Pharmacology and medicine management

Scenario B Winston Walker
•Study and read the Drug chart
•Read the Case scenario
•Note the key issues where you need demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to this module. Critically discuss.
•Apportion your word allowance to enable you to critically address the 4 key issues.
•Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics mainly of Morphine
•Identify and critically discuss the implications of the prescription sheet errors(relate to 7Rs).
•Medicines management (education, compliance, storage, administration, adverse reactions management, contraindications etc. word count to allow critical discussion to be acknowledged).
•Holistic nursing care that also addresses the patient as an individual such as prevention of cross infection, consent, care and empathy etc. consider the challenges. Apply and relate to the available evidence to support assertions.
•Safe Practice and the implications related to calculation competence in this case. Calculate the infusion, consider the implications of error, methods to facilitate accuracy and the like. What are the competencies related to prescribing and how does this affect the role of the nurse; knowledge, education, practise, challenges etc.
The marker will be looking at
• Quality of the references utilised
• How have the references been used in the text
• Has the correct style been used in the main text and reference list-Harvard
• Reasonable number of references used to demonstrate wide reading, understanding of the topic and evidence bas/related
• Authors name and year of publication are correct and match in main text and reference list
• Do not use abbreviated titles of journals in the reference list, spell it out, otherwise it may suggest that you have not accessed the journal or the website yourself
• Used when one author has cited another’s work and you have not been able to access the original paper
• In general the use of citations is not generally acceptable in academic books and journal publications
• Using a large number of citations in your work should be avoided because it suggests that you have not been able to find the original paper or read it yourself (Jones 1952 cited by Toms 2014, p.5)
• Can be useful if you cannot find the original seminal work which remains relevant today.
Only if you must!
• Quote just enough to do the job
• Quote word for word, including grammar and punctuation
• If it is short it can be woven into a sentence
• Always refer to the page number in the main text, <link is hidden> (Jones,
2014, page 2).
• If you miss words out from a quote use ellipsis (……………) to show where the words have been cut
•Involves reducing larger volumes of material to smaller volumes which capture the main points relating to your argument
•A summary should contain your chosen main points from the original text in a condensed manner.
•It should be written in your own words and the sources must be acknowledged
•It does not involve changing a few words in a sentence using a Thesaurus
•Be selective and critical of the choices you are making with regard to the literature you have selected
•Keep it short and to the point
•Include the reference
Critical writing
Where possible use primary sources of evidence
Important skills to develop in academic writing are:
Synthesis in academic writing
Synthesising is a skill that you use to develop your paragraphs
It involves drawing together your ideas from carefully selected
relevant literature
Supported by similar and often opposing ideas of others
1. Find suitable sources of evidence
2. Select the relevant parts
3. Use paraphrasing and summarising skills to write the
information in your own words
Balanced or biased
• Is the material you have found balanced?
• Does the author or publisher hold a particular view on the
• Is the publication sponsored by a person or organisation that
takes a particular stance?
• Why was the publication produced?
• Is it from a reputable source?
• Are the authors from a reputable organisation, <link is hidden> NICE?
• Do the authors have credibility in their field?
• Does the publication give its sources of information?
• Most authoritative sources by experts are peer reviewed.
• Academic journals, books, current?
• Is the material relevant to my topic?
• Does it focus on the issues that are part of my topic?
• Is it a broad overview or does it only focus on my part of my
• What does the evidence tell us?
• Is the evidence incomplete or conflicting?
Descriptive Vs critical writing
Description: provides a detailed explanation of how and why something happened
• Discussion: uses a written debate that engages the skills of reasoning, supported with carefully selected evidence that makes a case for or against or points out the advantages and disadvantages in a given context.
• Descriptive writing does not develop an argument.
• Descriptivewriting is relatively simple and frequently uses many words.
• Descriptivewriting presents information and not does not transform that information for practise.
Critical writing demonstrates the ability to participate in the academic debate.
• Use the evidence and arguments of credible others in relation to your topic area and patient.
Demonstrate mastery and leadership
What if? Compare and Contrast
Academic terminologywhat does itmean?
• Analyse: consider all the relevant factors and answer methodically and
•Discuss: give both points of an argument, with implications before
reaching a conclusion
•Compare: discuss the similarities and differences. Write a balanced, fair
and objective answer
• Criticise: point out the strengths and weaknesses. Write a balanced
• Explain: provide detailed reasons for a situation
• Outline: provide the main points in a concise manner. Leave out details
• Summarise: provide the main points in a concise manner. Leave out
What is Critical writing?
In the context of academic writing being critical means being able to:
• Demonstrate your understanding and knowledge of relevant theory
related to your topic area
• Demonstrate an awareness of what has been written or said about
your topic area
• Take into consideration different points of view
• Using reason to make a judgements about your topic area
• Developing an argument
• Coming to your own conclusions (based on the evidence) not your opinions

find the cost of your paper