and practices

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Sources of policies for conduct:

– International treaties & agreements

– Laws of nations, states, provinces, cities, etc.

– Regulations established by govt. agencies

– Standards of good practice for the profession

– Professional code of ethics

– Corporate policies

– Community & personal values

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Problems:

– Societal laws may be unjust or unfair

– Personal/family values may be biased/prejudiced

– Corporate policies may be socially destructive

– There may be conflict between laws in different

jurisdictions/countries

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Developing ethical judgment:

– Depends on experience (Aristotle: “wisdom

comes with age”)

– There are no algorithms that will guarantee the

validity of ethical deliberation

– Heuristic methods can guide the process

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Method of Case Analysis

– Preliminary: Keep an ethical analysis log:

details of observations, conversations, findings,

suggestions (an audit trail)

1. Take the ethical point of view – importance of

equality, justice, and respect

2. Develop a detailed description of the case

a. Limit consideration to facts actually presented or

strongly implied

b. Stick to ethically relevant facts (those that would

affect the ethical conclusion if left out)

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Method of Case Analysis (cont’d.)

3. Identify key issues and determine whether

existing policies apply

a. If existing policies apply, select a solution

b. If not, continue the process

4. Call upon your own ethical knowledge & skills

a. Think of precedents & analogies

b. Use your natural sensitivities about giving offense

c. Engage in role-playing & apply your ability to

sympathize

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Method of Case Analysis (cont’d.)

5. Get advice from others (especially those with

experience)

6. Try to use one or more systematic analysis

techniques:

a. Professional standards analysis

b. Roles & responsibilities analysis

c. Stakeholder analysis

d. Systematic policy analysis

e. Ethical-theory analysis

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Method of Case Analysis (cont’d.)

7. Draw relevant ethical conclusions

8. Draw relevant lessons about the future

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Ethical Theories:

– Utilitarian ideas

– Aristotelian ideas

– Kantian ideas

– Rights approach

– Deontological (Duty-Based) approach

– Virtue approach

– Fairness or justice approach

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Utilitarian ideas – bring about the greatest

benefit and least harm for greatest number

of people:

Principle of utility: something is good if it promotes

benefits and bad if it promotes harm

Principle of equality: Cannot favor one person over

another

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Flaws inherent in Utilitarianism:

– To achieve the collective best result, we may

have to violate the rights of some individuals

The common good is not necessarily the sum of the

interests of individuals

– “Since theft is the first labor saving device, the

utilitarian principle will tend to lead to the

collective use of government power so as to

redistribute income in order to gain the ‘greatest

happiness’ in society.” (Paul A. Cleveland)

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Aristotelian ideas – virtues & vices

– Ethical virtues are rational traits that occupy

middle ground between unreasonable extremes

– Focuses on development of good character

traits, with the belief that good decisions will

result

• Flaws:

– Good intentions do not always lead to good

results

– What is virtuous?

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Kantian ideas – morality is fixed; respect for

persons:

– Categorical imperative: every act is either

universally right or wrong, and one should never

do wrong acts; one should always act out of

duty

• Flaws:

– When faced with two conflicting needs, you must

break one imperative

– Ethicality of an action may be context-sensitive

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Rights approach – the ethical action is the

one that best protects and respects the

moral rights and dignity of those affected

– They have a right to be treated as ends and not

merely as means to other ends

• Flaws:

– No agreed-upon set of ethical rights

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Deontological (Duty-Based) approach –

doing what is right is not about the

consequences of our actions (something over

which we ultimately have no control) but

about having the proper intention in

performing the action

• Flaws:

– Determining ethical obligations requires

discovering rules of behavior that are not

contradicted by reason

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Virtue approach – ethical actions ought to be

consistent with ideal virtues that provide for

the full development of our humanity

– Values like truth, beauty, honesty, courage,

compassion, generosity, tolerance, love, fidelity,

integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence

– “What kind of person will I become if I do this?” or

“Is this action consistent with acting at my best?“

• Flaws:

– No agreement on those values

Ethical Decision-Making & Case

Analysis (Bynum)

• Fairness or Justice approach – ethical actions

treat all human beings equally – or if

unequally, then fairly based on some

standard that is defensible

– We pay people more based on their harder work

or the greater amount that they contribute to an

organization

• Flaws:

– Fairness of the starting point, not the outcome,

is the principle for what is considered just

FORMAT OF PAPER

Abstract

This is a very brief synopsis of the entire paper, stating what the issue is and some idea of the approach or analysis used.  You may also wish to state what you intend to show in this paper. The abstract will be a single paragraph.

Title of the Paper

1  INTRODUCTION

This is the start of your paper.  The first paragraph should briefly introduce the problem or issues, without too much detail.  Briefly state what you intend to show in this paper. All should be double-spaced, as shown in this format sample. Margins are 1” on all sides. Add a page header as shown. Use fonts and font sizes exactly as shown in this document.

Paragraph two should outline the structure of your paper, in a fashion similar to this.  This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 presents a detailed description of the problem or issue, Section 2 describes…, and Section N presents conclusions. This part of the paper should be only one or two paragraphs long.  Generally, two paragraphs is sufficient for the introduction.

2.  BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE  (or whatever is appropriate for your topic)

Major section numbers should then commence, using the heading formats shown below.  Any figures or charts should be small in size, and may not be counted in the page count.  They should be labeled “Figure a.b” where a represents the section number, and b represents the sequential numbering of figures within that section.

2.1 Section subheading

You must have a minimum of five separate references, from different sources (i.e., do not use five web pages from the same web site). References must be done in IEEE style, and should start on a new page. In-line citations and reference numbering will be done in the IEEE fashion. References should be dated within the past 3 years.  Each reference is double-spaced as shown at the end of this format document. References should appear in the References section in the order in which they are used in the body of the paper [1], not alphabetically.  Inline citations should use reference document numbers instead of author names [2].  An easy way to get the References format correct is to use the Citation Machine web site to build your references, located at https://www.citationmachine.net/style   At the top of this page, select IEEE, then select the type of reference (journal, book, etc.).  Then enter the information on the associated screen, and let this web site build the correct reference format for you, which can then be copied and pasted into your References section.  Build the references as you write the paper, so that you will not have to go back and determine the source of the material in your paper. You can also use Microsoft Word’s reference generator.

Web-based references are permissible, but should be solid articles, not blogs, forum posts, or multimedia links (unless absolutely central to your topic). ). Do not use Wikipedia, Yahoo Answers, or other non-academic encyclopedias or answer sites.  Dictionaries do not count as one of your five references. If the web article is from a newspaper for journal site, treat the article as if it is a print reference.  If you have problems determining how to cite a source, contact the instructor for assistance.

If a single reference is used more than once in the paper, its number remains the same throughout the paper.  Do not list the same reference more than once in the References section.

For the purposes of this assignment, page count should consider only the body of the paper.  Do not count the Title page, abstract page, reference page(s), or diagrams/images when determining if you have met the page count requirements. Minimum page count for this assignment is 5 pages double-spaced. Maximum is 8 pages double-spaced. Images should not be used in this research paper.

A research paper should never use first person (I, me, my) or second person (you, yours).  Only third person should be used. It should not have a chatty tone as might be found in a magazine column, but should be a formal, educational tone.  Your goal is to inform the reader about the topic, give him/her an in-depth understanding, and then present your conclusions. The paper should have minimal “what is” or “how to”, because this paper’s audience is echnologically savvy, and the paper’s goal is to do an ethical and global analysis of your issue.

Direct quotes from your references should almost never be used.  You must demonstrate that you can research, read, understand, and discuss your topic in your own words. Cobbling together a set of quoted passages will earn a grade of F, regardless of the use of citations.

Make frequent backups of your paper as you work on it.  You may choose to leave the formatting details until the very end, but plan at least an hour or two to get the formatting correct. Remember the Undo button when Word does not understand what you intended for it to do.

Anti-plagiarism software will be used to check your paper, and all references will be also be checked for accuracy.  Simply changing a few words in each sentence and adding a citation is not acceptable – it is plagiarism.  You are expected to read and understand the material, and be able to express it in your own words.  When you do so, you will still use a citation to give credit to the original author of the material. Plagiarism will result in heavy penalties. For more detailed information on what constitutes plagiarism, please take 15 minutes to read these articles to avoid a failing grade on the paper:

2. 2 Section subheading

This shows the numbering for subsections.

3. NEXT SECTION MAJOR HEADING

3.1 Section subheading

Remember that the main purpose of your paper is to perform a global analysis of your topic  and an ethical analysis of all sides of the issue.  Present your global analysis by contrasting how your topic effects / is handled in at least two different countries or regions; you must mention at least two different countries (or regions) by name and give concrete examples! This is the main focus for the paper. For your ethical analysis, give a one or two sentence description of the ethical theory approach(es) that will be used. Then show how using this ethical theory approach can lead to a conclusion that the issue is ethical or unethical. The ethical analysis may be a separate section, or it may be woven into the analysis as the various aspects of the issue are presented. If your paper does not use an ethical theory and include a global analysis of the issue, the paper will not earn a good grade. The majority of your paper should NOT be about what the technology is or how it works.  The majority of your paper should be an exploration and analysis of the global and ethical issues. Be sure to clearly indicate why technology created or helped to create this ethical issue.

N. CONCLUSIONS  (substitute the appropriate section number for N and remove this note)

Paragraph(s) which summarizes your paper. Tell what you have shown and make conclusions. The paper does not have to take a position on whether the issue it presented is ethical or not.  This section may simply recap what has been presented in the paper.  Don’t forget to use the spell checker and grammar checker available in Microsoft Word.  The overall quality of your writing is also being graded.

REFERENCES

  • Cheng, P., Kilis, D., & Knight, F. (1997). Knowledge assessment using fuzzy conceptual representation. Proceedings of the 1997 ACM symposium on Applied Computing, 3-9. (sample to show formatting only)
  • <next reference>…
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