Without a doubt healthcare costs are rising out of control. Not one of us are happy with the increases, but we have to understand what the reasons are for the….
A description of four different examples of accidents and/or sudden illnesses that might occur 1) The individual that you are supporting on an outing may choke on their food. This is usually caused by an object getting stuck in the back of your throat, this needs to be dealt with fast as it can result in the person stopping breathing if it is blocking their airways. 2) The individual that you are supporting on an outing may be epileptic and while you are out they could have an epileptic seizure.
Epilepsy is a medical condition which causes a disturbance to the brain, this results in the individual becoming unconscious and having involuntary convulses of the body.
People that have epilepsy have no control on when it is going to happen and sometimes can cause themselves harm when falling during the seizure. 3) The individual that you are supporting on an outing may have a cardiac arrest. A cardiac arrest occurs when an individual’s heart stops, this can happen for different reasons, this is mainly due to a heart attack but can also be because of shock, an electric shock, a convulsion or other illnesses or injuries 4) The individual that you are supporting on an outing may fall over and have severe bleeding.
Severe bleeding is usually the result of a fall or injury, being the most common cause being glass.
An outline of the Procedure to follow if an accident or sudden illness should occur
Choking and difficulty with breathing
1) You need to make sure the individual has nothing in their mouth and remove any dentures, use one finger with a glove on to sweep through the mouth and remove anything that is in there. 2) Encourage the individual to cough as this might help move the object at the back of the throat. 3) Give the individual 5 back blows, bend the individual slightly forward and with the heal of your hand give the back blows in the middle of the shoulder blades. 4) If the object is still stuck then you should use the Heimlich manoeuvre also known as abdominal thrusts.
To do this you need to stand behind the individual and put your arms around them, joining your hands just below the breastbone with one hand as a fist and the other covering it. 5) You need to pull your hands into the person’s body and upwards at the same time, with the force it should push the object out of the throat. 6) You should alternate between the back slaps and the thrusts until the object is removed.
When an individual has an epileptic seizure you need to make sure that the area around them is as safe as possible and loosen all clothing. Once the seizure has stopped you need to check the individuals airways are clear and then put them into the recovery position. Try to make sure the individual is safe and comfortable and especially try to prevent head injury. You need to follow the protocol of the medication that can be given to help with a seizure such as at the support I work an individual has epilepsy and our protocol is if he is still in seizure after 10 minutes then we administer 0.5ml of madazolam buccal and then leave him for another 10 minutes and if he is still in seizure we need to give him the other 0.5ml if this doesn’t work then we are to phone an ambulance.
If an individual goes into cardiac arrest you need to call for medical help straight away. You need to give the individual mouth to mouth resuscitation, and chest compressions to stimulate the heart known as CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation) The supporting staff should have had attended a first aid course which will have taught them how to resuscitate. CPR is hard work and the compressions need to be in the correct place. Firstly you should check if the individual has a pulse and whether they are breathing, if not call for medical help and then start CPR which is two mouth to mouth breaths and then 30 chest compressions and you should carry this on until medical help arrives.
If an individual has a severe bleed then you will need to apply pressure to the wound, if it is possible use a sterile dressing but if this isn’t available use any material that is absorbent. You will need to apply pressure to the wound for about 10 minutes to allow the blood to clot. If there is an object in the wound do not try to remove it but apply pressure to the sides of the wound. If it is possible lie the individual down and raise the affected part of the body. When dealing with individuals with severe bleeding you need to protect yourself.
Your skin acts as an excellent barrier to infections, but if you have any broken skin then you must be careful, if the blood of another individual comes into contact with your eyes, nose or mouth then you must seek medical advice. Blood-borne viruses such as HIV or hepatitis can only be passed on if the blood of someone who is already infected comes into contact with broken skin. If available you should wear gloves, if not available cover broken area with a waterproof plaster. If possible wash your hand before and after coming into contact with blood
A list of the principles to be followed for safer moving and handling 1) When making a decision on the best way to move an individual they must discuss this with the individual it concerns. 2) The individual should be encouraged to do as much as possible for themselves and only use minimum manual handling 3) Where able to you should use the aids to support individuals to move themselves 4) The employer has a statutory duty to provide lifting and handling equipment, but it is the responsibility of the staff to use it 5) You have the right to be safe but individuals also have the right to be moved with dignity and as safely as possible.
An explanation of why it is important to follow the care plan and communicate with each individual when assisting and moving It is important to follow the care when assisting and moving an individual as these plans have been put in place to ensure the safety of the individual and yourself while you are assisting them. You can have an input in the decision on how this should be carried out but it is the professional that makes the decision. It is important that you communicate with the individual while assisting and moving as this will help them to feel more relaxed and you should explain each stage of the move to them so that they are prepared for it. It will also help to stop the individual from becoming anxious as they don’t know what is happening.
An outline of staff responsibilities for medication in a social care setting Staff responsibilities for medication in a social care setting are that they need to check that they are giving the medication to the correct individual so check that on the box or bottle of the medication the name matches the individual you are administering the medication to. Check that the medication sheet also has the correct person’s name on it. Check that you have the correct amount of the medication that it says to administer on the mar sheet. You should also get another member of staff to check the amounts you have got out to make sure they are correct to prevent a medication error.
While administering the medication you should wear personal protective equipment such as gloves. Before giving the medication you should explain to the individual what the medication is for and what it is they are taking. You should then check the area around the individual to make sure they have swallowed them all and none have been dropped. If medication has been missed or medication has been given when it shouldn’t have been then you should let your manager know and phone NHS direct to seek professional advice. You should also then phone on call and let them know what has happened and what the health professional has advised.
A brief description of the agreed procedures for obtaining, storing, administering and recording the medication needed for the outing. a) Obtaining When obtaining the medication you should make sure that you are getting the correct medication for the individual that you are taking out on an outing, you need to with gloves remove the tablets from the box and put them into a medication box that you can take out with you. If you need to take liquid medication with you then you should take the bottle with you and a meds tub to allow you to measure out the correct amount that the individual will need. If you do not know them amounts then you should write this down and take it with you. If the individual takes their medication with something such as yoghurt (this must be stated in their support plans) then you should either take this with you or ensure that you go somewhere where you will be able to buy some to use for giving the medication.
b) Storing When going out you should store the medication safely, such as the tablets should be in a meds tub that fastens and is secure to make sure that the medication isn’t lost. c) Administering When administering the medication on an outing you should check that all the medication is still there and again check that it is correct. You should give the medication still respecting the individuals dignity to try and do it somewhere quiet and away from a busy place.
If the medication is liquid form then you should put the meds tub on a flat surface to ensure that you pour out the correct amount. d) Recording When you get back home you should fill in the mar sheet to make sure the next time someone comes to give the individual medication they know that it has been administered, as if you forget to sign that it has been given another member of staff may think that they haven’t had it and seek advice on what to do, they may be then told o administer it as soon as possible and then this could result in an overdose all of this would be a medication error.
An explanation of why the social care workers accompanying the individuals on the outing should have specialist training before each of the following: a) Carrying out emergency first aid Staff that support an individual on an outing should have training for emergency first age first as without this they do not have the knowledge of what to do in an emergency correctly, such as what to do if an individual chokes or has severe bleeding. If they have had first aid training then the will be aware of what to do in the different situations that may occur while on an outing. By having this training it is more likely that the individual will be given the correct support that is needed in the situation. b) Assisting with moving and handling Staff that support an individual on an outing should have training in assisting with moving and handling as this will result in the safety of both the staff and the individual that they are supporting as they will have a better knowledge of how they should support the individual safely.
If they do not have the training then they may do something wrong when assisting the individual and this could result in harming either themselves or the individual that they are supporting and by not doing it correctly they may not do it in a dignified way and this could upset the individual that they are supporting. c) Handling medication Staff supporting an individual on an outing should have training on handling medication to ensure that the medication is given to the correct person with the correct amount and in the way that the individual prefers. It will also mean that the individual is supported with medication in the best possible way and that there are no medication errors.
Task B – Guide
A list of the laws relating to:
a) General health and safety in the setting
Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (amended 2002)
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH)
Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
Health and Safety First Aid Regulations 1981
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
Personal Protective Equipment 1992
b) Moving and handling
Health and Safety at work Act 1974
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (amended 2002)
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
A list of the food standards that relate to social care settings Food Standards Act 1999
Food Safety Act 1990
Food Hygiene Regulations 2005
An outline of the main health and safety responsibilities of: a) the social care worker The responsibilities of the social care worker are to keep themselves and the individuals that they are supporting safe. Social care workers should make sure that they follow all procedure that are in place when supporting individuals and when doing anything that has risks of harm. Staff should make sure that they use any equipment safely and only use it if they have had the specialist training on how to use the equipment. Staff when using equipment should make sure hair is out of the way to prevent it from becoming stuck in the equipment, You should communicate with you manager and make sure that you have adequate training and understand and follow the company’s policies and procedures around health and safety. You should report any illness, strains or injuries that you suffer as a result of doing your job as your employer may need to make changes to the way you work.
If you become pregnant then you should inform your manager as it may mean that you are unable to do some of the things within your job role or may need to move somewhere where the chance of harm coming to you is slimmer. b) the employer or manager The responsibilities of the employer or manager are to make the workplace safe, they need to prevent risks to health, ensure that the equipment that is used is safe and that safe working practices are set up and followed by the staff, they need to ensure that all materials are handled, stored and used safely. Employers should inform you of any potential hazards from the work you carry out, chemicals and any other substances used by the employer. They should check that the right equipment is supplied for the work and that staff use it correctly and that the equipment is regularly maintained.
They need to avoid potentially dangerous work involving manual handling and if it cannot be avoided then they should take precautions to reduce the risk of injury. Employers need to supply staff with protective clothing free of charge. c) individuals using the service The responsibilities of individuals using the service are to make sure that they agree and follow their tenancy agreement. They should speak with staff to make it aware of the way that they would like to be supported when using assistive technology to reduce the risk of harm coming to themselves or the supporting staff. They should report any faults within their home so that it can be resolved before any injury or harm is caused to themselves or the supporting staff. If they do not have understanding of what faults are then supporting staff should make these known to the individual and support them to make the calls needed to get these fixed.
A description of the main points of health and safety policies and procedures
To ensure the health, safety and welfare of everyone
To protect people from hazards that might occur
To control the keeping and use of dangerous substances
A list of work activities that should only be carried out after special training Manual Handling
Clinical tasks such as taking temperature or blood pressure, changing dressings Giving Medication
A description of how to access additional support and information in relation to health and safety Health and Safety is very important so it is always better to ask for more information than to guess and get things wrong. You might need extra information relating to legislation and guidelines, actions to take to ensure safety, concerns you have about a situation or person, unhappy about the risks from a piece of equipment or another hazard or unclear about who has responsibility. If you need additional advice or support you should talk to your line manager, if your manager is unavailable and you are unable to find the information you need in your employers policies then the health and safety executive (www.hsc.gov.uk) should provide all the information you need. Trade Unions may also have the information that you need.
Task C – Case Studies
Define the term ‘hazard’ and ‘risk’
The term hazard means something that could cause harm, danger or adverse health effects to an individual and the term risk means the likelihood or probability of a hazard causing harm to the individual. Such as a spill on the floor is a hazard and slipping on the wet surface is the risk.
Identify the hazards and risks in the case study above
The hazard is a burs pipe in the roof and water running down the light fitting and onto the bathroom floor. The risks are that the individual that Winston is visiting may slip on the water and harm himself or he may get an electric shock as water is running into electricity or due to the water in the roof it may cause the ceiling to fall in.
Explain how and when you would report the risks you have identified Firstly Winston should make sure his client is in a safe place and then turn off the water and electric at the mains. He would need to then report this straight away to his line manager and then get in touch with either the landlord or a plumber and an electrician and inform them of the burst pipe so that they can make arrangements for it to be fixed as soon as possible.
Describe how a risk assessment might help reassure Ellie’s mum and ensure Ellie’s safety By having a risk assessment in place for Ellie making her own way on the bus to the group the social worker will of identified all of the possible hazards and the level of risks connected with these. The social care worker will have come up with ways of avoiding these hazards which will ensure Ellis safety and Ellie’s mum will feel reassured
Describe how a social care worker should use the risk assessment to ensure Ellie is safe during the journey To make sure Ellie is safe during the journey the social care workers should follow the risk assessment as it will state all the risks to Ellie during her journey and will include what needs to be done to reduce the likelihood of the risks. It is the responsibility of the social care worker to make sure that they are aware of the risk assessment and if there is anything that they do not understand then they should seek additional advice from their line manager straight away. It is also the responsibility of the social care worker to report any changes that need making to the risk assessments as soon as possible to their line manager. The risk assessment must be up to date and revised as often as necessary for the safety of Ellie and the people that are working with her.
Task D – Short Answer Questions
List three hazardous substances that can be found in an adult social care setting
1. Cleaning Chemicals
3. Clinical Waste
Use the table below to describe safe practice for the handling of each hazardous substance
The medication should be stored in a locked cabinet out of reach, only the authorised person should have the key for the locked cabinet, the cabinet should be at the correct temperature the medication needs to be stored at. The medication must stay in the packaging the pharmacy dispensed it in Body waste should be stored in a yellow bag sealed and put into the designated place ready for collection somewhere that will not cause infection risks. Cleaning fluids should be kept in a safe place preferably in a locked cupboard and in line with the manufacturer’s instructions. All cleaning fluids should be stored in the correct bottles with the correct labels on them.
The staff giving medication must have appropriate training in the administering of medication. When handling body waste you should always be wearing protective clothing such as gloves and aprons, you should also make sure you wash your hands after handling body waste. When using cleaning fluids you should always follow the manufacturer’s instructions and wear protective clothing such as gloves and aprons.
The correct method of disposal is to return any unused medication back to the pharmacy and not put in the bin. Body waste will be picked up from designated area by specialist waste contractors. You should always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when disposing cleaning fluids
Identify three common hazards related to handling and storing food
1. Poor hygiene so there is a risk of infection
2. Not reheating food to the correct temperature
3. Storing uncooked meat on the top shelf in the fridge
Explain how to:
a) Store food safely You need to ensure when storing food that you store it at the correct temperature, cover and label the food so that others know when it has been opened and when it will no longer be edible. You need to make sure that uncooked and cooked foods are kept separately to avoid contamination. b) Handle food safely When handling food you should keep yourself clean, you should wear protective clothing, keep the workplace you are working in clean and tidy, you should use separate utensils and other equipment for different types of food such as chopping boards with different colours for cooked meat and vegetables etc, You should wash your hands regularly and thoroughly. c) Dispose of food safely When disposing food you should make sure leftover food is disposed quickly, ensure that the bins are emptied frequently and that and anything that is dropped or spilt is cleaned up quickly.
Identify three common signs or indicators of stress
1. Feeling tense, uptight or angry
2. disturbance of sleep pattern
Give two examples of circumstances or situations that may cause a person to feel stressed 1. One example of circumstances or situations that may cause a person to feel stressed is work pressure, such as if someone has been set some targets to meet within a given time and they are struggling to meet these targets they may become tired and anxious and this may result in them becoming stressed due to a build up of work and feeling that it is on top of them. 2. Another One example of circumstances or situations that may cause a person to feel stressed is being in debt as this may make them feel that they are unale to cope and, they may be worrying all the time where they are going to get the money from to pay the debt and this may result in a decrease in their self esteem and self worth and make them question their ability to support a family. They may also be worrying that they may be kicked out and have nowhere to live with their family if they dont find the money to pay.
Identify and describe two ways of managing stress
1. One way in which an individual can manage stress is by physical activity, as this uses up the extra energy the body produces when they are stressed, this could be things such as walking, jogging, going to the gym, boxing etc. 2. Another way in which an individual can manage stress is by taking your mind off of the issue for a while by doing something else, by doing this it allowes you to come back to the problem with a clear head later on. This could be doing things such as gardening, going to the cinema, pampering etc.
Task E – Leaflet
A list of the routes by which infection can enter the body
Infection can enter the body down the respiratory tract into the lungs. Illnesses such as coughs, colds, influenza and other common airborne infections are usually passed on this way. Infection can enter the body through breaks in the skin. You skin works as an excellent barrier against infection but if you have an open cut then infection can enter the body through the cut. Infection can enter the body down the digestive tract. If you have a drink or eat any food that is contaminated then this can infect your stomach or bowels. This kind of infection usually results in vomiting or diarrhoea Infection can enter the body through the urinary and reproductive system. This kind of infection can remain localised or sometimes can then get into the blood. Most commonly sexually transmitted diseases infect the genitals. HIV and the AIDS virus is carried in bodily fluids and can be passed on through coming into contact with an infected persons saliva, seminal fluid or blood.
A description of how our own health or personal hygiene may place others at risk in the workplace Our own health or personal hygiene may put others at risk in the workplace as it is very important that you wash your hands regularly as if you have come into contact with infections and bacteria and then touch other things then you are leaving them all over and then when others touch things such as the banister on the stairs then they are also picking this bacteria up which could cause infection. You should always wear personal protective clothing when supporting an individual with any form of personal care where you come into contact with bodily fluids such as saliva or urine, this is not just to protect you but to protect the individual you are supporting from any infection that you may have picked up. You take care not to sneeze or cough on others as this could pass on infections to others, You should constantly using antibacterial spray to wipe down all surfaces to prevent cross contamination.
An explanation of the most effective ways to wash hands
1) Remove any rings or jewellery from the hands or wrists
2) Using warm running water thoroughly wet your hands
3) Squirt liquid soap onto the palm of one of your hands
4) Rub your hands together until you make a lathers
5) Scrub your hands with the palm of your hand over the back of the other hand and making sure you rub between the fingers, the wrists, forearms and under your nails. 6) Rinse off the soap with clean water
7) When turning off the taps use a paper towel to avoid getting bacteria back on your hands 8) When drying your hands use a single use towel or an air dryer 9) When leaving the bathroom try to prevent touching dirty surfaces as you are leaving the bathroom.
A description of how and when to use personal protective equipment You should use personal protective equipment for any procedure that involved bodily contact or means that you will be coming into contact with anybody waste or fluids. This is because it will reduce the risk of infections spreading such as if you get it on your clothes and then come into contact with another person. At the end of each procedure you should take off the protective clothing such as aprons and gloves and dispose of them correctly. You should use new protective clothing when coming into contact with each different individual.
An outline of how to prevent and what to do in the event of:
Fire To prevent a fire you should fit smoke alarms and test then regularly and change the batteries annually, never leave the stove unattended when using it, keep portable heaters away from furniture, furnishings and flammable items and when leaving the house make sure you turn them off, Do not leave any electrical turned on when not in use and turn the main switches off when not using them and at night unplug all electrical items that are not being used, if possible do not use multi-way socket adapters and do not run electrical leads under the carpet. In the event of a fire you should call the fire service straight away when the fire alarm sounds. You should try to evacuate the building as fast as possible following the personal emergency evacuation plans for each of the individuals in the building and also following the fire safety procedure.
If possible you should try to get the individuals out of the building if it is safe for you to do so. Before entering any of the rooms with the back of your hand you should touch the door handle to see if it is hot, if it is then you should not open this door as it will let oxygen in and make the fire worse. You should always stay close to the floor if there is a lot of smoke as it raises so you are safer the closer to the floor you are as you won’t be inhaling as much smoke. If possible have a wet towel over your mouth to prevent the smoke getting into your lungs. Keep all doors closed as if you have fire doors then this can give you extra time to get out of the building.
To prevent a gas leak you should check that all appliances that use gas are turned off e.g. cooker, fire, radiators. In the event of a gas leak you should dial 999 for help and/or inform your health and safety officer/manager straight away, You should not turn any switches on or off, you should go to the assembly point and remove yourself and others from the building immediately, the incident should also be recorded.
To prevent a flood you should make sure that everyone knows where and how to turn the water off and all taps should not be left running in the bath or sink. In the event of a flood you should turn off the water supply, call 999 or inform your health and safety officer immediately, do not turn switches on or off and remove yourself and others from the building as quickly as possible in case water and electric mix as this can be very dangerous.
To prevent an intrusion you should being vigilant of security of building i.e. doors, windows and make sure these are shut and locked when you are not home and at night. Do not give out spare keys to others or key codes and follow a procedure check list such as at night going round and making sre all windows and doors are shut and locked. In the event of an intrusion dial 999 and tell them what has happened, if possible go to a room with a lock and lock yourself in there, if not try to get out of the building and take others with you.
To prevent a security breach keep all confidential information locked away or passworded on the computer, keep all documents out of sight and never leave them laying about. Keep all doors and windows locked. In the event of a security breach try to leave the building safely with others, dial 999 and report to them.