## What is the elective number of electoral parties in the 2014 South African elections? What is the elective number of legislative parties?

5. In Table 13.14 we again show the results from the Oslo district in the 2005 Norwegian elections. Answer the following questions. In all of these questions, you should ignore the “others” category.

a. Copy Table 13.14. Imagine that the seventeen seats in Oslo are to be allocated according to the Hare quota with largest remainders. Fill in your table and indicate how Oslo’s seventeen seats are allocated among the parties. How many automatic, remainder, and total seats does each party obtain?

Legislative Elections in Oslo, Norway, 2005 (Using Quota Systems)TaBle 13.14

Party

SP KrF Kyst H Ap V SV FrP Others Total

Votes 3,270 11,168 551 61,130 97,246 28,639 41,434 53,280 12,116 308,834

Seats 17

Quota

Automatic seats

Remainder

Remainder seats

Total seats

8. (12 points) As we note in the chapter, the actual number of parties com- peting in an election or winning seats is not necessarily a good re�ection of �how big� a country’s party system is. As a result, political scientists often prefer to use a measure of the e�ective number of parties in a country to capture party system size. If you recall, the e�ective number of electoral parties when there are four actual parties is calculated as e�ective number of electoral parties = 1

v21+v 2 2+v

2 3+v

2 4 where v1 is the vote share of party 1, v2

is the vote share of party 2, and so on. The e�ective number of legislative parties when there are four actual parties is calculated as e�ective number of legislative parties = 1

s21+s 2 2+s

2 3+s

2 4 where s1 is the seat share of party 1,

s2 is the seat share of party 2, and so on. These measures can easily be adapted to cases in which there are more parties or fewer parties. For example, the general formulas for the e�ective number of parties are

1 P∑ 1 v2i

(1)

1 P∑ 1 s2i

(2)

where P is the total number of actual parties. The table below shows the results from the 2014 legislative elections in South Africa. As you can see, thirty parties won votes and thirteen parties won seats. This would seem to suggest that South Africa has a large multiparty system. Answer the following questions.

(a) What is the e�ective number of electoral parties in the 2014 South African elections? What is the e�ective number of legislative parties? (You will probably want to use a calculator for this.)

(b) Compare the e�ective numbers of electoral and legislative parties in these elections with the actual number of parties winning votes and seats. Which measure-the actual or e�ective number of parties-does a better job, in your opinion, of capturing the size of the South African party system? Why? Are there circumstances in which you would be more likely to use the actual number of parties as the measure of party system size? Are there circumstances in which you would be more likely to use the e�ective number of parties?

(c) Based on your answers to the previous questions and the information in the table, what do you think is the most accurate classi�cation of the South African party system: nonpartisan, single party, one-party dominant, two party, or multiparty?

(d) Based on the e�ective numbers of electoral and legislative parties that you calculated, does the mechanical e�ect of South Africa’s electoral system introduce much distortion in the way that votes are translated into seats? Based on your answer to this question, what type of electoral system do you think South Africa employs a permissive or nonpermissive one? Use Internet resources to �nd out whether South Africa really does use a permissive or a nonpermissive electoral system.

Make sure you explain how you arrive at your solution � you won’t receive partial credit for incorrect answers unless we can see that you have done a part of the problem correctly. It is your responsibility to convey the answers in a clear and neat manner. Your TA may give you more precise instructions and is permitted to penalize you for sloppy presentation. The problem set is due at the beginning of class on March 13.

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