In the wake of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, many analysts thought that democracy had triumphed as the most desirable and prevalent form of government globally

Prompt:
In the wake of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, many analysts thought that democracy had triumphed as the most desirable and prevalent form of government globally. But only 30 years later, in 2020, that wave of liberal democracy appears to be receding in favor of a tide of illiberalism and autocracy.
If this is true, then what do you think are the main causes of democratic decline and the seeming rise of alternatives to it?
Additional notes: I have included a list of all the class readings. The sources that are used to write this essay should ONLY come from the class readings. Please use parenthetical citations only (e.g. surname, page number). No outside research is allowed to answer the prompt. All questions from the prompt must be answered.
Class Readings:
● Francis Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay (POPD) , Chapters 1
and 2, pp. 23-51.
● Nils Gilman, Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War
America (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), chap. 1,
“Modernization Theory and American Modernism.”
● Francis Fukuyama , Origins of Political Order (OPO) , Preface and Chapter 1,
pp. Ix-25.
● Francis Fukuyama, OPO pp. 26-94 and 460-475. (Malthus to end of p. 475).
● Francis Fukuyama, POPD, pp. 52-80
● Charles Tilly, “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime,” in
Bringing the State Back In , Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich and
Skocpol, Theda eds., (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 169-191.
● Amartya Sen, “Development as Freedom”, 1999, pages 1-34.
● Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, “Poor Economics”, 2011, 1-42 (the
Introduction)
● Seymour Martin Lipset,“Some Social Requisites of Democracy,” American
Political Science Review 53 (1959): 79-84.
● POPD chapters 27-28, pp. 399-426.
● Stoner, Diamond, Girod, and McFaul, “Transitional Successes and Failures: The
International-Domestic Nexus,” in Stoner and McFaul, Transitions to Democracy ,
pp. 3-24.
● Bäck, Hanna and Axel Hadenus, 2008. “Democracy and State Capacity:
Exploring a J-Shaped Relationship,” Governance 21(1): 1-24.
● Robert D. Putnam, “Social Capital and Institutional Success,” in Making
Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy , Princeton U Press, 1993.
● Robert D. Putnam, “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital,” Journal
of Democracy 6(1), 1995: 65-78.
● Sheri Berman, “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic,” World
Politics 49(3), 1997.
● POPD, Chapters 12 and 22, pp. 185-197, 322-334.
● Francis Fukuyama, Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of
Resentment (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2018), chapters 7, 11 and
12.
● Larry Diamond, selections from Ill-Winds: Saving Democracy From Russian
Rage, Chinese Ambition, And American Complacency , (New York: Penguin
Press, 2019), pp. 17-19 and 53-80.
● Andreas Schedler, “The Menu of Manipulation,” Journal of Democracy 13(2),
2002: 36-50.
● Lucan A. Way and Steven Levitsky, “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism,”
Journal of Democracy 13(2), 2002: 51-65.
● Brian Z. Tamanaha, “This History and Elements of the Rule of Law,” Singapore
Journal of Legal Studies , 2012: 232-46.
● Erik G. Jensen, “The Rule of Law and Judicial Reform: The Political Economy of
Diverse Institutional Patterns and Reformers’ Responses,” in Jensen and Heller,
Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law
(Stanford University Press: 2003), p. 338-42.
● OPO chapter 19, pp. 276-289.

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