Introduction The purpose of the lab was to determine how the solubility of Borax (Na2B4(OH)4) and other thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature…..
This project has been chosen in view of increasing demand of milk and also due to higher expectations of good quality and low fat diet requirements of the people with better awareness. Also the requirement for such quality products is more acute today. In this project I have prepared soy milk from soyabeans and have compared the conditions of formation of good quality cow milk yogurt and soy milk yogurt. I have also tried to find the effect of temperature on the pH of cow’s milk and soy milk.
Thus I have selected this project to find a suitable replacement of cow milk in soy milk to meet the demands of the ever increasing population. SOY MILK: Soy milk (also called soya milk, soymilk, soybean milk, or soy juice) and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage is a beverage made from soybeans. A stable emulsion of oil, water, and protein, it is produced by soaking dry soybeans and grinding them with water.
Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow’s milk: around 3. 5%; also 2% fat, 2. 9% carbohydrate, and 0. 5% ash.
Soy milk can be made at home with traditional kitchen tools or with a soy milk machine. The coagulated protein from Tofu, just as soy milk can be made into made into cheese. Soy milk can be made from whole soybeans or full-fat soy flour. The dry beans are soaked in water overnight or for a minimum of 3 hours or more depending on the temperature of the water. The dehydrated beans then undergo wet grinding with enough added water to give the desired solids A can of Yeo’s soymilk, poured into a glass. Soy milk can be made from soya beans or full flat soy flour. The dry beans are soaked in water for a minimum of 3 hours.
The dehydrated beans then undergo wet grinding with enough added water to give the desired solid content to the final product. The ratio of water to beans on a weight basis should be about 10:1. The resulting slurry or puree is brought to a boil in order to improve its nutritional value by heat inactivating soybean trypsin inhibitor, improve its flavor and to sterilize the product. Heating at or near the boiling point is continued for a period of time, 15-20 minutes, followed by the removal of an insoluble residue by filtration. SOY YOGURT – Soy yogurt looks like regular cream yogurt.
Soy yogurt, (Soya yoghurt in British English) also referred to as Soygurt or Yofu (a portmanteau of yoghurt and tofu), is yogurt prepared using soy milk, yogurt bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and sometimes additional sweetener, like fructose, glucose, or raw sugar . It is suitable for vegans, as the bacteria for shop-bought soy yogurt are usually not grown on a dairy base. Soy yogurt can be prepared at home using the same method as dairy yogurt. One tablespoon of sugar per 1 liter of unsweetened soy milk may be added to promote bacterial fermentation.
Soy milk on its own lacks the lactose (milk sugar) that is the basic food for the yogurt bacteria. Soy yogurt may have a slight beany soy taste when made directly from freshly prepared soymilk, but this is less pronounced in shop-bought soy yogurt and in soy yogurt made from commercial soy milk. Soy yogurt contains less fat than yogurt made with whole milk. This amounts to about 2. 7% (the same percentage as soy milk), versus 3. 5% in dairy yogurt. However, dairy yogurt can be made with 2%, 1%, or fat-free milk, and these cases, it is lower in fat than soy yogurt. Cow Yogurt
Yogurt, also spelled yoghourt or yoghourt, is a favorite breakfast, lunch, or snack. A thick, custard- or pudding-like food, yogurt is made by the natural bacterial fermentation of milk. The process of making yogurt involves culturing cream or milk with live and active bacterial cultures; this is accomplished by adding bacteria directly to the milk. Commercially made yogurt is usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilis. Yogurt made at home is usually started by adding a dab of commercially made yogurt to boiled milk, and then keeping the mixture at 45°C.
In Western cultures, yogurt is enjoyed in a variety of ways, most popularly as a cool dish mixed with fruit. Yogurt can be used to make healthy shakes or frozen to eat like ice cream. Yogurt can also be used when cooking, in place of milk, sour cream, and even some cheeses. In Middle Eastern cultures, yogurt is frequently served with meat, meat sauces, and vegetables, It can be mixed with various other sauces or used as a tangy dollop on top of a meal. NUTRITION AND HEALTH INFORMATION Nutrients in 8 ounces (250 ml) of plain soymilk.
| Regular | Life Whole | Fat |kcal) | Soymilk | Soymilk cow (reduced milk fat) | Free cow milk | 90 | 70 149 | 83 | | 10. 0 | 4. 0 7. 7 | 8. 3 | | 4 | 2. 0 8. 0 | 0. 2 | | 14. 0 | 16. 0 11. 7 | 12. 2 | (g) | 0. 0 | 0. 0 11. 0 | 12. 5 | | 120 | 100 105 | 103 | (mg) | 1. 8 | 0. 6 0. 07 | 0. 07 | | 0. 1 | 11. 0 0. 412 | 0. 446 | (mg) | 80. 0 | 80. 0 276 299 | in 100 ml of fortified soyrpilk “Alpro Soya” versus semi skimmed and fat free milk: | | Enhanced Semi Fat free Soymilk skimmed cow cow milk milk | Calories (kcal) | 31 47 35 | Protein(g) | 3. 3 3. 6 | 3. 6 | Carbohydrate | 0. 2 4. 8 | 4.
9 | Lactose (g) | 0. 0 4. 8 | 4. 9 | Fat(g) | 1. 8 1. 8 | 0. 3 | Saturated fat | 0. 3 | 1. 1 | 0. 1 | Sodium (rng) | 10 | 44 | 5 | Iron (mg) | 0. 24 | 0. 02 | 0. 03 | Calcium(mg) | 120 | 124 | 129 | Vitamin A (mcg) | 1. 0 | 6. 0 0. 9 | 3. 5 0. 4 | VitaminBl2(mcg) | 0. 38 | Vitamin D (mcg) | 0. 75 | 2. 5 | 0. 0 | CHEMISTRY INVOLVED Proteins are chains of amino acid molecules connected by There are 22 different amino acids that can be combined to form protein chains. There are 9 amino acids that the human body cannot make and must be obtained from the diet.
These are called the essential amino acids. The amino acids within protein chains can bond across the chain and fold to form 3-dimensional structures. Proteins can be relatively straight or form tightly compacted globules or be somewhere in between. The term “denatured” is used when proteins unfold from their native chain or globular shape. Denaturing proteins is beneficial in some instances, such as allowing easy access to the protein chain by enzymes for digestion, or for increasing the ability of the whey proteins to bind water and provide a desirable texture in yogurt production.
The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot, or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. The fermentation of lactose also produces the flavor compounds that are characteristic of yogurt. REQUIREMENTS Beakers, pestle and mortar, measuring cylinder, glass rod, tripod-stand, thermometer, muslin cloth, burner.
Soya beans, cow milk, fresh curd and distilled water, pH papers. PROCEDURE 1) Soak about 150g of Soya beans in sufficient amount of water so that they are completely dipped in it. 2) Take out swollen Soya beans and grind them to a very fine paste 3) Filter it through a muslin cloth. Clear white filtrate is soya bean milk. Compare its taste with cow milk. 4) Take 50 ml of soya bean milk in three other beakers and heat the beakers to 300, 40°and 50°C respectively. Add ? spoonful curd to each of these beakers. Leave the beakers undisturbed for 8 hours and curd is formed.
5) Similarly, take 50 ml of cow milk in three beakers and heat the beakers to 30°, 40° and 50°C respectively. Add ? spoonful curd to each of these beakers. Leave the beakers undisturbed for 8 hours and curd is formed. 6) Take 20 ml of cow milk and soya bean milk in two separate test tube and test OBSERVATION TYPE OF MILK| BEAKER NO| TEMPERATURE. C| TIME TAKEN TO FORM CURD(HRS)| TASTE OF CURD(AFTER 8 HRS)| COW’S MILK| 1| 30| 6. 5| SWEET| | 2| 40| 5| SOUR| | 3| 50| 4| SOUR| SOY MILK| 4| 30| 8. 5| NOT FORMED| | 5| 40| 7| SWEET| | 6| 50| 6| SWEET| TYPE OF MILK| BEAKER NO| TEMPERATURE.
C| pH| COW’S MILK| 1| 30| 6| | 2| 40| 6| | 3| 50| 6| SOY MILK| 4| 30| 7| | 5| 40| 7| | 6| 50| 7| RESULT 1. For cow milk, the best temperature for the formation of good quality and tasty curd is 40°C and for soyabean milk, it is 50°C. 2. For cow milk, the pH of good quality and tasty curd is 5 and for soyabean milk, it is 6. INFERENCE Thus the formation of good quality soy yogurt the time taken was 7 hours for a sample at 50°C and at a pH value around 6. whereas, for the formation of good quality curd the time was 5 hours for a sample at 40°C and at a pH value around 5.
Thus a good yield of curd can be obtained with soy milk. And moreover soy yogurt helps in controlling type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. The enzymes in the soy yogurt also help in regulating blood sugar levels. Thus soy milk is a suitable replacement of cow milk to meet the demands of the ever increasing population. INDEX Why I chose this project? 1 Soya bean milk 1 Soy yogurt 4 Nutrition and Health Information 7 Chemistry involved 9 Requirements 10 Procedure 11 Observations 12 Result 13 Inference 13 Bibliography 10 BY: Vishal Kamalakannan.