Maternal Mental Health Disorder impacts mothers globally

NOTES

  • Maternal Mental Health Disorder impacts mothers globally. One in three women experience birth trauma associated with the type of delivery or medical interventions
  • One in five women face maternal mental disorders and can affect the entire family
  • To identify women who experienced trauma during childbirth and work with them to cope effectively
  • Data collection will guide the practice of Providers in this setting to eliminate factors that can contribute to these outcomes

Summary

  • Trauma can have a negative impact on the mother-baby dyad
  • Early screening is essential in maintaining the mother’s wellbeing
  • Debriefing after birth is a critical piece to assist closure on their unexpected birth experiences
  • No matter how their birth played out, debriefing with the mother and the team is vital to provide the opportunity to talk about their memories, thoughts, feelings, and birth experience

Annotated Bibliography- Perinatal Mental Health

 Perinatal mental health is significant to women. Since they are vulnerable to experiencing mental illnesses during pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period, this may affect their family relationships and infant development. In this context, this paper provides an annotated bibliography on perinatal mental health.

Bayrampour, H., Hapsari, A., & Pavlovic, J. (2018). Barriers to addressing perinatal mental

health issues in midwifery settings. Midwifery, 59, 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.12.020

This peer-reviewed article investigates the barriers encountered by midwives in addressing perinatal mental health issues. Midwives are among the healthcare practitioners associated with women in the perinatal period. The study identifies the lack of adequate training as one of the barriers preventing midwives from addressing perinatal mental illnesses in women, which results in a lack of clarity in their scope of practice. Additionally, the study identifies that bureaucratic processes and system-level barriers are diverse and complex and are thus linked to the failure to address perinatal mental health. This is a systematic study and hence has high statistical power, thus confirming the research’s reliability and validity.

Additionally, it identifies the factors leading to the creation of barriers in addressing perinatal mental health by midwives and recommended measures for improving the situation. I intend to use it in my nursing capstone course research on account of its high statistical power.

Beck, C., & Watson, S. (2016). Posttraumatic growth after birth trauma. MCN, The American

Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 41(5), 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1097/nmc.0000000000000259

Beck and Watson (2016) investigate the posttraumatic growth after birth trauma. The study uses a sample of 15 mothers to understand their experiences after experiencing birth trauma. As they had to accept their new reality, most mothers emerged very strong from birth trauma. Such experiences, the study reveals, can promote personal growth after traumatic birth experiences and is significant as it illustrates that mothers can emerge successfully from their posttraumatic stress.

Additionally, this study’s results may be used to instill courage in other mothers and help them understand that they are not the only ones experiencing birth trauma and that they would eventually overcome it. Since the study used primary data, it has strong statistical power and shows what mothers go through. Such experiences may be used to develop better mitigation strategies. The study is significant, and I intend to use it in my nursing capstone course.

Dietz, H. P., Wilson, P. D., & Milsom, I. (2016). Maternal birth trauma: Why should it matter to

urogynaecologists? Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 28(5), 441–448. https://doi.org/10.1097/gco.0000000000000304

The article explains why the issue of maternal birth trauma should matter to urogynaecologists. According to the study, the leading causes of maternal birth trauma may arise due to birth and may lead to later morbidity of the mother. The identified causes of maternal birth trauma include levator trauma and anal sphincter muscle tears. The study’s summary shows that there are more child-related major maternal traumas than perceived. Thus, to reduce maternal trauma, urogynaecologists should be involved. The review uses evidence from other sources to support its sentiments and can thus be used as a reliable source of information and evidence. However, it does not directly indicate how urogynaecologists are essential in reducing major maternal trauma. I will use this study in my nursing course capstone to describe the healthcare practitioners’ role in mitigating perinatal mental health issues.

Field, S., Abrahams, Z., Woods, D. L., Turner, R., Onah, M. N., Kaura, D. K., & Honikman, S.

(2019). Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v11i1.1902

The study investigates the effect of continuous professional development on maternal mental health. Global health is changing; thus, there is a need for constant professional development involvement, ensuring significant maternal mental health improvement. Maternal mental health can be fostered by improving mental health literacy and reducing maternal mental illnesses. Field et al. (2019) analyzed The Better care Maternal Mental Health Book for its effectiveness and found that an increase in maternal knowledge has a significant role in improving maternal health. Thus, creating awareness about maternal healthcare may be used to sensitize people about curbing mental illnesses. This study will indicate how an increase in maternal mental healthcare knowledge will be an effective intervention in promoting maternal mental health.

Hazell Raine, K., Nath, S., Howard, L. M., Cockshaw, W., Boyce, P., Sawyer, E., & Thorpe, K.

(2019). Associations between prenatal maternal mental health indices and mother-infant relationship quality 6 to 18 months’ postpartum: A systematic review. Infant Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21825

Maternal mental health issues may affect children’s psychosocial and psychological development because it affects the mother-infant relationship quality. According to this study, maternal mental illnesses result in poor mother-infant relationship quality. Owing to limited information, the author conducted a systematic review of the area. The analysis would have been more comprehensive and shed more light on the topic had it also investigated why maternal mental health is related to the mother-infant relationship quality. The study is useful and significant to my research as it reveals the effect of maternal mental health problems.

Holden, G., Corter, A. L., Hatters‐Friedman, S., & Soosay, I. (2019). Brief report. A qualitative

study of maternal mental health services in New Zealand: Perspectives of māori and pacific mothers and midwives. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/appy.12369

This qualitative study investigates mental health services in New Zealand using focus groups and interviews with maternity carers and mothers to identify their challenges. It also speaks of significant gaps in maternal mental health services. The study should have proceeded to identify these gaps, which would have enabled the researchers to develop practical recommendations on the interventions to be implemented to bridge such gaps. Thus, service improvements in New Zealand are required to promote effective maternal mental health. This study will be essential in my research to identify and indicate maternal mental health gaps.

Howard, L. M., & Khalifeh, H. (2020). Perinatal mental health: A review of progress and

Challenges World Psychiatry, 19(3), 313–327. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20769

Perinatal maternal mental health has become a concerning issue in the healthcare sector. It is one reason for morbidity during pregnancy, apart from being a cause of pregnancy mortality. Some countries have already introduced healthcare units that focus solely on perinatal mental health. If a woman is not treated appropriately, it may alter the development of their infant. Thus, the study indicates a need to develop effective strategies for mitigating perinatal mental illnesses and improving the already affected mothers’ outcomes. The study indicates some of the developments in perinatal mental health and highlights some of its challenges. The study is valid and reliable as it cites other recent studies on the same topic and may thus be used to inform evidence-based treatment. Therefore, I intend to use the study in my research project as a source of information.

Judd, F., Newman, L., & Komiti, A. A. (2017). Time for a new zeitgeist in perinatal mental

health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52(2), 112–116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417741553

According to the study, perinatal depression and anxiety have been an issue for a long time. Different interventions must be used to improve the situation; in this case, the better intervention would be the early intervention. Healthcare practitioners should categorize patients according to the risk factors they are exposed to. Patients with higher risk factors should be helped early to ensure that they do not develop perinatal depression and anxiety. The study indicates that early intervention will be advantageous for the infants to prevent any issues in their development arising from perinatal maternal health issues such as depression and anxiety. The study fills a gap in the field by identifying better interventions for reducing the problem, and literature from other studies are used to support its claims. Thus, the review will be useful in my research, as it can be used as a reference to indicate better interventions for mitigating perinatal maternal mental health issues.

Lin, S. C., Tyus, N., Maloney, M., Ohri, B., & Sripipatana, A. (2020). Mental health status

among women of reproductive age from underserved communities in the united states and the associations between depression and physical health: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0231243. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231243

The study investigates the mental illnesses of adults aged 18 or older of reproductive age. Some of the mental conditions, such as prenatal depression and anxiety, are linked to pregnancy outcomes, indicating that a significant proportion of women of reproductive age face mental illnesses due to their pregnancies. This is a cross-sectional study aimed at identifying self-reported cases facing maternal mental health conditions. The study identifies the risk factors that may increase maternal mental illnesses, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and self-rated health. Some women undergo physical changes during pregnancy and after giving birth, which can be identified as one reason leading to maternal mental health issues. The study is significant as it determines how women self-report going through maternal mental illnesses and will be used as part of the literature in my research.

McKinney, J., Keyser, L., Clinton, S., & Pagliano, C. (2018). Acog committee opinion no. 736:

Optimizing Postpartum Care. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132(3), 784–785.

https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000002849

This article is about optimizing postpartum care. According to the report, the preparation for postpartum care should be done during the prenatal period, preparing mothers to undergo postpartum care after birth. The postpartum period is crucial in the lives of a mother and child, calling for the assignment of a primary caretaker who will engage them continuously and ensure quality care. In providing postpartum care, conditions pre-existing in a woman should be considered for extending quality care. The article brings forth the issue of postpartum care effectively, with useful recommendations for optimizing postpartum care. It also uses literature from other sources to support the information provided and help develop my research project.

NakićRadoš, S., Matijaš, M., Kuhar, L., Anđelinović, M., & Ayers, S. (2020). Measuring and

conceptualizing PTSD following childbirth: Validation of the city birth trauma scale. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(2), 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000501

The study uses the recently developed City Birth Trauma Scale for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Previous studies indicate some women in the postpartum period having PTSD. The research seeks to assess the City Birth Trauma Scale’s effectiveness in determining PTSD in women in the postpartum period and finds the scale useful for evaluating PTSD in mothers in the postpartum period. The research indicates that the test is valid, the most useful and reliable, and other tests. I will use the nursing capstone study to indicate some of the tests used to identify mothers’ stress in the postpartum period.

O’Hara, M. W., & Wisner, K. L. (2014). Perinatal mental illness: Definition, description, and

etiology. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.002

This study researches perinatal mental illnesses and their etiology and describes perinatal mental diseases as a severe complication of pregnancy, especially after birth. Perinatal psychiatric manifestations harm a woman’s function and may also lead to the child’s sub-optimal development. Women who have undergone depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders earlier are at a higher risk of perinatal mental illnesses because they are the major perinatal issues women face. The study uses data from other sources to support the information presented, ensuring its validity and reliability. The study’s information would be essential in promoting evidence-based practice in perinatal mental health, and I will use the same in supporting my topic in the nursing capstone course.

Patabendige, M., Athulathmudali, S. R., & Chandrasinghe, S. K. (2020). Mental health problems

during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A multicenter knowledge assessment survey among healthcare providers. Journal of Pregnancy, 2020, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4926702

The study investigates the maternal mental health issues faced in the postpartum period. The postpartum period is defined as six weeks after childbirth. Most women are more vulnerable to maternal mental illnesses at this stage. Thus, it is essential to investigate some of the maternal mental health issues they may face, identifying effective mitigation strategies. According to the study, maternal mental illnesses may have adverse and long-lasting consequences. Thus, investigating the possible maternal mental illnesses and making healthcare practitioners conscious of their significance would be essential in reducing the malady. The study finds that knowledge about maternal mental illnesses in practice is poor in healthcare facilities. The review should have investigated the causes of poor use of knowledge about maternal mental illnesses. This study is relevant to my research because it concerns maternal mental diseases experienced during the postpartum period.

Position statement 49: Perinatal mental health. (2018). Mental Health America.

https://www.mhanational.org/issues/position-statement-49-perinatal-mental-health

The article provides information about perinatal mental health. The report indicates that approximately 70% to 80% of mothers experience negative feelings or mood swings in the first days after giving birth, suggesting the need to develop a follow-up program on the mothers who have given birth to ensure that they do not undergo perinatal mental health issues, the most prevalent of which is perinatal depression. According to the statistics, approximately 10% to 15% of the mothers that give birth are likely to experience perinatal depression. The article explains the issues around perinatal depression, perinatal stress, anxiety, and psychosis. It also indicates the causes of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders that may arise and their effects on all the stakeholders. The article provides useful information on perinatal maternal health, indicating the most likely conditions and their consequences. It also makes the study more reliable, making it a significant inclusion in my nursing capstone course.

Priddis, H. S., Keedle, H., & Dahlen, H. (2018). The perfect storm of trauma: The experiences of

women who have experienced birth trauma and subsequently accessed residential parenting services in Australia. Women and Birth, 31(1), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2017.06.007

The study investigates the experiences of women who had birth trauma and sought residential parenting services. According to the survey, most of these women had pre-existing vulnerabilities before giving birth. The study identified that women are handled during pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period affected their mental health. It also affects how they manage their early parenthood. The study uses primary information from eight interviewed women, thus contributing to the study’s high statistical power, making it reliable and valid. I will use this study as a reference for my research, as it provides essential information on the topic of perinatal mental health.

Reed, R., Sharman, R., & Inglis, C. (2017). Women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating

to care provider actions and interactions. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-1197-0

The study investigates women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating to the care providers’ actions and interactions. According to the study, women’s psychological trauma during birth may impact their postnatal mental health and family relationships. In this study, the views of 748 women were sought to identify how the caregivers promoted traumatic births among women. The study finds that the caregivers might alter the birth processes to meet their preferences, resulting in traumatic births. Some caregivers use lies and threats to ensure that the women adhered to their procedures. That culminated in traumatic births in many women. Some of the caretaker’s actions were also abusive. Thus, the study identifies how caregivers play a role in promoting traumatic births among women. However, it does not offer any recommendations for addressing the problem. The study will be significant for my research, and I intend to use it as a source of information.

Schwab-Reese, L. M., Schafer, E. J., & Ashida, S. (2016). Associations of social support and

stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation. Women & Health, 57(6), 723–740. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2016.1181140

According to the article, poor maternal mental health can have adverse effects on the mother, the infant, and the families. The report investigated how stress and support related to maternal mental health. Typically, when a mother is exposed to stress or anxiety, she is more likely to have maternal mental health issues. On the contrary, when a mother receives social support, she feels satisfied, thus removing maternal mental health issues. The study results reveal that interventions to reduce stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period would improve maternal mental health. The study should also have investigated the types of support that mothers in the postpartum period require to make them feel more comfortable. This study is significant to my paper as it reveals some interventions that may be used to improve maternal mental health among mothers in the postpartum period.

Simpson, M., & Catling, C. (2016). Understanding psychological traumatic birth experiences: A

literature review. Women and Birth, 29(3), 203–207.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2015.10.009

According to the report, traumatic birth experiences lead to posttraumatic stress disorder. It also disrupts the mother-child bonds, thus resulting in impaired child development. It may also affect the mother’s subsequent pregnancies. The study uses a literature review to understand the factors contributing to birth trauma and its efficacy in mitigating birth trauma. The research indicates that women having previous mental conditions are more likely to undergo birth trauma. Thus, the risk factors of birth trauma need to be dealt with before birth. The study reveals the possible interventions to mitigate birth trauma. The study also supports its claims with other literature, increasing its validity and its reliability. Since the study shows the connection between birth trauma and perinatal mental health illnesses, it will be essential to my research.

References

Bayrampour, H., Hapsari, A., & Pavlovic, J. (2018). Barriers to addressing perinatal mental health issues in midwifery settings. Midwifery, 59, 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.12.020

Beck, C., & Watson, S. (2016). Posttraumatic growth after birth trauma. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 41(5), 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1097/nmc.0000000000000259

Dietz, H. P., Wilson, P. D., & Milsom, I. (2016). Maternal birth trauma: Why should it matter to urogynaecologists? Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 28(5), 441–448. https://doi.org/10.1097/gco.0000000000000304

Field, S., Abrahams, Z., Woods, D. L., Turner, R., Onah, M. N., Kaura, D. K., & Honikman, S. (2019). Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v11i1.1902

Hazell Raine, K., Nath, S., Howard, L. M., Cockshaw, W., Boyce, P., Sawyer, E., & Thorpe, K. (2019). Associations between prenatal maternal mental health indices and mother–infant relationship quality 6 to 18 months’ postpartum: A systematic review. Infant Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21825

Holden, G., Corter, A. L., Hatters‐Friedman, S., & Soosay, I. (2019). Brief report. a qualitative study of maternal mental health services in New Zealand: Perspectives of māori and pacific mothers and midwives. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/appy.12369

Howard, L. M., & Khalifeh, H. (2020). Perinatal mental health: A review of progress and challenges. World Psychiatry, 19(3), 313–327. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20769

Judd, F., Newman, L., & Komiti, A. A. (2017). Time for a new zeitgeist in perinatal mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52(2), 112–116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417741553

Lin, S. C., Tyus, N., Maloney, M., Ohri, B., & Sripipatana, A. (2020). Mental health status among women of reproductive age from underserved communities in the united states and the associations between depression and physical health. a cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0231243. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231243

McKinney, J., Keyser, L., Clinton, S., & Pagliano, C. (2018). Acog committee opinion no. 736: Optimizing Postpartum Care. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132(3), 784–785. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000002849

Nakić Radoš, S., Matijaš, M., Kuhar, L., Anđelinović, M., & Ayers, S. (2020). Measuring and conceptualizing ptsd following childbirth: Validation of the city birth trauma scale. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(2), 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000501

O’Hara, M. W., & Wisner, K. L. (2014). Perinatal mental illness: Definition, description and aetiology. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.002

Patabendige, M., Athulathmudali, S. R., & Chandrasinghe, S. K. (2020). Mental health problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A multicenter knowledge assessment survey among healthcare providers. Journal of Pregnancy, 2020, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4926702

Position statement 49: Perinatal mental health. (2018). Mental Health America. https://www.mhanational.org/issues/position-statement-49-perinatal-mental-health

Priddis, H. S., Keedle, H., & Dahlen, H. (2018). The perfect storm of trauma: The experiences of women who have experienced birth trauma and subsequently accessed residential parenting services in Australia. Women and Birth, 31(1), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2017.06.007

Reed, R., Sharman, R., & Inglis, C. (2017). Women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating to care provider actions and interactions. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-1197-0

Schwab-Reese, L. M., Schafer, E. J., & Ashida, S. (2016). Associations of social support and stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation. Women & Health, 57(6), 723–740. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2016.1181140

Simpson, M., & Catling, C. (2016). Understanding psychological traumatic birth experiences: A literature review. Women and Birth, 29(3), 203–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2015.10.009

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