Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differences among students?

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

  1. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differences among
    students?
    a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences, we have a very good idea of
    how individual students are likely to perform in the classroom.
    b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their
    gender, but not when we know their ethnic background.
    c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their
    ethnic background, but not when we know their gender.
    d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps us
    from predicting individual performance.
  2. Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we say that
    Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:
    a. refusing to speak any English at school.
    b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American peers.
    c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes.
    d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.
  3. Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s cultural
    background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependable as an
    indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity?
    a. the color of a student’s skin
    b. what language is most often spoken at home
    c. the ethnicity of the student’s parents
    d. the cultural and religious activities in which a student regularly participates
  4. Which one of the following is the best example of playing the dozens?
    a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture takes two frames.” Ronald
    responds, “Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of
    shoes.”
    b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying unkind things behind Mary’s
    back. She then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind things
    behind her back.
    c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying five times a day, fasting during
    Ramadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his American
    classmates do on days when he attends school.
    d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the assistance of classmates who
    appear to be struggling with theirs.
    Unit 2 Examination
    84
    PSY 430 Educational Psychology
  5. A student says to you, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time.” This student appears to:
    a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from environmental toxins (e.g.,
    lead-based paint).
    b. have had little exposure to language during a critical period in her language
    development.
    c. be using African American English, a dialect with some grammatical constructions
    different from those of Standard English.
    d. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms typical of that country.
  6. Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children may be
    relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?
    a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4.
    b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been taught that it’s rude to initiate
    a conversation with an adult.
    c. In some cultures, attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking.
    d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to learning more from quiet
    observation than from asking questions.
  7. Psychologists believe that intelligence is culture-specific—that “intelligent” behavior in one
    culture is not necessarily intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of the following are
    aspects of intelligence, regardless of the culture in which it is found. Which one is probably
    related to intelligence in some cultures but not in others?
    a. learning how to perform a new task quickly
    b. doing well in academic classroom activities
    c. adapting readily to new situations
    d. applying prior knowledge to new situations
  8. Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age
  9. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to require Robert’s fluid
    intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.
    a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problem
    b. solving a new kind of puzzle
    c. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the news
    d. finding Egypt on a map
  10. Sam is a very talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He finds math
    and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his many friends.
    Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sam’s abilities?
    a. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
    b. Gardner’s multiple intelligences
    c. Sternberg’s triarchic theory
    d. distributed intelligence
    Unit 2 Examination
    85
    PSY 430 Educational Psychology
  11. Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
    a. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on their prior experiences
    and cognitively process information in order to adapt to their particular environmental
    situation.
    b. Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: preoperational thought, concrete thought
    and abstract thought.
    c. To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in critical thinking and appropriate
    classroom behavior, as well as in traditional academic tasks.
    d. Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the
    two; ultimately, researchers will probably never be able to separate the relative effects
    of heredity and environment.
  12. Which one of the following statements most accurately reflects the concept of distributed
    intelligence?
    a. How intelligent students are is, to some extent, a function of class size; students
    achieve at lower levels when they are in larger classes.
    b. Students almost invariably perform at higher levels in some academic subject areas
    than they do in others.
    c. How intelligent children become is, to some extent, a function of the number of siblings
    they have; children from larger families tend to have slightly lower IQ scores.
    d. Students can behave more intelligently when they can use outside resources as well as
    their minds.
  13. “A child’s ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably, depending on the particular
    context, skills, and cognitive processes required by a given task.” This statement is consistent
    with three of the following conceptualizations of intelligence. With which one is it least
    consistent?
    a. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
    b. Sternberg’s triarchic theory
    c. the concept of distributed intelligence
    d. Cattell’s concept of fluid intelligence
  14. Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’s definition of
    learning, which behavior probably does not reflect learning?
    a. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to modify his religious beliefs.
    b. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact “24 ÷ 4 = 6” is related to the
    multiplication fact “6 × 4 = 24.”
    c. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by a
    German shepherd two years ago.
    d. Abigail cries when she feels sad.
    Unit 2 Examination
    86
    PSY 430 Educational Psychology
  15. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes behaviorists’ view of how
    learning can best be studied?
    a. To study learning scientifically, researchers must confine their investigations to animal
    research in a laboratory setting.
    b. The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are
    considered.
    c. Asking people to describe what they’re thinking as they study is likely to yield the most
    accurate results.
    d. Psychologists can determine how learning occurs only if they can identify its
    physiological basis.
  16. Which one of the following statements best characterizes cognitive psychology’s approach to
    learning?
    a. Students are most likely to learn the things they think they will be reinforced for
    learning.
    b. Students learn through a series of either-or decisions similar to how computers operate.
    c. Students’ learning is a function of what they do, mentally, with the information they
    receive.
    d. Students’ learning is a function of how stimuli in the environment are organized and
    sequenced.
  17. Which one of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive processes from
    her observations of behavior?
    a. Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember more
    information than students who listen to an unorganized lecture; she concludes that
    organized material promotes better learning.
    b. Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated
    by pictures as well as being verbally described; she concludes that visual imagery helps
    learning and memory.
    c. Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word don’t remember it
    for very long; she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isn’t
    an effective teaching strategy.
    d. Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping don’t
    remember what they’ve heard; she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning
    to occur.
  18. As human beings, we encounter a great many stimuli at any one time. Which one of the
    following most accurately reflects cognitive psychologists’ perspective about how we respond to
    all these stimuli?
    a. We cannot remember everything, and we have little control over the things that we do
    remember.
    b. We must select the things we think are most important to learn and remember, and
    ignore the rest.
    c. We remember virtually everything we experience, but we have difficulty retrieving most
    of it.
    d. By learning to use effective long-term memory storage processes, we can eventually
    begin to remember almost everything we encounter.
    Unit 2 Examination
    87
    PSY 430 Educational Psychology
  19. When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of “putting” things in memory, they often
    use the term:
    a. inference-drawing.
    b. retrieval.
    c. selectivity.
    d. storage.
  20. Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often constructive
    in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does
    not necessarily involve construction in learning?
    a. When George reads about the Vietnam War in his history book, he comes to the
    conclusion that the United States should never have gotten involved in Southeast Asia.
    b. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day.
    After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts
    quickly and easily.
    c. Because the word photosynthesis begins with photo, Jeremy guesses that it must have
    something to do with taking photographs.
    d. Although no one has ever told her so, Peggy thinks that the night sky is a big black
    blanket covering the earth and that the blanket has tiny holes through which the stars
    shine.
  21. Mr. Janus tells his class, “For tomorrow’s class, read pages 23 to 49 in your geography book.”
    Three of the following students are demonstrating the process of construction in their
    perceptions of what their teacher has said. Which student is not?
    a. Christopher “hears” the teacher say “pages 33 to 39” because the student next to him
    is coughing loudly.
    b. Anthony thinks the teacher is saying “history book.”
    c. Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s thinking about something else.
    d. Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent and
    mispronounces the word geography.
  22. Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding the first
    transatlantic telegraph cable. As he rereads his paper before giving it to his teacher, he doesn’t
    notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as “Altantic” on one occasion, even though he knows
    perfectly well how the word should be spelled. Michael’s proofreading error can best be
    explained by considering the role of __ in the construction of meaning.
    a. a script
    b. expectations
    c. assessment
    d. ambiguity
    Unit 2 Examination
    88
    PSY 430 Educational Psychology
  23. Morris is trying to remember how to spell the word broccoli. He retrieves the first three letters
    (B R O) and the last three (O L I), then assumes that the “kuh” sound in the middle of the
    word must be a K. He writes “brokoli” on his paper. Morris’ process of remembering how to
    spell the word (in this case, incorrectly) illustrates which one of the following concepts?
    a. verbal mediation
    b. a script
    c. construction in retrieval
    d. a retrieval cue
  24. Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social constructivism?
    a. Two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb, “We only know the worth of
    water when the well is dry.”
    b. When a student borrows a classmate’s marker without asking and then forgets to put
    the cap back on, leaving it dried out and useless by the following morning, her teacher
    reminds her of one of the class rules: “Respect your classmates’ property.”
    c. Four students in a study group divide a reading assignment into four sections. Each
    student reads a section and then teaches the material to the other group members.
    d. A teacher assigns a laboratory activity using cumbersome equipment that students can
    operate successfully only by working in pairs.
  25. Distributed cognition can best be described as a:
    a. group of students thinking about a task or problem together.
    b. student trying to accomplish several different tasks simultaneously.
    c. group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be done.
    d. student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies.
  26. Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed cognition?
    a. Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple and
    doing her homework.
    b. Edie, Linda, and DeWayne discuss various ways they might solve a physics problem.
    c. Mark, Jason, and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and then
    share their results with the other two.
    d. Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing and
    then eventually chooses one of them.
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