What is FERPA and how does it attempt to address the issue of students’ rights to privacy?

What is FERPA and how does it attempt to address the issue of students’ rights to privacy?

This is a broad one so please feel free to provide a quick bullet-point list or just to focus on just one or two aspects covered by FERPA regulations. (This website has a quick overview: http://ovpred.ua.edu/files/2016/10/4-FERPA-10-8-2008.pdf)

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