Place You Should Visit In Jamaica Essay

Did you know that Jamaican is amongst the most chic and interesting island found in the Caribbean, that one would wish to visit? Are you aware that the beaches in Jamaica are thought to be among the purist and most beautiful in the world? They have clear blue waters coupled with white sand which makes a visit to Jamaica a really wonderful experience. Let us first explore Jamaica in general, Jamaica is one of the Caribbean islands and it is the third largest.

It has 14 parishes forming three significant countries. Its capital city is Kingston and it is one of the interesting sites to visit.

It is worth to note that Port Royal was ones the capital city of Jamaica but it fall into the sea due to earth quakes. The capital was moved to Spanish Town, and then moved to Kingston. So when you are in Port Royal you can see the remains of the old capital. Jamaica is a cosmopolitan country, with different cultures of German, Irish, English, Indian Chinese and African and all this groups have contributed to the culture in one way or another.

Jamaica offers beautiful scenes, rich culture, delicious food, superb hotels and reliable and good transport system.

Imagine being at a height of 2000 feet above sea level! This is what you will get by being up at the “Murphy hills” which have the highest view point of (2000feet above the sea level). And we have views of mountains, valleys and lavish nature. At the top at the Murphy hill will enable you to view the, the Ocho Rios-which is the pier for cruise, ship, the Blue Mountains, and if the heather is good you may be able to see Cuba. You should not miss to enjoy valley tubing at the White River; the experience offers a breathtaking sight.

The river is beautiful and also, it divides two of the adored parishes in Jamaica, St Ann and St Mary. When the river passes through the coconut plantations, and the bamboo wood one feels the different pace and moods of this river, it more adoring to watch the locals in their river side dwellings along the river. You will also go through many tough rapids and exciting lagoons. And of course, we have beautiful well kept gardens of the river at the Valley Park which has gift shops, bars, and restaurants.

That is only but few places that are a must see, but there are many other places that one can visit like the lush jungles found in the Cranbrook flower forest, and a ride in the capital city of Kingston which offers an opportunity to visit the bob Marley museum and many other attractions. Jamaica is well known for its tasty food and enticing recipes. These mouth watering foods include, curried goat meat, stew peas together with rice, not forgetting the national food, “ackee” and salt fish. When it comes to fruits we have many types of mangos that Jamaica has. Examples are, East India, Hairy mangoes, Bombay, and Julie.

Other fruits are June plums, etioti apples and naseberries these are very refreshing o take on warm afternoon. It is also well known that Jamaica offers the well known blue mountain coffee which is sold allover the world is another attraction to sample. After you visits if you will tired and drained then you can unwind with the local drink which is Jamaican white rum believed to be a cure for jitters. The trip will not be complete without visiting some night clubs which offers a pleasant and enchanting experience as Jamaica has some exciting reggae musicians and calypso maestros.

The enticing music and delicious food served in this places offers an enjoyable evening. While in Jamaica you will have so many options on where you can stay as we have many hotels, good villas, together with condos that one can chose from. This offers services for singles, couples or families. The best place to stay is the Ocho Rios since it is centrally located within the many attractions that are very interesting to visit, such as the Dunns River falls. In addition there are a number of restaurants, which offer spectacular views.

Another place that has some of the country’s best lodgings is the north coast, it boosts of good established hotels that provides fine diners and splendid sightseeing sites. It is here that you can get an opportunity to visit the Rose Hall, which is the past home of Annie Palmer, that includes a mansion build on numerous acres of lush green grass that is now a hot attraction for tourist. It is worth noting that credit cards are accepted in many big hotels but in small restaurants and remote guest houses don’t accept them.

So you can use your visa card to get some cash as ATM’s are installed in many towns. Moving about in Jamaica is fun as it has a warm tropical weather and the roads are in good condition although you can’t miss to get a pothole in some areas. When you are in Kingston the roads are ok. And one doesn’t need to worry about the transport as there are taxis whose drivers’ are careful and polite. You can also fly to various locations get to see attractive scenes from the air. If you are not afraid of water, you will have a chance to cruise in the waters.

Your trip can’t be complete without buying some of the items from Jamaica. For crafts, the Ocho Rios at the Soni Plaza offers best deals, but of you have to bargain. You will get crafts mart, t-shirts, carvings and some general stuff. If you want to buy jewelry, some good watches, perfumes and rings you better go to a duty free shop. You can get better discounts for example at the Royal shop. Another place you can get good bargains of crafts items is at the Negril, here you can purchase a Jamaican craft at a very good price.

Hey, if you need a souvenir to carry back home then the place to go is the sunshine plaza in Negril. Still if you want to shop without stress, you can go at the Halfmoon Shopping Village, here they are a lot of items to shop from, and examples of the item you will get includes, cigars, clothing, beach items, souvenirs, and some duty free items. Still wondering what to carry home? Why not carry this; the famous Cuban cigars, jerk seasonings or the Jamaican Appleton Rum, that you can get at the airport on when you are going back home.

Conclusion Visiting Jamaica is absolutely dazzling! The place offers lots of excitements think about the wonderful beaches with clear blue waters and white sand. What about the Blue Mountains with Dunn’s water falls which are 600feet deep. And don’t forget the luminous lagoon which is among the most magnificent marvel that is in Jamaica. And as you explore the village of the nine miles you will be reminded of the King of reggae, as here is where he was borne.

You will get the chance of visiting the house he lived and get first hand information of his life, and his experiences as a young boy, his passion, and you will get to know about the exceptional religion of Rastafarian and crown you tour by visiting his mausoleum. But, despite all that beauty one has to take a few precautions when visiting Jamaica, you have to be prepared for mosquitoes so carry some lavender oil to repel them. And don’t forget taking some anti malaria drugs to protect you from getting malaria incase you are bitten.

A word of caution is to the ladies, please don’t venture out in the night alone, men here don’t have manners and can harass you and touch your sensitive parts! Other wise being in Jamaica for a vacation is so beautiful and breathtaking leaving you with life time memories. Welcome to the Caribbean island and a life time experience.

References Jamaica:

(2007): Retrieved from “” accessed on 3rd July, 2007 Visiting Jamaica (2007): Retrieved from: “http://www. tripadvisor. com” accessed on 3rd July, 2007

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Truly Asia Essay

Traveling is both an educational and leisurely activity. Going to different places gives people a chance to learn about new cultures and traditions which can help in the promotion of a pluralistic society. In every place that I explore, I make sure that I enjoy the journey whether it is just by land, water, air or even walking so that I can be able to appreciate fully the destination. In 2004, I had the chance to go to Asia, in the exquisite country of Malaysia.

Malaysia is located at the Southerneastern part of Asia. This unique tropical paradise takes pride of their natural resources and Islamic customs.

Malaysia has an extensive coastline and a captivating landscape of rolling hills and mountains. These natural wonders of Malaysia have attracted many tourists to explore their beautiful scenery. According to Lonely Planet, this country is “one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in southeast Asia. ” More so, it is a spirited and rich nation that has integrated other cultures to create a diverse but a unified Malaysian society (“Malaysia:Overview”).

In addition, Malaysia is filled with diverse cities and towns and each city or town have their own unique charisma that makes each place unique.

Checking out these places will display the rich history and authentic culture of Malaysia. I have been to three gorgeous cities in Malaysia namely: Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Pahang. In Kuala Lumpur a lot of traditional and modern infrastructures can be seen in this city. In fact it has been branded as the roaring Asian tiger because it has transformed from being nothing into a contemporary city. One of the world’s tallest infrastructures which is the Petronas Tower was built in this urban haven. I was in awe of its towering height and aesthetic beauty. More so, this twin towers showcased the economic prowess and cultural wealth of Malaysia.

I was surprised to see the many free standing skyscrapers in this part of Asia. But as I walked around Kuala Lumpur, I also discovered that there were still a lot of remnants of its past and cultural diversity. There were rustic colonial houses and buildings, a lively Chinatown with lots of bet buy items and the dynamic Little India which gives a snippet of the colorful Indian culture. Kuala Lumpur is a relatively large city, my family and I opted to just walk instead of exploring the place aboard a tour bus. For me, walking is the best way to get to know Kuala Lumpur.

By just leisurely walking and not adhering to any tour schedules, we were able to visit and enjoy the different local tourist spots and attractions at our own pace. Among the places that we have explored were the Guandi Temple in China Town where the Taoists pray to their gods, the Orchids Garden where different types of orchids are exhibited, the Petaling Street Market where assorted merchandise ranging from bags to DVDs and lastly the Taman Tasik Titiwangsa where people go to unwind and enjoy the skyline of Malaysia. Moreover, since I am into sports, I also checked out some the local action in Kuala Lumpur.

There are a variety of things to do here from indoor to outdoor games and land to water sports. Both the locals and foreigners are greatly entertained by these activities. The most popular sport in this part of the country is golf followed by cycling. There are numerous golf courses and clubs in Kuala Lumpur where golf enthusiasts can practice their swings to end up with a hole in one. More so, cycling is also considered as a main sport of the Malaysians. My favorite sport is biking so I tried to navigate the city through riding a bike wherein I saw numerous amazing views that took my breath away.

Biking can really be tiring but in Kuala Lumpur biking lanes are provided that made the ride easy and hassle-free from traffic. Also, when I biked around the city, I was really having a great experience and at the same while doing this, I got a free workout. So it was like hitting two birds with one stone. Aside from biking, I also tried my hands on swimming, bowling and diving wherein I had a great time and met some of the friendly locals who accommodatingly made my stay at Kuala Lumpur very memorable. The next city that I explored in Malaysia was Penang.

This place has one of the smallest land area in Malaysia. Despite its petite size, it ranked eight in the most populated places in the country. Penang is also called “Pearl of the Orient” because of its exotic landscapes and pristine beaches. Upon arrival in Penang, I noticed immediately that it was different with Kuala Lumpur. Penang has a more rural atmosphere because of the presence of beaches, mountains and other organic sceneries while Kuala Lumpur is more of a contemporary place filled modern amenities. In Penang, we visited several ancient temples.

These places are considered sacred because they emanate the spirituality of the Malaysians. One of the temples that we visited was the Snake Temple. This place of worship got its name from a myth that upon the completion of the construction of the temple, it was swarmed by snakes from the jungle. From then on, snakes have been permanent fixtures in the temple. We also went to the temple of Kek Lok Si at Air Itam where we learned that it is one of the largest and most beautiful temple in the entire Southeast Asia.

In the temple, we saw the different designs, statues and adornments that reminded us about other cultures. Influences from Thailand, China and Burma were very visible in the architectural design and craftsmanship of the temple. In addition, the temple was highlighted by a a very tall pagoda adding up to its grandiose quality. Even though we were not fully knowledgeable about the religion and the spiritual traditions of Malaysians, we still respected their beliefs by not making noise or doing anything that will offend them especially when were inside the temple.

Aside from this, there are other things to see in Penang. I indulged in bird watching at Penang Bird Park, trekking at the summit of the Penang Hill and exploring the vastness of the Pantai Acheh Forest Reserve. This experience made me appreciate more the beauty and fecundity of nature. Moreover, since Penang is an island, most of the sport activities involve water. It can either be sailing, swimming or surfing. Since I love playing in the water, I tried to learn to surf in one of the beach resorts. Surfing may seem easy but when you are actually doing it, it can really be difficult.

But the frustration to ride the waves was properly compensated by the crystal blue water, the refreshing breeze and the warm smiles of the locals. Nonetheless, this small but captivating place has a lot to offer to locals and visitors as well. If you are looking for a place to relax and stray away from the hustle and bustle of the city, I definitely recommend Penang as the place to explore. The last place I went to in Malaysia was in Pahang. One of their main attractions is the Genting Highlands. It is a luxurious vacation retreat situated on top of a mountain.

Generally, the area of the mountain retreat is small but there is a saying that good things come in small packages and this is true in the case of the Genting Highlands. This place is packed with a variety of entertainment and leisure activities that everyone can enjoy. For me, this place is like a one stop shop where everything you need is located in one place. It has a theme park, a shopping mall, golf course, country club and a hotel so visitors would not ran out of things to do here. When we went there, we rented a car and drove there from Kuala Lumpur.

The trip was a little long but we did not notice the time because we were preoccupied by the scenic and extraordinary sights that we saw. Then, after our arrival, we rode a cable car to have a birds eye view of the estate. Since there are a lot of things to explore in Genting Highlands, we tried to make a schedule so that we would be able to all the attractions. We started first with the theme park. This park is adorned with numerous exhilarating rides. Some are located indoors while the majority are outdoor rides such as the roller coaster, cyclone and spinner.

I really had a blast with these rides. It was an adrenaline-pumping, thrilling and exciting experience for me and the rest of my family. Next to the theme park, we went to the shopping mall called First World Plaza to catch our breaths after going through all those rides. We took this time to buy things to bring back at home as souvenirs and gift for our friends. Actually in this mall, people can splurge on many fashionable items and essential merchandises available here. In Genting Highlands, we stayed at their accommodating and lavish hotel for two nights.

The staff of the hotel were very friendly who made us feel that we were home away from home. Actually, the hotel is acclaimed for its amenities and services that is why many local and international stars go here to relax and even perform for entertainment. Also, if you are not into theme parks or shopping, there are other options like playing in the casinos or if the visitor wants more adrenaline rush, you can try biking, jungle trekking or horse-riding and finishing an 18-hole golf course.

After experiencing these, I can say that all the money that we have spent here was all worth it because the memories, the adventure and the laughs we had here are all priceless. Malaysia is indeed a place where you can enjoy ancient customs and the same time splurge yourself with the modern day amenities. My Malaysian experience will forever be embedded in my consciousness for it has brought educational and memorable experiences that I will treasure for the rest of my life.

Works Cited

“Malaysia:Overview. ” 2008. Lonely Planet. 10 June 2008 <>.

The Developments of the Roman road system Essay

Everybody knows the phrase – “all roads lead to Rome», we could find probably both figurative and literal meaning of the expression. Figurative meaning concerns the general place of the Roman Empire among other countries and talking about literal meaning we could refer to the development of the Roman roads and their role for the whole Western Civilization. The roads built by Romans were the best for hundreds of years. Due to their quality and reliability some of the roads and bridges built at those times are still used nowadays.

One of the most famous roads was the so-called “silk road” connecting the Roman Empire with trade countries. Roads were very important for military forces of the Empire and usually Roman legions took part in building the roads as well. Along with the expansion of the Empire roads were transformed from military routes to trade directions. Total there were 53 000 miles of roads built by Romans. All the mail exchange was done also with the help of the roads.

“In Latin road is via, and roads is viae. There were viae publicae (public roads), via militares (military roads), and actus (local roads). (Ashby,30).

Romans built various types of roads, including corduroy and paved roads; rubble was used in order for the roads to remain dry as water could go away between the stones. There were special rules worked out – the Twelve Tables – telling about the necessary width and curves of the roads. Mostly Romans concentrated upon straight roads, but due to deep grades these roads were not so convenient and later on Romans switched to building longer roads. The researchers stated that Romans had learned to build roads from Etruscans, although there were contributions from other cultures as well. Von Hagen, 112).

Work on the new road had a certain sequence, first of all the architect had to come out with the place for the future road, then agrimensores studied the bed of the road with the help of the rod and the groma, as the Romans had neither compass nor map. The route was worked out by a group of surveyors, they marked hills and plains. The next step was to unite hundreds of markers in the way that there was the straightest possible line between two points. Groma consisted of two parts connected together so that all the angles were right.

In order to form a straight line it was necessary for the two lead weights on the ends of the device to line up. They didn’t have the transit and in order to control the straightness of the road it was necessary to look along the rods. (Ashby, 13) After measuring, the points were drawn on a long piece of paper and then joined, thus the general picture of the road was visible. Then they reconsidered the markers once again in order to move those, which made the road not straight. Another step of changes was made due to slight deviations of the route, for example when it was necessary to build a bridge over a river at its narrowest place.

When the plan of the road was ready, ploughs and military people were set at work. (Margary, 268). Legionnaires were said to be a perfect road builders. The methods and techniques used by the Romans guaranteed excellent results and strong roads. Usually a road was a straight line connecting two places, going around the natural obstacles in order to avoid abrupt rising and so on. For crossing the rivers the Romans built wooden or stone bridges, some of them even had arches. On the swamps they built causeways also using special methods like sinking a lot of stones to raise the road (Ashby, 45).

Usually the road was dug to the most stable layer of the ground. The fosse then had to be filled in, this was done according to location and available materials, like stones, gravel or even sand, the bed of the road always consisted of several layers. As a rule the first layer was made of big stones and he last layer – of small stones with cement. The very last layer was made of small flint pieces and then pressed very tightly. The process of pressing of all the layers was called pavimentare or pavire.

Pavimentum was the notion for the flat result of the process, it could be already used as a road, and sometimes some additional layers were put. When the road was ready the Romans set milestones for defining the directions and distances for travelers. The miles were counted with the help of odometer, a device made by the Greek inventor Archimedes. The wheel of it was to rotate 400 times thus marking a distance of one mile. They were put on the sides of the roads informing about names and distances to towns from both left and right sides.

Nowadays the scientists are able to estimate the period of building the road with the help of information on these stones left by builders of the road. (Jean-Pierre, 71). Thus strong and well-constructed roads built by the Romans occupied an important place in the history of transportation and they played a remarkable role in the development of the Roman Empire and Western Europe. The roads were vitally important for establishing political and commercial relations between countries, for expanding the territories and military issues.

Tracking and Ability Grouping in Schools Essay

Introduction

This paper is about tracking and ability grouping, the practice of grouping students of similar ability or prior achievement together for instruction. This paper is divided into four sections. The first defines terms, sketches the basic features of tracking and ability grouping systems. The second section traces the historical quest for reasonable ways of matching students and curriculum. The third part provides information about the relationship between tracking and ability grouping and academic achievement and the last part describes the movement to eliminate tracking and ability grouping.

Definition of Tracking and Ability Grouping

Thirty eight years ago, the terms “ability grouping” and “tracking” were used to identify two distinct approaches to grouping students.

Ability grouping referred to the information of small, homogeneous groups within elementary school classrooms, usually for reading instruction. Children of approximately the same level of reading proficiency would be grouped for reading instruction, perhaps into “redbirds” and “bluebirds”.

Tracking referred to a practice in which high schools tested students, typically with both achievement and IQ tests, and used these scores to place their students into separate curricular tracks, or “streams,” as they are called in Europe.

The tracks covered distinctly different curricula, were binding across all academic subjects, and to lead to different destinations upon graduation.

Three tracks were common: 1) a high track, with college-preparatory or honors courses that readied students for admission to top colleges and universities: 2) a general track that served as a catch-full for the huge group of students in the middle, those huge group of students in the middle, those neither gifted nor deficient in their studies or those simply unsure of what they would do after high school, and 3) a low track, consisting of vocational courses and a smattering of low-level academic offerings, such as consumer math, and serving mainly low functioning and indifferent students (Smith-Maddox and Wheelock 1995).

  After graduation, general track students matriculated to second-tier colleges, community colleges, or the workforce. Low track students frequently dropped out, found work or suffered periods of unemployment (Rosenbaum, 1976). Writers now use the terms “tracking” and “ability grouping” interchangeably. One hears, for example, that “tracking begins in kindergarten.” In this report, I adhere to the conventional definitions employed by researchers, using “ability grouping” to refer to the grouping of students by ability within classes, which is primarily an elementary school practice, and “tracking” to refer to the grouping of students by ability between classes, a strategy common in middle and high schools.

History of Tracking and Ability Grouping

By the middle of the 19th century, American schooling was coalescing into local systems stratified by grades and organized around a rational curricular system. The legendary one-room schoolhouse, which in some cases was inhabited by students from two to twenty years of age, experienced a remarkable transformation. To create a more manageable clientele, age restrictions pushed infants and young adults out of the classroom. The curriculum at the time consisted of the books and learning materials that students brought from home. Reformers argued that teaching should instead follow a hierarchical sequence of topics, exposing students to increasingly difficult skills and complex knowledge. In many districts, algebra, for example, and other forms of “higher knowledge” were removed from grammar schools’ jurisdiction and reserved for high schools. (Reese, 1995)

            The 19th century high school served only a silver of the teenage population, less than 80% until the 1890s. Private academies housed the teenage children of the well-to-do, but for the average student, whose family needed the income from his or her work, formal schooling ended at eighth grade. As a rule, public high schools administered entrance examinations, and the upper grades of grammar schools, especially in urban areas, provided preparation for these tests. Once in high school, students found that each year of instruction built on learning from previous years. The academic calendar was further divided into smaller curricular units and carefully presented in a logical sequence.

            As educational historians have noted, the whole system was shaped like a pyramid. Common schools at the bottom educated the broad mass of American children and the number of persisting students steadily narrowed at each succeeding level. (Tyaka & Cuban,1995). In high school, students were tested annually for advancement in grade.

From 1850 on, age-grading gained in popularity, linking grade levels to students’ age, but originally any single grade of the high school could be populated by students of different ages, as long as – and this stipulation bears directly on tracking – the mastery of prior content had been demonstrated. Matching students and curriculum appeared to unfold naturally because each grade level represented an ability group. The curriculum was the master of the high school students’ fate. Pupils who learned it graduated to the next grade level. Those who didn’t stay behind or left school altogether. (Troen, 1975)

Tracking at the Turn of the Century

            By the dawn of the 20th century, educators had started questioning this arrangement. America’s economy was shifting from an agrarian to an industrial base, and the demand for education beyond eighth grade escalated sharply. Students poured into high schools. With immigration also surging, urban schools in particular faced a more numerous and varied clientele.

Political opposition to vocational education collapsed, mainly because its main opponent, labor unions, saw the growing number of private schools that offered vocational training as serious threat to the public school system, an institution they counted on to improve their children’s lot in life. Progressive reformers cited an outpouring of studies suggesting that teens leaving school were bored with the high school’s academic emphasis.  The progressives urged a more practical curriculum aimed at children’s interests. Academics debated the virtues of the uniformity and differentiation in the curriculum, and careers were built by championing one side or the other in this debate. (Troen, 1985)

            The 20th century’s comprehensive high school emerged from this cauldron of political, social, economic, and intellectual upheaval, housing within its distinct curricular tracks but promising a common set of educational experience and a single diploma for all graduates. Entrance exams tottered and fell, and high schools gradually accepted all corners. The lines of stratification for students had shifted: from distinctions drawn by the highest grade level one attained, or by whether one even attended high school, to distinctions emanating from the track one belonged to within high school.

            This structure guided the high school’s evolution into a mass institution over the next several decades.  It was not without faults. Social Darwinists and racial segregationist twisted to their own ends the idea that schools should tailor activities more to the characteristics of the students, insisting that children of different races and economic classes needed vastly different forms of education to prepare them for their rightful stations in life (Donelan, Gerald, and Jones, 1994).

Tracking was used as a tool of discrimination, especially during the Depression years, when students who might otherwise have been working poured into high schools by the thousands. Tests measuring IQ and academic achievement lent legitimacy to the task of placing students in tracks – and were used with both humane and pernicious intentions. (Mirel, 1998)

            There were also misguided attempts to fashion the curriculum around students’ personal needs.  In the 1940s, the “life adjustment” movement convinced many districts to forego academically rigorous content for courses on dating, personal grooming, housekeeping, and other practical topics. At its zenith, this reform movement was so blatantly anti-intellectual that 30% of his students wasted their time by taking academic courses. (Rosenbaum, 1976) Modern education promised something for everyone. Sporting a curricular menu packed with academic, quasi-academic, and non-academic electives, by mid-century the high school had become so fragmented that it resembled in one group of researchers’ memorable metaphor, the modern shopping mall. (Powell, 1985)

Sputnik and the Great Society

A flurry of criticism and the Russian launch of sputnik forced reconsideration. Suddenly, Americans fretted that students were not keeping pace with pupils abroad. In the 1960s, programs for gifted youngsters flourished, especially in math and science.  The Great Society heightened concern about racial discrimination, poverty and social inequality, spotlighting students who were badly served by the school system and giving birth to a multitude of programs that offered a helping hand.

All of these programs – gifted education, special education, compensatory education, and bilingual programs – targeted specific categories of students. Categorical programs institutionalized the conviction that any standardized education would shortchange youngsters with extraordinary needs. As categorical programs gained legal backing, their own administrative structures, and their own funding streams, the comprehensive high school grew more internally differentiated. (Ravitch)

The Pendulum Swings Again

            In the latter half of the 20th century differentiation in the form of tracking came under fire. In the books such as James Rosenbaum’s (1976) Making Inequality, Samuel Bowels and Herbert Gintis’s(1976) Schooling in Capitalist America, John Goodlad’s(1984) A Place Called School ,and Jeanne Oakes’s (1985) Keeping Track, critics assailed tacking for reproducing and exacerbating social inequalities (Rosenbaum, 1976). They pointed out that poor, non-English speaking, and minority youngsters were disproportionately assigned to low tracks and wealthier, white students to high tracks-and concluded that this was not a coincidence. Oakes’s book helped ignite a firestorm of anti-tracking activity.

Tracking was blamed for unfairly categorizing students, stigmatizing struggling learners, and consigning them to a fate over which neither they nor their parents had control. The indictment spread from scholarly journals to the popular press. A 1988 article in Better Homes and Gardens asked, “Is Your Child Being Tracked for Failure?” In 1989, Psychology today ran “Tracked to Fail” and U.S News and World Report published “The Label That Sticks” (Allan, 1991). Although the anti-tracking movement’s left –leaning political base conflicted with that of the movement for rigorous academic standards, parental choice, and other grassroots proposals that gained popularity in the late 1980s, it managed to hitch its wagon to growing public demand for excellence in the public schools.

Negative Effects of Tracking and Ability Grouping on Student Achievement Outcomes

In spite of conflicting research findings as to the benefits of ability grouping, the widespread use of the practice continues in our schools.  Wilson and Ribovich (1973) reported a study in which teachers were surveyed to determine their knowledge of which teachers were surveyed to determine their knowledge of ability grouping. Two-third of the teachers surveyed were found to have no knowledge of ability research findings, yet 92% felt that ability grouping was beneficial and 74% practiced it.

Ability grouping has been used in elementary schools, sometimes as early as kindergarten. Decisions to place children in groups at the primary grade level were often made on the basis of a primary teacher’s determination of a child’s ability which might have been made largely on the basis of the child’s family background, language skills, appearance, and ability to follow directions. Yet, research studies indicated that placement decisions in the primary grades had an enormous impact on the child’s academic achievement and adjustment. For example, Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) found that students tended to achieve at the levels teachers expected of them (a self-fulfilling prophesy).

Oakes (1985) in his publication Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality concluded that “It does not appear to be related to either increasing academic achievement or promoting positive attitudes and behaviors. Poor and minority students seem to have suffered most from tracking—and these are the very students on whom so many educational hopes are pinned.”(p. 15)

A research study conducted by Reuman (1989) comparing math achievement levels of sixth-graders found that ability grouping raised high-achievers’ achievement expectations, math grades, and tendency to make comparisons with a classmate who was worse at math.  On the other hand, ability grouping was found to lower low-achievers’ achievement expectations and math grades while raising their tendency to make comparisons with a classmate who was better at math.

Researchers are in almost unanimous agreement on one of the potential hazards of ability grouping, i.e., grouping students by ability had negative effects for low-achievers (loss of self-esteem, lowered aspirations, and negative attitudes toward school).  The names that teachers gave to high, middle, and low-ability groups probably indicated how they felt about the students belonging to one of those groups. Black (1992) reported that names such as “crows’ and “zeros.” Also, it wasn’t long before students realized who teachers were referring to when they bragged about “the good kids” or “the cream of the crop” or when they complained about “dummies, “ “blockhead,” “zombies,” or “the bottom of the barrel.”

It didn’t take long before students were giving themselves the same labels and students in the lower-ability groups loss self-esteem. What were the long-term effects of sorting and labeling students? Black (1993) reported a longitudinal study of junior high school students conducted by a University of Michigan research group which found, once again, that students assigned to low-ability math classes consistently displayed lower self-esteem. Over a period of time, those students had misbahvior problems and were more likely to drop out of school.

Still another negative effect of ability grouping is the “Locked-in” feeling that most low-achievers seemed to have regarding their achievement level, expectations, and aspirations. Rosenbaum (1976) noted that ability grouping usually translated into fixed grouping for most students involved in the process. Rosenbaum observed that whereas a few students from time-to-time level would be placed in a lower-ability level (i.e., moved from high-level to middle-level or from middle l-level to low-level), students almost always stayed at the same level they were originally assigned. This was especially true for those at the lower-level who were probably stuck there for the remainder of their schooling.

Although proponents of ability grouping contend that low-achievers can experience success and improve self-concept when grouped according to ability, Dyson (1967) reported a study relating both achievement and self-concept to ability grouping. He found no significant differences in student self-concept as a result of the level of ability grouping.

Slavin (1987) reviewed research on ability grouping in elementary schools. He found that assigning students to homogeneous classes on the basis of general ability or past achievement does not enhance their achievement.  He concluded that grouping students for reading and mathematics “can be instructionally effective if the level and pace of instruction is adapted to the achievement level of the regrouped class and if the students are not regrouped for more than one or two different subjects (p. 299).”

On the other hand, Kulik and Kulik’s (1982) meta-analysis findings tended to differ with researcher who were critical of ability grouping. The reported small positive effects on achievement for high-ability students and concluded that “the below average students; it is not negative; and “students seemed to like their school subjects more when they studied with peers of similar ability, and some students in grouped classes even developed more positive attitudes about themselves and about school” (p. 420).

Although the courts have ruled in many cases against the practice of racial segregation in schools, few research studies have addressed the issue of how ability grouping affects racial and socio-economic segregation. Coleman (1966) reported a widespread use of ability grouping throughout the nation, indicating that 32% of all black children were assigned to the lowest track or classes compared to 24% of white children.

A research report by Finn (1967) found that a number of studies, concerning the relationship between ability grouping and racial and/or socio-economic status, concluded that this practice often resulted in a self-fulfilling prophesy. Studies indicated that non white and low socio-economic students (who comprise the majority of students in the low groups) often limit their efforts to the teacher’s expectations for the group as a whole. Therefore, students in the low-ability groups were typically not exposed to create and independent learning activities commonly available to students in the high-ability groups. It was suggested that ability grouping discriminates against non-white and low socio-economic students.

Esposito (1973) reported in her review of the literature on ability grouping that studies by kariger (1962), Mehl (1965), Mcportland (1968), and Mayeske (1970) clearly indicated that the practice of homogeneous grouping reinforces and perpetuates the separation of children along racial and socio-economic line.

Black (1993) reported that high-track students (tracking and ability grouping were used interchangeably by Black) often took eighth-grade algebra or high school calculus which were not available to students who attended schools that served large numbers of poor and minority students.

The arguments on both sides of the issue of ability grouping have remained essentially the same since 1900. A report by Weaver (1990) summarized that proponents of ability grouping have argued that grouping was necessary to individualize instruction for students and to accommodate their diverse needs. She found that advocates had been particularly concerned with the negative impact that heterogeneous classes had on high-achievers who would otherwise have benefited from having to compete with other high-achievers in a homogeneous (ability grouped) class setting.

On the other hand, opponents of ability grouping have been concerned with the negative effects of the practice on low-achievers who developed low self esteem, lower aspirations, negative attitudes toward school, and were denied access to high-quality instruction. They were also opposed to the practice on the basis that ability grouping undermine social goals of equity and fairness in our society.

The pro-grouping argument has been primarily concerned with the issue of effectiveness, whereas, the anti-grouping argument has been primarily concerned with the issue of equity. During the past decades research on effective schools has revealed two important criteria: teacher expectations and student expectations. Teachers should have high expectations if they really want their students to be academically successful and to derive and maintain high self-esteem from their educational experiences.

Teachers’ expectations of students are made evident by the manner in which they interact with students in the class. But how students perceive their own ability will ultimately impact on their academic achievement and self-esteem.

The Movement to Eliminate Tracking and Ability Grouping

The movement to eliminate tracking and ability grouping began in 1980s. It was alleged by the opponent of tracking and ability grouping that academically weak children do not get competent teachers, high standard curriculum, low social status and no or less academic role models. Oakes (1985) played a great role to increase the momentum of the movement. She found that there are several disadvantages of tracking and ability grouping for students that are placed in lower tracks. She also found that students that possess low socio-economic status are not tracked to high performing elite colleges. Rather, such colleges are reserved for students from privileged background.

When detrackng movement reached its height, several organizations such as the National Governors Association, The National Council of Teachers of English, The National Education Association and the California Department of Education also favored detracking.

The detracking movement spread in California and Massachusetts in the beginning of 1990s. Tracking was either eliminated or reduced in both the states by the officials.

Conclusion

Tracking and ability grouping is not good for academically weak students. All the students do not get the same education. This thing is bringing frustration in the America’s new generation. So, it is advised that tracking and ability grouping should be eliminated.

References

 

Adam Gramoran, (1997). Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis.

Arthur G. Powell, (1993). The Shopping Mall High School, Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Black, Susan. (1992)“On the Wrong Track.” The Executive Educator,  December, 14 (4), 46-49.

Black, Susan. (1993). “Derailing Tracking.”The Executive Educator,January, 15 (4),               27- 30.

Bruce L. Wilson and Gretchen, High School Responses to State Curriculum Reform, New York, Teacher college press.

Coleman, James S. (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity, Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office.

David P. Baker, (1995). Local Constraints on Opportunity to Learn Mathematics in High School, New York, Plenum,.

David Tyack and Larry Cuban, (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Donelan, R. Gerald, N., and Jones, D. (1994). The Promise of Brown and the Reality of Academic Grouping: The Tracks of My Tears. Journal of Negro Education, 63, (3), 376-387.

Dyson, Ernest. (1967)“A study of Ability Grouping and the self-concept.”; The Journal of Educational Research, May-June, 60 (3) 403-405.

Finn Jeremy D. (1972). “Expectations and the Educational Environment.” Review of Educational Research, Summer.

  1. E. Rosenbaum, (1976). Making Inequality, Wiley, New York.

Jeffery Mirel, (1976). The Once and Future School, American Journal of Education, 1998.

Joyce L. Epstein and Douglas J. Maclver, (1990). Education in the Middle Grades: Overview of  National Practices and Trends, Baltimore.

Kariger, R. (1963). “The Relationship of Lane Grouping to the Socio-economic status of the Parents of Seventh-grade pupils in Three Junior High Schools. “Ph.D. diss., Michigan  State University.

Kulik, C. Kulik J. (1982). “Effects of Ability Grouping on Secondary School Students: A meta-Analysis of Evaluation Findings.” American Educational Research Journal, 19  (14), 415-428.

Mayeske, G. (1969). A study of Our Nation’s Schools,  Washington, D.C.: Government Printing  Office.

McPortland, J. (1968). The Segregated Student in Desegregated Schools: Source of influence on Negro Secondary Students, Baltimore, Md. : John Hopkins University.

Mehl, R. (1967).“ A study of  Relationships Between Homogeneous Grouping in the School and  Social Class Structure in an Upstate New York  Community.” Ph.D. diss., University of New York.

Oakes, J. (1995). Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. Yale University Press.

Rebbeca Barr and Robert Dreeben, (1983). How Schools Work, Chicago; University of Chicago Press.

Robert Dreeben and Rebbecca Barr, (1988). The Formation and Instruction of Ability Groups,   .

Rosenthal, R. and Jacobsen, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher Expectations and  Pupil Intellectual Development.

Selwyn K. Troen, (1975). The Public and the Schools, Culumbia, Missouri, University of Missouri press.

Slavin, R. (1987). “Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary School: A Best-Evidence, Synthesis.” Review of Educational Research, Fall, 57, (43), 293-336.

Smith-Maddox and Wheelock (1995) `Untracking and Students` Futures: Closing the Gap Between Aspirations and Expectations. Phi Delta Kappan, 77, (3), 222-228.

Susan D. Allan, (1991). Ability-Grouping Research Review.

Weaver, Rosa Lee. (1990).“Separate Is not Equal.” Principal , May, 69, (2), 40-42.

William J. Reese, (1995). The Origins of the American High School, New Haven, Yale University  Press.

Wilson, R. and Ribovich, J. (1973) “Ability Grouping: Stop and Reconsider.” Reading World,13,84-91.

Outsourcing Internal Auditing Essay

Outsourcing internal auditing has become a strategic imperative in the business sector since the nineteenth century. Internal auditing is an objective, consulting and independent venture that plays a big role in improving operations in organizations. It involves disciplined and systematic approach that enhances effectiveness in control, governance procedures and also risk management. It is a dynamic venture that adds value in many organizations. Many businesses carry out outsourcing of internal auditing either partially or on full basis.

Organizations have to consider various alternatives before deciding on what level of outsourcing of internal auditing has to be incorporated.

This includes evaluating the size of the organization and the resources available. Outsourcing internal auditing has various advantages to an organization. This includes minimizing corruption therein. It plays a big role in increasing effectiveness within the organization. Research shows that outsourcing internal auditing enhances accountability within organizations. It is time saving and quite cost effective when well managed.

This venture also has its disadvantages to organizations.

Outsourcing involves external experts which creates an avenue for them to access confidential information within Companies. This increases insecurity therein. Research shows that this venture is quite challenging especially in the area of incorporating decentralized budgets. In most cases it plays a role in demoralizing employees especially when they are highly qualified and competent to carry out internal auditing within the organization. Surveys carried out in U. S shows that outsourcing has increased by twenty percent since the onset of the twentieth century

Introduction Today’s business environment is very volatile in nature. This has made many businesses to encounter many business risks that are quite complex in nature. The business risks come in many ways. They include business ethics, investor demands, corporate governance, competitive market pressures, regulatory compliance, changing technology and accountability. With time, outsourcing internal auditing has actually become strategic imperative in the business sector. Outsourcing internal auditing can be partially done or it can be full outsourcing. Partial outsourcing

This is whereby organizations source internal audit services from external sources less than hundred percent. Most organizations source fifty percent of these services from external auditors. Many organizations incorporate partial outsourcing of internal auditing. This is also known in other terms as co-sourcing. This actually means having to balance between full outsourcing and retaining an in house team. This is whereby in most cases the in house team has good control of internal audits. The management decides to make good use of external advisors such that the internal auditors get additional support.

This is especially when specialist skills are required. In this venture there is integration of a partnership that is formal between the external auditors and the internal audit team. In this case each party actually contributes experiences, skills and complementary knowledge. This is normally done in many organizations as a means of cost cutting. It also helps many organizations to upgrade their capabilities within the organization. It also plays a big role in increasing responsiveness and efficiency within the organization.

This helps many organizations to create operational effectiveness and efficiency especially in the areas that the firm is exposed to great risks. This is also beneficial to organizations as they are helped to comply with approved policies, industry best practices, procedures and regulatory requirements. This is whereby the methodology incorporated focuses on elimination of risks. This involves the use of risk assessment process that is fundamental in internal auditing. This allows organizations to carry out self assessments. There is normally little consensus on the issues of partial outsourcing.

This is in relation to the amount of partial resources that need to be outsourced. To measure actually needs one to understand the complexity, nature and the size of the organization. This can be done on ongoing basis or even for specific terms. Some organizations normally carry out subcontracting and in this case the internal auditing is only carried out for a limited period of time. Full outsourcing This is where a hundred percent of internal auditing is sourced from external experts. There are organizations that full outsourcing of internal auditing.

This helps the firms to focus on strategies to improve their competitive advantage. In many cases organizations normally retain a resource in house. This can be the chief internal auditor. He is normally responsible for assessment of the organizational and internal process needs. Such a person is responsible for communicating with management and the audit committee. He is also liable for allocating the internal audit resources in the department. When there is total outsourcing of internal auditing, it actually generates more questions on how to manage it within an organization.

When full outsourcing is carried out in an organization, it is important that the oversight responsibility should not be given to an external expert. It is always safe for this responsibility to be given to a senior management level employee in the organization. Management team in an organization has to evaluate and determine the source of internal audit resources and the structures available. Decisions made concerning outsourcing of internal auditing are normally varied from organization to organization. These decisions are normally subject to change.

Regardless of who carries out internal auditing in an organization, it has to be done in accord with standards in the business field. This noble task needs professionally competent staff to accomplish it. According to research, partnering with outside providers is actually an effective venture that helps organizations to get internal auditing services. This normally contributes to management of an organization’s strategic objectives. Considerations for evaluating outsourcing alternatives Organization size Outsourcing is not just for large organizations only but even the small ones too.

Many small organizations never have the ability to hire full time internal audit staff or even hire them on permanent basis. They therefore need to explore outsourcing. Reasons why many organizations evaluate outsourcing include specialty skills and temporary staff shortages. Resources This is one of the considerations that need to be analyzed before outsourcing is carried out. There are instances when internal audit resources are unavailable or even scarce due to various factors. Outsourcing internal auditors can be carried out on a permanent or on a temporary basis depending on resources available.

Outsourcing is actually necessary where organizations can be in a position to get competent internal audit staff and professional internal audit services in good time. Advantages of outsourcing internal auditing Saves costs Outsourcing of internal auditing became very popular in many organizations. This is because it offered significant advantages to accounting firms and corporations. Many organizations have really benefited from the outsourcing strategies in line with internal auditing. One of the benefits is that these strategies save money.

Research shows that it is far much cheaper for this organization to carry out outsourcing than if it were to do train experts to carry out outsourcing. This is because the operational costs are highly minimized in this case especially when the staffs in an organization are not highly qualified in this field. Many Companies have benefited in reducing internal audit costs. This is by firms obtaining access to broad expertise that it would be expensive to maintain within the organization. Costs are reduced by overlapping audit effort and positions within the organization.

This is implemented by replacing fixed cost with employees that are variable cost effective. This also gives firms the ability to balance workloads. Saves time The other importance outsourcing is that it really saves the organization a lot of time. For instance, if the human resource management was to carry out personnel training so that they can carry out internal auditing it would take quite a long period of time. When outsourcing is carried out in an organization it helps in saving time and therefore other departments in the organization are given enough attention.

Staff is reduced Outsourcing really helps in the reduction of staff in many organizations. Research shows that if such organizations would manage an internal professional staff to handle internal auditing then it could be very expensive. Many organizations through outsourcing have managed to reduce the professional staff by half. This means that less money is used in the payment of staffs. This is very relevant for small organizations that cannot afford to pay professionals on a permanent basis and therefore carry out partial outsourcing. Increase in business effectiveness

Outsourcing has got very big impacts to the entire business. There is increased effectiveness in even the delivery of the services. This is because external experts have adequate experience to analyze the business operations. They also give invaluable advice to management in organizations on how to run the business. This actually leads to effectiveness in the business operations. As internal staffs in organizations interact with external professional they gain skills which in turn lead to increased business effectiveness. Resource relocation

The other importance of outsourcing internal auditing is that it allows the relocation of resources in the organization. Time as a resource is relocated to other important sectors in the organization by the managers. For instance the managers in many organizations able to use time saved in outsourcing to carry out strategic planning in the organization. This time is used to critically analyze the operations in the organization. Minimizes corruption Outsourcing internal auditing has got very many advantages to organizations. This is because it helps to minimize corruption within the organization.

In most of the organizations where outsourcing is not carried out, corruption is normally very rampant. This is because employees within the organization can actually lias to carry out inappropriate auditing of the books of accounting. This actually creates avenues for corruption practices to thrive within the organization. External experts that are normally used in carrying out internal auditing mostly do not have direct relations to employees within the organization. They play a big role in unearthing corrupt practices like money laundering since they have no fear of facing repercussions like being sacked.

In the long run corruption is highly minimized in the organization. Disadvantages of outsourcing internal auditing Insecurity A critical evaluation on outsourcing carried out in the most organizations raises some security issues. Every organization has got private and confidential information. Outsourcing in this case gives outsiders access to information that is very sensitive. Sensitive information in the organizations includes the employees’ terms of employment. This includes how much the employees are paid in each in relation to their qualifications.

This also includes the financial status of the organizations. In some cases, external experts link up with thugs and steal resources in the organization. That is why it is important that the overall venture of internal auditing be carried out by a senior employee within the organization. It is also important to have limits on the extent that external professionals can have knowledge on the ongoing within the organization. Demoralization of employees One thing that outsourcing does is that in one way or the other it demoralizes the employees.

Sources on interviews carried out in the many organizations show that the outsourcing of internal auditing done does not make good use of the employees’ insight and unique talents. This makes the employees feel quite incompetent when working in the organization. This is especially where full outsourcing of experts is carried out. This happens when employees in an organization are highly qualified to carry out the organization’s internal auditing. There is also the standpoint of labor that occurs in the outsourcing organizations.

To be realistic, outsourcing is a threat to the employees in the many organizations that carry out outsourcing of internal auditors. This normally gives rise to worker insecurity in the organization. The employees assume that the outsourced experts have come to replace them and simply refuse to cooperate. There is the probability of retaining or discharging of the workforce by the service providers Challenging A critical review on the outsourcing internal auditing strategies that are used in many organizations shows that the task is very challenging.

This is especially in the area of full outsourcing within the organization. It is very difficult to carry out budgeting in this case. It is also not very easy for parties involved in the organization to agree in making decisions that are related to outsourcing of internal auditing. Outsourcing that is normally carried out in many organizations is a test to the control in the organization. Working with decentralized budgets is a hard task for the financial managers in organizations that carry out outsourcing. The last decade saw accounting firm’s assurance and consulting firms grow by twenty percent in year.

Internal audit outsourcing has been one of fastest growing assurance services for accounting firms. In the year 1994, the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) carried out research and estimated the revenue emanating from internal audit services to be ten times that of the annual financial audits. In this case external audit and internal audit services are provided by the same firm. Conclusion Outsourcing of internal auditing is normally carried out in many organizations. Outsourcing can be carried out on partial of full basis. Partial basis is normally incorporated if the organization if employees are qualified.

Full outsourcing helps the firms to focus on strategies to improve their competitive advantage. The size of an organization and its resources play a big role in determining which type of outsourcing should be incorporated in an organization and to what extent. Outsourcing internal auditing has various advantages like minimizing corruption, saving costs and time. Disadvantages to outsourcing are that it creates avenues for insecurity and plays a role in demoralizing employees. All in all the benefits of carrying out outsourcing of internal auditing surpass the limitations.

Importance of Visual Elements in Art Essay

Visual elements of design are the basic vocabulary of design that helps the artist to communicate with the viewer. Those visual elements are line, shape, texture, value, and color. The importance of the elements has a great effect on the meaning art throughout the history. The line which is the track between two points usually takes different forms such as straight and curves. It helps to connote motion, direction and the orientation of a picture or drawings. This can be seen most especially when four dots are arrange or placed on a paper.

The interpretation of this is most likely to be that of a square. It also helps to lead the viewer’s eye and create specific meanings. The second visual element is the shape and it is usually form from closed lines. Some basics or common shapes include triangles, squares and circles. It defines space and it is usually help in establishing a balance between positive and negative space.

Color is the most important visual element in that it has a great impact on human’s perception and emotions. It is the first element that attract viewer.

This element can also create illusion of depth in that some colors tend to create the feeling of being closer while some being far. It also affects men and women in different ways. There are some colors that are termed short colors and these set of colors affect human nervous system. Texture can be defined as the surface quality of a material. In the real sense most artistic works or drawings have textures that help to depict some forms of meaning. This texture can be appreciated in two different ways; these are either actual or implied texture.

The actual texture can be felt while the implied can be perceived in the way the art work has been created. Value is also known as the tone of a color. It results from the apposition of light and dark and it usually define the intensity of these two forms of color. Value can be classified as a component of color while others are hue and saturation. Values of an art work depends mostly on each eye perception, and there different gradation to which the values can be categorized. Examples of roles of visual elements in history

Posted in Art

Overeating Essay

Coming out from my closed where I live, I saw a huge handsome young man of his late twenties staggering, very dirty and looking haggard. Yes! I guessed he must have smoked some quantities of marijuana herb or something else that made him look mad. Little did I know that the young man was indeed over fed with alcohol, no wonder he muttered when I passed him to buy some loaves of bread and I remembered he did smelled profusely. Such was my encounter with Chike-the over fed alcoholic man.

It was not by mistake that Chika was born into the humble home of Late Mr. Okoko Ibe in Lagos Nigeria. He was born healthy and hearty up to his late twenties before he joined a group of gangsters who feed themselves with doses of alcohol and cause troubles within the neighborhoods. They have a common character of not saying no to drinks be it alcohol or the like each time it is offered to them.

This habit was alleged to have resulted to Chike’s sudden madness.

On Sunday the 25th of March 2007 Chike on his madness regalia set out to look for where he could beg for whisky and gin in a nearby market. I drew close to a shop keeper where I wanted to shop for breakfast bread, it was indeed a big scene as I look but saw that there were two young men fighting and exchanging foul words to one another. Though no one could actually say what really was between them but something tells me it is not well with both men.

There seems to be loss of agreement over who takes larger part of what money they are to share. Gradually crowds began to drew attention and all concentration was at the point of scene and not even the noise of a flying helicopter could deter one from trying to hear nor vehicles passing could block ones view from capturing what comes next as these two men kept on dragging with gradually increase in their voices. !! Give me $1000 or else I tell the police!!

Said one of them who looked mean and more able bodied. Just as this argument was lingering and crowd gradually coming closer to the scene, I saw Chike rushed the young men in the face of the tick crowd and snatched the money tithed in a nylon bag and zoomed off abandoned his place of abode, sandals and his dirty wrapper wrap of clothes. Nobody could actually say which direction he took to and what really motivated him to act in that manner.

It was indeed amazed and amused. People were perplexed to explain what the state of Chike’s health had turned to. Initially I thought this was unconnected with his state of madness. At a distance Chike was seen trying to cross a huge long trailer carry cement products, as he did not want anyone to catch him ,he was knocked down and was crushed to death. Many People who witness this scene went home crying for the poor popular mad man.

Visual Learning Vs. Kinesthetic Learning Essay

Learning is a process where an individual acquires knowledge and skills through experience, schooling or study. It incorporates several processes and can be attained in various ways. Generally, it is innate for human beings to engage in the process of learning in order to know the things and actions that surround them. However, each person employs different ways of learning. The ways in which a person prefers to learn is known as learning style (“Learning styles,” 2008). This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of two of the most commonly used learning style: the visual learning and kinesthetic learning.

Visual learning style Visual learning is a method which relies heavily in the use of images such as graphics and pictures as a source of information. According to studies, people who are considered as visual learners must first see things before they could understand a particular topic or subject. Most of the visual learners respond well when presented with diagrams, charts, images, picture books and the likes.

It is also noteworthy that people engaged in visual learning style are able to retort and gain new knowledge on their own by creating visual images of things (Neer, 2008).

Advantages of visual learning style Through empirical studies, researches have proven that visual learning allows people to coordinate and act on things quickly thus it was posted that such learning style helps in building knowledge. It was also stated that the main function of graphics is to create an “information literal space” which help individuals to view patterns and easily create a link between ideas. Likewise, visual learning is capable of distributing large scales of information holistically. For example, a diagram quickly presents structures that allow individuals to compare things accurately.

Visual learning also generates a great display of various level of individual analysis which often results to the communication of ideas (Cegg, 2008). Because visual learners enjoy images, it was suggested that they are efficient in creating pictures of things and are good in imagining situations. Visual learning also helps persons to create visual strategies for remembering information that was accounted for the capability of such learners to view the whole picture during discussions and giving out solutions to a problem or situations (“Learning styles,” 2008). Moreover, visual learning enhances creativity.

The interaction with images entices creative ideas because it is able to tap on the main source of an individual’s innovation. Once the innovative side of a person is touched, linear ideas become holistic and more intuitive. And because seeing things personally could draw unconscious elements, people are able to create various interpretation on a single image based from past experiences (Cegg, 2008). According to Kristina Hooper Woolsey, visual learning functions as the facilitator of synergy among groups. Drawings that contemplate collaboration contain neutral qualities that are effective.

When people focus on the drawing they are able to concentrate on that particular drawing without regarding the differences in the personalities and social dynamics that are around them, thus the attention is centred towards the specifics of the discussion rather than the generalities (Woosely, p. 4 cited in Cegg, 2008 n. p. ) Disadvantages of visual learning style Because of the fact that visual learners are reliant on information drawn through pictures and graphics, it was found out that such learners are in distinct disadvantage though not in all situations.

This is because prevailing preference for the dissemination of information is accounted to verbal and written aspect (“Learning styles,” 2008). Moreover, since visual learning is appearance-centred, people who engage in this type of learning sometimes overlook the actual value of things. They have the tendency to skip on specific details. Visual learning style is said to be passive and is most likely to suffer from the decline of student participation, inattention of other students and sometimes the omission of non-verbal communication (Bonwell, p. 4 cited in Sivilotti & Pike, 2007, p. 1). Kinesthetic learning style

Kinesthetic learning style is a process where students acquire knowledge through active participation in activities that involve physical movement rather than listening to lectures. In this type of learning style, students engage in activities like walking, talking, pointing and working with props. Furthermore, researches presented that kinesthetic learning is an imperative and powerful style of learning that offset the shortcomings of traditional learning (Sivilotti & Pike, 2007, p. 1). Advantages of kinaesthetic learning style According to studies, kinaesthetic learning is useful in the process of assembling and production of products.

It allows learners to easily demonstrate how things are done and is a ground for people to actually enjoy the whole learning experience (“Learning styles,” 2008). Likewise, this type of learning style is well-noted to be an energizer during long lectures which allow students to view new perspective on the topics being discussed. It was also found out that kinaesthetic learning when applied in a regular basis could greatly stimulate the classroom culture interactions that in turn allow students to learn each others names and create a ground for commonalities.

Activities that incorporate kinesthetic learning involve the use of multiple senses, thus the students exposed to the process of assimilation of the materials in school. Moreover, kinesthetic learning helps individuals to be comfortable in asking questions and participate in discussions. Therefore such learning style augments the engagement level of individuals during the whole learning process (Silvotti & Pike, 2007, p. 1). Disadvantages of kinesthetic learning Like visual learning style, kinaesthetic learning also has disadvantages. People who engage in this type of learning have trouble in processing information that is presented verbally.

It is also difficult for them to focus on details that are written in a lengthy format (“Learning styles,” 2008). Moreover, it was believed that kinesthetic style is least considered to be practiced in a typical classroom setting because the movements that are done by several people inside the classroom somehow unsettle the teacher and other students. Since most of the educators nowadays prefer students to remain seated and listen to lectures, such action would be frustrating for kinesthetic learners because they need motion to understand thing.

In some cases, this may eventually lead for kinesthetic learners to shun away from the discussion (Garelick, 2008). In conclusion, both visual and kinesthetic learning styles are an imperative tool to gain knowledge. However, not all individuals practice visual and kinesthetic learning styles. This is because some individuals have their strengths in the utilization of visual learning style while others excel in the kinesthetic learning style. Moreover, the learning styles and preferences of every individual vary from one person to another depending on the situation.

It is worthy to note that, “no single learning style fits everyone. ” (Sivilotti & Pike, 2007, p. 2). Likewise, an individual should focus in understanding his or her learning preferences. By doing so, a person can make the most out of his or her learning potential and would be able to offset the shortcomings of learning styles that one often employ. Based from the findings that were presented, it is suggested that further analysis regarding other learning styles should be taken into consideration in order to clarify some points that were not discussed in the study.

References

Cegg, E. (2008). “Visual learning: Building knowledge, innovation and collaboration. ” Internet Time. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://internettime. com/visual/Visualization-Clegg2. htm. Garelick, K. (2008). “Kinesthetic learners: A homeschool success story. ” Gifted Home Schoolers. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://giftedhomeschoolers. org/articles/kinestheticlearner. html Learning styles. (2008). The Open University. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://209. 85. 175. 104/search? q=cache:W5YEFs0PxhMJ:www. open2. net/survey/learningstyles/learning_styles.

rtf+disadvantages+of+visual+learning&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1. Learning styles: Learn effectively by understanding your learning preferences. (2008). MindTools. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://www. mindtools. com/mnemlsty. html. Neer, K. (2008). How home schooling works. How stuff works. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://people. howstuffworks. com/homeschool6. htm Sivilotti, P. & Pike, M. (7-10 March 2007). “The suitability of kinesthetic learning activities for teaching distributed algorithms. ” Covington, Kentucky: ACM Special interest group on computer science education, 1-2.

A Visual Art Observation Essay

Starry Night of Vincent Van Gogh is one interesting work of art to analyse. It is very striking due to its heavy brush strokes and luminous colours. The seemingly endless curves and swirls can entice you into exploring the piece more intently. Visually, it is a mystical amalgamation of black and blue. Hence, conveying an apparent picture of a town at night time. A brightly lit quarter moon settles at the top right corner of the canvas. The yellowness of it somewhat literally borrows the sun’s colour.

Its luminescence, together with eleven stars draped at the upper half of the canvas, is rather too gleaming. The moon and stars appeared strangely luminous with bright colours encircling them. The lower right quadrant of the painting comprises the landscape of a silent town where the dark coloured roofs and trees are visible. Furthermore, on the lower left quadrant shows a huge cypress bush which seemed too vertically stiff against the horizontal waves of the night sky.

Apparently, the artist used horizontal contours in the majority of the piece.

The dotted lines formed the swirls and circles in the painting. The artist strokes are remarkable because the appeared to be made up of short lines of various colours filed together to create a vibrant and magnificent imagery of a quiet town. Every object in the paintings has consistent shapes and colour composition. The stars have a tiny red orange dot on the middle to prove its size despite its flaring surround. The mountains have black outlines to present its edges and blue-coloured soil.

Likewise, the houses are also outlined in black but in their case, the surfaces vary in colours like brown, green, light blue, violet, orange and other dark shades. The trees are presented in curves in dark tones of green, blue and black. The dark bushes, however, is coloured too darkly with brown, green and black. Van Gogh has truly revealed a part of his personality and emotional status in Starry Night. The extreme use of curves and swirls indicated his uncommon vision of the world. It depicts his mental state of schizophrenia and his desire to end his life.

The heavy strokes denote the depression that he was currently encountering. The bushes which appeared out of place in the painting pointed directly towards the heavens show his dark thoughts on ending his life. It gives the impression of death as it is formed with dark shades and rigorously designed to separate it from the world—same with the feelings of Van Gogh. It is also noticeable in his work that it is full opposites; starting from the straight lines to curved lines; the brightness of the stars to the darkness of the colours used; the peaceful town to the raging night sky.

Who could have thought that such opposite elements could create a magnificent work of art? The painting is more than just a symbolic image of the artist’s thoughts. It is his reality which is conjured by his passion with art. The numerous curves and swirls portray his desperation to be free considering that he painted the Starry Night while he was inside a mental asylum. Vincent Van Gogh is indeed a “mad genius” as admirers would often label him (Boime, 2008, p. 1).

The Starry Night contains symbolisms that are meticulously encrypted by an art genius like Van Gogh. No wonder it is one of the most attention-grabbing paintings today. Its vibrant elements and the unmistakable passion expressed through it by the artist seduce its audience in an exaggerated world of a man who only sold one painting in his lifetime.

References

Boime, A. (2008). Revelation of Modernism: Responses to Cultural Crises in Fin-de-Siecle Painting. Missouri: University of Missouri Press

Posted in Art

Visual Perception Essay

Perception, as the word suggests itself, explains how and why a person understands the things the way he does. In terms of the utilization of visualization of the things seen by the eyes, psychologists are able to estimate the reasons behind the fact on how people understand things based upon what they see. The colors and other elements making up human vision help a person understand the said issues that are connected with his ability of using his sight for the meaning of things.

The utilization of the body’s visual system, which includes the eyes and the brain as well, helps a person understand the things that he sees. Likely, the matter is more important in terms of explaining why a certain thing appears as it does and how the said aspects of visualization affect the meaning of things as they appear to the eyes. As for example, a tree may appear to be just a tree to a person in one look.

While on the other hand, if the person examines the entire picture as it appears to his eyes, the picture may have a different effect to the person as it may sense an aura of relaxation and calmness that may bring a particular rest in the mind of a person. Likely, this perception is an inner description of what the eyes see as per described through the interpretation of the brain in connection to what the eyes see. In terms of the color spectrum, as the eyes see the rainbow to have different colors when actually the eyes could only recognize three colors, why is this so?

The utilization of eye’s photo receptors makes it easier for the eyes to see the prism in a more complex collection of colors that produce the rainbow’s image in the mind. From this particular example, it could be understood that human vision does not only rely on what is actually seen but on what is understood by the brain as the eyes function as the mirror to the things that it sees.

References:

Nigel W. Daw (17 November 1967). “Goldfish Retina: Organization for Simultaneous Color Contrast”. Science 158 (3803): 942–944.Bevil R. Conway (2002). Neural Mechanisms of Color Vision: Double-Opponent Cells in the Visual Cortex. Springer. ISBN 1402070926. Conway, Bevil R (2001). “Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (V-1)” Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (8), 2768-2783. John E. Dowling (2001). Neurons and Networks: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674004620. McCann, M. , ed. 1993. Edwin H. Land’s Essays. Springfield, Va. : Society for Imaging Science and Technology.