Place You Should Visit In Jamaica Essay

Did you know that Jamaican is amongst the most chic and interesting island found in the Caribbean, that one would wish to visit? Are you aware that the beaches in Jamaica are thought to be among the purist and most beautiful in the world? They have clear blue waters coupled with white sand which makes a visit to Jamaica a really wonderful experience. Let us first explore Jamaica in general, Jamaica is one of the Caribbean islands and it is the third largest.

It has 14 parishes forming three significant countries. Its capital city is Kingston and it is one of the interesting sites to visit.

It is worth to note that Port Royal was ones the capital city of Jamaica but it fall into the sea due to earth quakes. The capital was moved to Spanish Town, and then moved to Kingston. So when you are in Port Royal you can see the remains of the old capital. Jamaica is a cosmopolitan country, with different cultures of German, Irish, English, Indian Chinese and African and all this groups have contributed to the culture in one way or another.

Jamaica offers beautiful scenes, rich culture, delicious food, superb hotels and reliable and good transport system.

Imagine being at a height of 2000 feet above sea level! This is what you will get by being up at the “Murphy hills” which have the highest view point of (2000feet above the sea level). And we have views of mountains, valleys and lavish nature. At the top at the Murphy hill will enable you to view the, the Ocho Rios-which is the pier for cruise, ship, the Blue Mountains, and if the heather is good you may be able to see Cuba. You should not miss to enjoy valley tubing at the White River; the experience offers a breathtaking sight.

The river is beautiful and also, it divides two of the adored parishes in Jamaica, St Ann and St Mary. When the river passes through the coconut plantations, and the bamboo wood one feels the different pace and moods of this river, it more adoring to watch the locals in their river side dwellings along the river. You will also go through many tough rapids and exciting lagoons. And of course, we have beautiful well kept gardens of the river at the Valley Park which has gift shops, bars, and restaurants.

That is only but few places that are a must see, but there are many other places that one can visit like the lush jungles found in the Cranbrook flower forest, and a ride in the capital city of Kingston which offers an opportunity to visit the bob Marley museum and many other attractions. Jamaica is well known for its tasty food and enticing recipes. These mouth watering foods include, curried goat meat, stew peas together with rice, not forgetting the national food, “ackee” and salt fish. When it comes to fruits we have many types of mangos that Jamaica has. Examples are, East India, Hairy mangoes, Bombay, and Julie.

Other fruits are June plums, etioti apples and naseberries these are very refreshing o take on warm afternoon. It is also well known that Jamaica offers the well known blue mountain coffee which is sold allover the world is another attraction to sample. After you visits if you will tired and drained then you can unwind with the local drink which is Jamaican white rum believed to be a cure for jitters. The trip will not be complete without visiting some night clubs which offers a pleasant and enchanting experience as Jamaica has some exciting reggae musicians and calypso maestros.

The enticing music and delicious food served in this places offers an enjoyable evening. While in Jamaica you will have so many options on where you can stay as we have many hotels, good villas, together with condos that one can chose from. This offers services for singles, couples or families. The best place to stay is the Ocho Rios since it is centrally located within the many attractions that are very interesting to visit, such as the Dunns River falls. In addition there are a number of restaurants, which offer spectacular views.

Another place that has some of the country’s best lodgings is the north coast, it boosts of good established hotels that provides fine diners and splendid sightseeing sites. It is here that you can get an opportunity to visit the Rose Hall, which is the past home of Annie Palmer, that includes a mansion build on numerous acres of lush green grass that is now a hot attraction for tourist. It is worth noting that credit cards are accepted in many big hotels but in small restaurants and remote guest houses don’t accept them.

So you can use your visa card to get some cash as ATM’s are installed in many towns. Moving about in Jamaica is fun as it has a warm tropical weather and the roads are in good condition although you can’t miss to get a pothole in some areas. When you are in Kingston the roads are ok. And one doesn’t need to worry about the transport as there are taxis whose drivers’ are careful and polite. You can also fly to various locations get to see attractive scenes from the air. If you are not afraid of water, you will have a chance to cruise in the waters.

Your trip can’t be complete without buying some of the items from Jamaica. For crafts, the Ocho Rios at the Soni Plaza offers best deals, but of you have to bargain. You will get crafts mart, t-shirts, carvings and some general stuff. If you want to buy jewelry, some good watches, perfumes and rings you better go to a duty free shop. You can get better discounts for example at the Royal shop. Another place you can get good bargains of crafts items is at the Negril, here you can purchase a Jamaican craft at a very good price.

Hey, if you need a souvenir to carry back home then the place to go is the sunshine plaza in Negril. Still if you want to shop without stress, you can go at the Halfmoon Shopping Village, here they are a lot of items to shop from, and examples of the item you will get includes, cigars, clothing, beach items, souvenirs, and some duty free items. Still wondering what to carry home? Why not carry this; the famous Cuban cigars, jerk seasonings or the Jamaican Appleton Rum, that you can get at the airport on when you are going back home.

Conclusion Visiting Jamaica is absolutely dazzling! The place offers lots of excitements think about the wonderful beaches with clear blue waters and white sand. What about the Blue Mountains with Dunn’s water falls which are 600feet deep. And don’t forget the luminous lagoon which is among the most magnificent marvel that is in Jamaica. And as you explore the village of the nine miles you will be reminded of the King of reggae, as here is where he was borne.

You will get the chance of visiting the house he lived and get first hand information of his life, and his experiences as a young boy, his passion, and you will get to know about the exceptional religion of Rastafarian and crown you tour by visiting his mausoleum. But, despite all that beauty one has to take a few precautions when visiting Jamaica, you have to be prepared for mosquitoes so carry some lavender oil to repel them. And don’t forget taking some anti malaria drugs to protect you from getting malaria incase you are bitten.

A word of caution is to the ladies, please don’t venture out in the night alone, men here don’t have manners and can harass you and touch your sensitive parts! Other wise being in Jamaica for a vacation is so beautiful and breathtaking leaving you with life time memories. Welcome to the Caribbean island and a life time experience.

References Jamaica:

(2007): Retrieved from “” accessed on 3rd July, 2007 Visiting Jamaica (2007): Retrieved from: “http://www. tripadvisor. com” accessed on 3rd July, 2007

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Outline for an Informal Report Essay

This report is designed to study and critically analyze the economic and management problems being currently encountered by the Roanoke Branch of Phoenix Advertising particularly in their employee management approach and the relationship between the management and the subordinate employees.

Classification / Division

I. Background information about the agency is as follows:

The agency being targeted by this report is the Roanoke Branch of Phoenix Advertising located in Charlotte, NC that serves banks, insurance companies and retail chains advertising needs, currently headed by Gregory S.

Forest as the company president and locally handled by Frankie Evans as the Vice-President for Human Resource Management, which is presently besieged by turmoil in their employee management.

II. Information regarding the report investigation.

Determining and critical analyzing the condition of the targeted work branch requires personal investigation approaches. Thus, this researcher has interviewed several employees of the said work branch to determine their opinion and views regarding the work condition and environment in the targeted structure.

In addition, this researcher has also reviewed and analyzed several work documents and manuals pertaining to employee management approach of the company.


III. Results of the investigations.

Thus, the said investigation has determined that the Roanoke Branch of Phoenix Advertising is currently experiencing several employee management and employee relations problems, which are significantly affecting the production and quality of service of the said office. Among its problems is the significant decrease in the morale of the employee particularly in their dedication for their work, quality of work environment and the dissatisfaction with the services and performance of their superiors.

This in turn has caused higher stress level for the employees thus, further aggravating their discontentment with their work conditions. In addition, this problem has also affected the production rate of the said branch as the rate of absenteeism and turnovers have increased to a detrimental level. Other contributory factor to the discontented wok nature of the employees are the lack of communication between the body of employee and the management, increased in the work load for each employee, and the  increasing unpaid overtime dues to the employees.

IV. Recommendations

To address the investigated employee management and relation in the employee’s body of the Roanoke Branch of the Phoenix Advertising, this researcher recommends the following approaches.

A. Revising the hiring and recruitment procedures particularly drawing out a clearer and more comprehensive work contract that elaborates the rights and privileges of the employees to encourage more applicants thus enabling the administration to expand the workforce pool in the Roanoke Branch.

B. Establish experimental work system to determine the most convenient for the employees and the most effective for the company’s production cycle. Included in this concept are the aspects of employee scheduling employing a fixed but semi-rotational work schedule for each employee and shortening the work period through extending or establishing employee vacations and day offs.

C. Reducing the workload of the employees through hiring in part-time personnel especially during work peak seasons to accommodate the increasing workload and increase the work capacity of the Roanoke branch.

D. Formulating grievance and dispute procedures to expand the communication aspect between the management and employees wherein employees’ views and opinions can be expressed and will be duly addressed and incorporated in the development plans of the Roanoke branch. With this implemented, the work environment and condition of the employees can be improved in accordance to their preferences thus promoting in turn their dedication and willingness to do their job tasks and their personal safety while in working condition.

E. Establishing a management development training program where the leadership and interpersonal skills of the branch’s leaders and managers can be develop thus enabling them to better relate and understand their subordinate employees.

F. Establishing employee incentives approach as the management’s tool for motivation for their employees and their rewards for the hard work and services done by their employees. These incentives can manifest through different forms such as awards like employee of the month, compensation time, extra bonuses, and profit share, which are all constituted in monetary and honorable recognition forms.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Essay

SARS is a highly contagious ailment, whose indications closely resemble those of influenza. Some of the symptoms of SARS are chills, headaches, muscle pains, sore throat and high fever. As the disease continues, there is an onset of pneumonia, which can prove to be fatal. In this context, the World Health Organization had estimated that fifteen percent of the cases of SARS infection proved to be fatal. This disease has defied all attempts at a cure; moreover, there is no vaccine for this disease.

The SARS virus underwent a mutation, which enabled to cross the species barrier from animals to people.

SARS is a respiratory illness and the symptoms of this illness are fever when the virus infects the human body. Normally the temperature of the human body of an infected person would be in excess of 100. 40F. The infected person develops chills and symptoms like headache, discomfort and body pains. In addition, there could be mild symptoms of respiratory distress in the beginning.

Within two to seven days the patient develops a dry and nonproductive cough. The nonproductive cough would result in insufficient supply of oxygen to the blood.

Some patients could even require the administering of clinical ventilation. SARS is a contagious disease and it spreads through the droplets that issue forth from a person who is coughing or sneezing into the air, if that person has been infected by the SARS virus. The primary manner of transmission of the virus is through the air or from objects that are contaminated with the virus (TARGET – SARS Target II SARS/CoV 3CL-PRO). In 2003, an outbreak occurred of a previously unrecognized illness – termed SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome.

It was caused by infection with a newly identified coronavirus, SARS-COV. Infection produced an illness with Pneumonia as the main disease; however, some patients developed other complications like the loss of appetite, diarrhea and bleeding in the abdomen or stomach. Many of those who developed this disease were health-care workers and the infection rate among them was very high (SARS. Black’s Medical Dictionary, 41st Edition. CredoReference ). Extraordinary and exceptional isolation procedures had to be necessarily adopted because the Epidemic threatened to spread all over the world from its origin in Hong Kong.

Some of the measures adopted, in order to reduce the risk of the spread of this infection was the concentration of patients in individual hospitals, which were converted into isolation units. Visitors were not allowed into such hospitals. Staff and other patients who had been exposed to persons suffering from this disease were segregated in such special units. Further, routine care for in patients in the hospital was discontinued and screening of likely contacts was conducted. In addition, a number of restrictions were imposed on travel.

Due to this strategy, which had been performed in coordination with the World Health Organization, the SARS pandemic was finally controlled (SARS. Black’s Medical Dictionary, 41st Edition. CredoReference ). The virus genome on careful analysis revealed that this virus was a recombinant of virus relating to bird bronchitis and a virus relating to mouse hepatitis. It takes between two to ten days for the symptoms caused by the SARS virus to become noticeable after the infection takes place.

With the increasing age of the patients there is a corresponding increase in mortality rate and proves to be fatal in approximately half of the patients whose age is above sixty years of age (SARS. The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas CredoReference). In the month of November 2002, the first incidence of SARS infection was discovered. This was in a place that was close to Foshan in the Guangdong province of southern China. However, this disease caught the attention of the people in the month of February 2003, when it spread globally due to air travel by infected persons.

In the month of February 2003, Carlo Urbani, who worked for the World Health Organization in Bangkok, was asked to go to Hanoi in Vietnam, in order to treat an industrialist, from the US, who showed symptoms of an unknown disease. In this manner, Carlo Urbani became the first person to identify this disease as a new disease (SARS. The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas CredoReference). Several scientists, especially those from Canada, were successful in establishing that this new SARS virus belonged to the family of the coronavirus.

This disease spreads to other persons, if the victim is located very close to an infected person who spreads this disease by coughing. Further, this disease spreads to people who enter a place in which infected people have deposited exhaled droplets of phlegm or other fluids in their body. Moreover, infection with this disease occurs if contact is made with door handles and similar objects that have contaminated droplets on their surface. Furthermore, it is possible to get infected with this disease if a person enters an enclosed place like a lift in which contaminated droplets are present.

Eight thousand victims of SARS were identified by the end of is outbreak in the year 2003. Out of these SARS victims, seven hundred lost their life. The maximum damage due to this virus took place in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. In Toronto, Canada there were one hundred and forty cases of such infection and twenty five of such infected persons died. In Singapore, there were around three hundred instances of this infection and out of these thirty persons lost their life (SARS.

The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas CredoReference). In the year 2003 scientists were successful in discovering the gene that made the human body prone to infection by the SARS virus. While studying the human leukocyte antigen or HLA proteins, they realized that the variation in a gene that produces the HLA-B*4601 protein was common in the South China population. This was the area of origin of the SARS virus and people with this gene variation displayed a reaction to the SARS virus that was greater in severity in comparison to those who did not have this particular gene variation.

Moreover, SARS infections are very rare in people who do not possess this HLA-B*4601 gene variation. Most of the people who belong to Taiwan and Europe do not have this gene variation (SARS. The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas CredoReference). At the time of the rapid spread of SARS, the World Health Organization sent out a global alert in which it asked the people to mask their face in public places, to avoid air travel, to thoroughly check airplane passengers for increase in body temperature and to quarantine infected persons.

A number of scientists are engaged in developing a vaccine for this disease. However, this disease was controlled by the beginning of the year 2005 and does not exist anywhere in the world, except in the laboratories (SARS. The Crystal Reference Encyclopedia CredoReference). SARS has defied all attempts at a cure and there is no specific vaccine for it. This has restricted the treatment to reducing the severity of the symptoms shown by the patient and treating any side effects of this infection (SARS in full severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia CredoReference ). It is now common knowledge that in the year 2003, in Guangdong province of China, the first occurrence of this severe atypical pneumonia was observed. The epidemic was suspected to be associated with a new virus and subsequently, researchers isolated an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus from a patient in Hong Kong. Researchers focused on members of the Paramyxoviridae family since some particles were detected by the process of electron microscopy of respiratory samples from patients in Hong Kong and Frankfurt (Peiris, Chu and Cheng).

Subsequent investigations revealed that the human metapneumovirus or hMPV existed in SARS patients. Researchers in China had detected the Chlamydia organism in patients who had died due to atypical pneumonia during the outbreak of SARS in Guangdong. However, these organisms were not present in patients outside China. In the month of March 2003, researchers in the United States, Hong Kong and Germany found traces of a previously unknown coronavirus in SARS patients.

This discovery was in different ways and some of these methods included isolation on cell culture, demonstration by electron microscopy, demonstration of specific genomic sequence by polymerase chain reaction or PSR and by the use of microarray techniques and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (Peiris, Chu and Cheng). In this context, the World Health Organization announced on the 16th of April, 2003, that the coronavirus had not been discovered in humans and animals till that date and that it was a new virus, which was the cause of SARS.

Before announcing the discovery of this new virus, thirteen laboratories in ten countries tested this new coronavirus in accordance with the postulates of Koch, which is essential to prove that this new virus causes SARS. This virus causes interstitial pneumonia that shows symptoms that are similar to SARS, and the virus was isolated from the nose and throat of infected monkeys. The corona viruses belong to the family of Coronaviridae. This family consists of very large, positive – sense single – stranded RNA viruses, which replicate themselves in the cytoplasm of the animal host cells (Siddell, Wege and Meulen).

The gene factors of corona viruses range in length from 27 to 32 kb, and are the largest of the RNA viruses. The diameter of the virions ranges vary from 100 to 140 nanometers. Most of the viral particles bear the distinct appearance of surface projections and these spikes extend to twenty nanometers from their base. In animals, corona viruses cause extremely virulent respiratory, enteric and neurological diseases. They also cause hepatitis, respiratory diseases that are temporarily prevalent and widespread in animals and gastroenteritis having short incubation periods between two to seven days.

The symptoms revealed in SARS are the same (Holmes). Corona viruses are species – specific and when they attack immunocompetent hosts, their infection extracts neutralizing antibodies and cell – mediated immune responses, which in turn kill the infected cells (Holmes). Most of the corona viruses cause terminal diseases in animals such as feline infectious peritonitis virus or FIPV, hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis or HEV of swine and some strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus or IBV and mouse hepatitis virus or MHV.

They replicate themselves in the liver, lungs, kidneys, gut, spleen, brain, spinal cord and other tissues (Holmes). Human corona viruses HCoVs were found to cause minor diseases. They are found in group 1 known as HCoV – 229E and group 2 known as HCoV – O43, and they cause minor respiratory problems (Makela). Sometimes they cause severe infections of the lower respiratory tract in children and adults and a condition termed as necrotizing enterocolitis in newborn babies.

They can survive on normal environmental surfaces for three hours and they are transmitted among humans by droplets, hand contamination, fomites and small particle aerosols (Ijaz). The Coronaviruses produce Coronavirus Main Protease protein or 3CL – PRO. This protein helps the virus to replicate itself and thereby spread the infection. In order to stop the infection, it is essential to bring about a disabling of the protein from working and this would consequently, contain the virus production and the attendant infection. Therefore, researchers had concentrated on producing a drug that would hinder the functioning of the 3CL – PRO protein.

With the achievement of this breakthrough, pharmaceutical companies started to prepare drugs that would hinder the functions of the 3CL – PRO protein, which is responsible for the multiplication of the virus and the resultant SARS infection. Ritonavir and Indinavir are the major ingredients of the anti – HIV drugs. The Coronavirus Main Proteinase is the principal drug that is used in the treatment of SARS (TARGET – SARS Target II SARS/CoV 3CL-PRO). The HIV virus and other viruses that cause influenza on infecting people have been described as wily because of their characteristic of mutating rapidly.

This trait helps them to obtain immunity from antiviral drugs or from the human immune system. However, the SARS virus has not been undergoing mutation. Clinical examinations of the genome sequences of fourteen isolates from patients in Singapore, Toronto, China and Hong Kong did not establish any mutations of the original sequence and it can be concluded that the SARS virus is invariant. However, this notion that SARS virus does not mutate or fails to mutate cannot be taken for granted since the virus did not face significant resistance from human hosts (Knight).

Coronaviruses are not so active in the replication of their genetic material and as a result they make one error for every ten thousand nucleotides that they replicate. This is similar to what the HIV virus does. Coronaviruses have a significant characteristic that helps them to reject mutations as and when they occur. These viruses have an enzyme that enables them to replicate their genetic material and spreads among several copies of the viral genome instead of being restricted to a single template of the genome.

The result of this is that each genome is copied from multiple templates. This procedure reduces the chances of mutations in the populations of the coronavirus (Knight). The enzyme that brings about the copying of the virus functions in such a manner that instead of using just one template genome it accesses several such templates and this results in a drastic reduction in the possibility that any particular mutation will dominate in a viral population. Moreover, such haphazard template access can entail an inaccurate access by the enzyme (Knight).

The consequence of such access by the enzyme would be the deletion of some portion of an essential gene, which could produce results that would be drastic, particularly, if the mutation affects the protein spikes that are bound to the surface of the viruses’ cellular victims. In 1984, there was an outbreak of a new ailment on European farms that were rearing pigs. It was determined to be a mutant of the coronavirus, in which the altered spike protein had effected changes in respect of the type of cells that could be invaded by the virus.

Although, this mutant did not prove to be fatal, all the same it has spread globally and made the diagnosis of gut disease more difficult (Knight). It is assumed that genetic deletion was responsible for the SARS virus to find a new target, namely, the human body, from its previous animal hosts. In that case the mutation could be of a totally different type due to the fact that the spike protein has remained unaltered.

While comparing with the viral strains present in the animals sold in the Chinese markets, it became evident that the SARS virus does not have twenty nine nucleotides in the gene for a protein whose function could not be determined. This protein was found to be appended to the inside of the protective layer of the virus (Knight). The WHO spearheaded the battle against SARS and was extremely successful in uniting the global community in combating this menace. Dr Carlo Urbani became a martyr in the battle against SARS.

This disease demonstrated that there are several dangers that could surface when least expected to do with terrifying results (SARS: how a global epidemic was stopped). Within a short period of seven months, around eight thousand people were infected by this disease in twenty nine countries. 1755 persons were infected in Hong Kong and of these 299 succumbed to the disease. This disease had a serious psychological effect on its victims and it was established that such effects persisted for long periods after the disease had been cured.

Several studies conducted a month after patients had been discharged revealed that thirteen to thirty two percent of them were suffering from moderate to severe anxiety and that eighteen to twenty six percent had moderate to severe depression. Another four percent were found to be suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD (Lee). The spread of SARS had a number of economic, political and sociological ramifications, due to extreme demands made on the countries, in which this disease was prevalent, by the WHO.

Some of these demands were related to a curtailment if not the rescission of economic activities like trade, tourism, and investment. Despite SARS occurring mainly in Asia, its effects were experienced in almost every major market across the world. This epidemic brought about a tremendous increase in medical expenditure and travel. In addition consumer confidence and investment reached their nadir (Political Influences on the Response to SARS and Economic Impacts of the Disease).

Our War On Drugs Essay

A drug can be described as a chemical substance that influences how an individual’s body and mind works (Rees 2005 p.

5). It is uncommon today to hear the word drugs on televisions and read them in magazines. Drugs are virtually everywhere and there is continual development of these drugs. They are used by people for various reasons ranging from medicinal to recreational purposes. Drugs that are taken as medicines include antibiotics and penicillin among others. However some drugs are illegal. They include: cocaine, ecstasy, marijuana, cannabis, heroin, crack, methamphetamines, LSD (acid), alcohol and magic mushrooms.

These illegal drugs are also known as recreational drugs and many are gotten from plants growth in various parts of the world. Amphetamines are drugs that can be inhaled, or eaten in form of tables. Heroin is smoked or taken as an injection. Marijuana on the other hand consists of a brown resin. It is mostly smoked in cigarettes and it can also be eaten (Rees 2005 p. 30). Abuse of drug use is known as drug addiction. When a person constantly takes these illegal drugs for recreational purposes this addiction develops as a process and not instantly.

Addiction to drugs affects individuals of multicultural, geographically diverse, across gender and racial classes. The initial steps are very moderate but their increased use results to a state of life threatening situation. Withdrawals are hardly achieved as the issue becomes of medical concern. Those who abuse drugs have their various reasons. They argue that drugs help them alleviate stress, boosts their morale and confidence, makes them feel good about themselves among many other things. Drug abuse has various adverse effects.

Some of the effects include rises in blood pressure, vomiting, impairs memory and judgment capability of an individual. Other effects are poor decision making, accidents, impaired health and poor relationships. The consequences of these are physical, psychological and emotional instability on the drug abuser. The individual hence suffers from depression (Rick 2005 p30) A large number of people who abuse drugs decide to quit at some point but this is often difficult since once a person is addicted to drugs, it is almost impossible to avoid taking them as they mostly experience withdrawal symptoms.

The symptoms are for instance body aches, sweating, and flu in the case of heroin. Nicotine on the other hand results to fatigue and premature aging affecting the skin, body shape and body weight. On the other hand, fast withdrawals could result to dangerous impacts. For instance tranquilizers could be dangerous resulting in high blood pressure, vomiting, temperature and stomach cramps (Rees 2005 p. 42) Our War on Drugs The war on drugs is a move undertaken by the United States including help from other participating countries whose priority is to eliminate trade in illegal drugs.

It traces its origin way back in 1880 where there was a memorandum of understanding between United States and China to prohibit trade in opium between the two countries (http://www. nh-dwi. com/caip-213. htm). Today in America, mostly the youth experiment with these illegal drugs and they do it for various reasons. Some do it for recreational purposes whereas others are simply addicts as they cannot do without them. The United States government and the general public have become concerned about drug abuse and addiction.

The government became more concerned about the issue in the 1960s when the youth mostly college students protested against the Vietnam war and in the 1960s and 1970s they began using licit and illicit drugs on a large scale for the first time (Fleckenstein Hanson & Venturelli 2005 p. 125). As a starting point the United States government introduced new strategies for tackling this issue of drug use and abuse. These strategies include demand reduction, inoculation, supply reduction, interdiction and drug courts. The use of drug courts has become a common strategy.

The supply reduction is a strategy aimed at reducing and controlling supply of illegal drugs. Demand reduction aims at reducing the individuals’ tendencies to abuse drugs especially the youth. It places emphasis on reforming behaviors. Inoculation on the other hand attempts to protect drug users by informing them on their responsibilities. Drug courts on the other hand integrate incentives, sanctions, treatment and ensure that nonviolent drug addicts are placed in rehabilitation programs.

Lastly interdiction is a policy aimed at stopping the supply of these illicit drugs (Fleckenstein, Hanson & Venturelli, 2005 p. 25). In the United States of America, there are quite a number of law enforcements Acts on drugs that have been established to control drug abuse. They include: Harrison Acts that looks into the production, sale, importation and distribution of opium. The other Act is the Narcotic Drug Import and Export Act aimed at alleviating use of narcotics but it is exceptional for medicinal and other legitimate use. Heroin Act of 1924 prohibited the manufacturing of drugs. The Marijuana Tax Act also controlled the production, sale and distribution of marijuana.

The Opium Pappy Control Act restricted the cultivation of opium poppies in the United States except if one is licensed to do so. Narcotics control act on the other hand intended to establish suffer penalties to individuals who broke the marijuana or narcotics laws. Drug Abuse Control Amendments (DACA) was established to adopt stuff controls over barbiturates, amphetamines, LSD among others moreover; the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (NARA) was established to rehabilitate drug addicts in the three programs that is voluntary, sentencing to death addicts who are convicted and the pretrial civil commitment.

In 1988, the Anti-Drug Abuse Act introduced the office of National Drug Control to oversee policies on research controlling drug abuse. Lastly the 2000 Drug Addiction Treatment Act gave a go ahead to physicians to prescribe narcotics for the treatment of oploid addiction (Fleckenstein, Hanson & Venturelli, 2005 p. 135). The white House National Drug Control Strategy in 2006 declared it stand and wish to balance the reduction in supply and demand of illegal drugs in the United States of America. It also outlined programs intended to curb abuse of drugs.

In the same year, the National Drug Control Strategy pointed out its aim of supporting random student testing, intervention, screening, prevention, treatment and support for drug courts examining methamphetamines and making the United States southwest border secure (uninfo. state. gov/xarchives/display. gtm/? p. ). Another regulatory law enforcement body concerning drug abuse in the United States is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Its mission is to control drugs and provide laws and regulations regarding drug abuse. The National Drug control Strategy established a ten year plan to reduce drug abuse.

It also aims at reducing America’s demand for drugs by offering treatment and supply through law enactments (http://www. usembassy-mexico. gov/bbfbfdossier-combDrogas. htm). The above drug laws indiscriminate use of drugs and it is through the legislation that licit and illicit drugs are determined. The government of the United States tries to meet public needs and control pressure through these rules and regulations. Due to the advancement in technology in today’s society, trained experts and government agencies provide information and protection on drug abuse.

Are we winning the war on drugs? In my opinion, I do not believe that we are winning the war on drugs. I have based my judgment according to various reasons. Since the prohibition of drug abuse in 1937 in the United States of America; marijuana once considered for Mexican immigrants has been actively used by 20-37% of the youth in the United States. The same applies to the use of cocaine, ecstasy and methamphetamines (World Drug Report, 2000). The continual trade in drugs is also another factor that has severely affected efforts by the government to prevent drug abuse and addiction.

The United States of America is largely affected more so because of its population and largest budget that focuses on enforcement. President George W. Bush in February 2002 established a National Drug Control Strategy based on the Principles of stopping the usage of drugs, disrupting the market and curing America’s drug addicts (Policy and Program Development, 2002). Evidence also shows that the criminal law in the United States has had only small success in preventing drug abuse. It is approximated that in 2004, 39% of students in the 12th grade used an illicit-drug, 34% was marijuana, cocaine 5% and LSD 2%.

Also, those aged 12 and above who use illegal drugs as estimated by National Survey is 19. 5 million in the United States (Fleckenstein, Hanson & Venturelli, 2005 p. 140). In the United States, family structures have changed considerably having half of all women working outside home and the divorce rate is quite high. This has affected the nurturing of children by all these single parents.

Family and friends have also contributed to the increasing drug abuses since they are ready to bail out and offer excuses for those who have been convicted (Fleckenstein, Hanson & Venturelli, 2005 p. 40). To conclude, it is therefore evident that the war on drugs is still far from being over. It is therefore essential that the society works hard to stop abuse of drugs which is causing deaths on a massive scale. It is essential for individuals to know that the effects of drugs on the social life, economic life, emotional and spiritual life are adverse. The extreme case of addiction to these drugs is the exposure of the individual person to death.

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Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet Essay

Among Shakespeare’s tragedies Othello, Hamlet, and Macbeth, the decision about which is best written ultimately needs to be decided according to the virtues of the plot, characterization, and the language. The three plays have very strong points. While Macbeth is extraordinary in Shakespeare’s use of language, its plot is also intricate and interesting. Othello stands out in the area of characterization, while Hamlet stands out in its language. However, when all areas of assessment are considered, Macbeth does appear to dominate as the best written of the three plays.

Othello does possess a very strong and deeply intricate character in the villain Iago. Shakespeare displays his highly refined skill in the manner in which he infuses Iago with evil. Iago is the definitive two-faced traitor, as he feigns the most iron-clad friendship with his lord Othello, while harboring the most potent resentment against him. Shakespeare creates a masterpiece in this character because he achieves an effect in which Iago almost becomes evil incarnate.

The poignant hatred represented in all his speeches and actions highlights the play as one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies.

However, the play does have a weakness that is fatal to its position. Its plot, though given strong impetus by the avenging cruelty and hatred of Iago, gains its momentum from what seems to be an impotent plan. Othello implicates his wife Desdemona of adultery merely because her handkerchief is “found” in Cassio’s room—evidence that amounts almost to nothing. The weakness of this link from Iago’s hatred to his ruin of Othello is too great for the play to be considered the best of Shakespeare’s tragedies.

The tragedy of Hamlet excels in the language that Shakespeare uses to express the inner thoughts and confusions of the characters. Hamlet’s speeches represent a masterpiece of insight into the human soul as it processes pain and loss. The famous “to be or not to be” speech is so highly regarded because it probes the mind of a man who is so deeply affected by his father’s murder and mother’s betrayal that he mentally wrestles with death: “To die to sleep, to sleep perchance to dream; ay, there’s the rub.

For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come, when we have shuffled off this mortal coil must give us pause” (III. i. 73-77). The metaphorical mingling of sleep and death is a figurative achievement, and the expression of indecision as Hamlet lingers at the horizon of death gives the play a literary and lyrical edge. Still, this play has plot problems as well. It seems to drag on with Hamlet’s constant indecision and his antic disposition. His relationship with Ophelia is nebulous, yet its complications are not well expressed, but muddled and almost incoherent.

The end in which Ophelia and all the family die leaving Fortinbras to assume the throne is unsatisfying at the very least. These problems cause Hamlet also to be prevented in the final analysis from being considered Shakespeare’s greatest tragedy. Macbeth, like Hamlet, boasts very well written and poetic lines. The expression of the guilt that Macbeth feels after committing his murderous act is expressed in all its detail and rondure. In addition, it also possesses depth and expression of character that is unexcelled in any of Shakespeare’s other works.

Lady Macbeth rivals Iago in her capacity for evil—yet hers stems from nothing as petty as revenge. She seeks to exalt her husband’s position in an almost self-sacrificial effort to promote him. She shows clarity and decisiveness in a way that Hamlet does not, as she carries out her intention with no alloy of fear or hesitancy. In addition to the beauty of the language and the depth of characterization, Macbeth’s plot (though in some ways fantastical) carries itself naturally toward the end that it is given.

Nothing appears contrived. The hubris that Macbeth assumes at the behest of the witches and Lady Macbeth propels him gradually and naturally toward his murder of King Duncan and eventually toward his death at the hand of Macduff. The combination of excellences in the three areas of plot, characterization, and language tips the scale in favour of Macbeth as the greatest tragedy written by William Shakespeare.

The Iceberg is melting Essay

The Iceberg is melting Essay. ‘The Iceberg is melting” is a book written by Harvard Business School’s professor John Kotter and Holger Rathgeber. It was published in September 2006. It is a fable about the Emporer Penguins of Antarctica. This parable is a business guide meant to teach managers how to find threats in the environment, convince other employees about your findings and develop a possible plan of action that might result in a drastic change throughout the organization. The story is about a penguin Fred who finds out that the iceberg that his family and friends live on is collapsing.

The Iceberg is melting Essay

Most of the people around Fred make fun of him and ignore his predicament. Fred, tries to convince the others specially those who play the most important part in the community in directing change. This includes persuading Louis the head of penguins, the number two of penguins Alice, NoNo the weather expert and few other school-age penguins. Once he has them all convinced he tries to save his colony from collapsing.

The book basically tries to communicate eight change management steps through the story.

The first step is creating a sense of urgency throughout the organization. The second step entails pulling together the guiding team. The third step consists of developing change vision and strategy. The fourth step is to communication for understanding and buy in. The fifth step is to empower others to act. The sixth step is to produce short term wins. The seventh step is to not give up. The last and the final step is to create a totally new culture. Another aspect of this book is about making managers think out-of-the-box or creatively.

This can drastically help in changing behavior and lead to much better results. However, if you take the concept one step forward and combine thinking with feeling differently or creatively than it will lead to the best results possible. In my opinion, Kotter achieved his purpose and communicated a slightly monotonous idea in a truly unique way. One of the most intresting aspects of this book was that the penguin characters Fred Louis, Buddy, Alice, and the Professor are very similar to different employee personalities found in every organization.

The variety of attitudes depicted by the of the penguins were of naysayers, nitpickers, innovators, agitators, leaders and followers. Another appealing element of the book were the cartoon-like illustrations which helped understand Kotter’s view better. The book has a massive appeal for all levels of an organization. I would recommend this book to everyone because the lessons drawn from it are helpful for the family, community and organization. ‘Our Iceberg is melting’ has helped me immensly when I was working as part of the evolving software industry and changes were taking place at a rapid pace.

As a leader I continuously face challenges with the people I work with because they need to be oriented towards an expected performance. This book helped me realize how to demand excellence from my team. In the future I want to learn the traits of all the characters so that I can spot a problem from before and handle any crisis that presents itself. This would require being levelheaded and responsible like Louis, proactive like Alice, humble like Buddy, Curious like Fred and Intellectual like the Professor.

Truly Asia Essay

Traveling is both an educational and leisurely activity. Going to different places gives people a chance to learn about new cultures and traditions which can help in the promotion of a pluralistic society. In every place that I explore, I make sure that I enjoy the journey whether it is just by land, water, air or even walking so that I can be able to appreciate fully the destination. In 2004, I had the chance to go to Asia, in the exquisite country of Malaysia.

Malaysia is located at the Southerneastern part of Asia. This unique tropical paradise takes pride of their natural resources and Islamic customs.

Malaysia has an extensive coastline and a captivating landscape of rolling hills and mountains. These natural wonders of Malaysia have attracted many tourists to explore their beautiful scenery. According to Lonely Planet, this country is “one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in southeast Asia. ” More so, it is a spirited and rich nation that has integrated other cultures to create a diverse but a unified Malaysian society (“Malaysia:Overview”).

In addition, Malaysia is filled with diverse cities and towns and each city or town have their own unique charisma that makes each place unique.

Checking out these places will display the rich history and authentic culture of Malaysia. I have been to three gorgeous cities in Malaysia namely: Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Pahang. In Kuala Lumpur a lot of traditional and modern infrastructures can be seen in this city. In fact it has been branded as the roaring Asian tiger because it has transformed from being nothing into a contemporary city. One of the world’s tallest infrastructures which is the Petronas Tower was built in this urban haven. I was in awe of its towering height and aesthetic beauty. More so, this twin towers showcased the economic prowess and cultural wealth of Malaysia.

I was surprised to see the many free standing skyscrapers in this part of Asia. But as I walked around Kuala Lumpur, I also discovered that there were still a lot of remnants of its past and cultural diversity. There were rustic colonial houses and buildings, a lively Chinatown with lots of bet buy items and the dynamic Little India which gives a snippet of the colorful Indian culture. Kuala Lumpur is a relatively large city, my family and I opted to just walk instead of exploring the place aboard a tour bus. For me, walking is the best way to get to know Kuala Lumpur.

By just leisurely walking and not adhering to any tour schedules, we were able to visit and enjoy the different local tourist spots and attractions at our own pace. Among the places that we have explored were the Guandi Temple in China Town where the Taoists pray to their gods, the Orchids Garden where different types of orchids are exhibited, the Petaling Street Market where assorted merchandise ranging from bags to DVDs and lastly the Taman Tasik Titiwangsa where people go to unwind and enjoy the skyline of Malaysia. Moreover, since I am into sports, I also checked out some the local action in Kuala Lumpur.

There are a variety of things to do here from indoor to outdoor games and land to water sports. Both the locals and foreigners are greatly entertained by these activities. The most popular sport in this part of the country is golf followed by cycling. There are numerous golf courses and clubs in Kuala Lumpur where golf enthusiasts can practice their swings to end up with a hole in one. More so, cycling is also considered as a main sport of the Malaysians. My favorite sport is biking so I tried to navigate the city through riding a bike wherein I saw numerous amazing views that took my breath away.

Biking can really be tiring but in Kuala Lumpur biking lanes are provided that made the ride easy and hassle-free from traffic. Also, when I biked around the city, I was really having a great experience and at the same while doing this, I got a free workout. So it was like hitting two birds with one stone. Aside from biking, I also tried my hands on swimming, bowling and diving wherein I had a great time and met some of the friendly locals who accommodatingly made my stay at Kuala Lumpur very memorable. The next city that I explored in Malaysia was Penang.

This place has one of the smallest land area in Malaysia. Despite its petite size, it ranked eight in the most populated places in the country. Penang is also called “Pearl of the Orient” because of its exotic landscapes and pristine beaches. Upon arrival in Penang, I noticed immediately that it was different with Kuala Lumpur. Penang has a more rural atmosphere because of the presence of beaches, mountains and other organic sceneries while Kuala Lumpur is more of a contemporary place filled modern amenities. In Penang, we visited several ancient temples.

These places are considered sacred because they emanate the spirituality of the Malaysians. One of the temples that we visited was the Snake Temple. This place of worship got its name from a myth that upon the completion of the construction of the temple, it was swarmed by snakes from the jungle. From then on, snakes have been permanent fixtures in the temple. We also went to the temple of Kek Lok Si at Air Itam where we learned that it is one of the largest and most beautiful temple in the entire Southeast Asia.

In the temple, we saw the different designs, statues and adornments that reminded us about other cultures. Influences from Thailand, China and Burma were very visible in the architectural design and craftsmanship of the temple. In addition, the temple was highlighted by a a very tall pagoda adding up to its grandiose quality. Even though we were not fully knowledgeable about the religion and the spiritual traditions of Malaysians, we still respected their beliefs by not making noise or doing anything that will offend them especially when were inside the temple.

Aside from this, there are other things to see in Penang. I indulged in bird watching at Penang Bird Park, trekking at the summit of the Penang Hill and exploring the vastness of the Pantai Acheh Forest Reserve. This experience made me appreciate more the beauty and fecundity of nature. Moreover, since Penang is an island, most of the sport activities involve water. It can either be sailing, swimming or surfing. Since I love playing in the water, I tried to learn to surf in one of the beach resorts. Surfing may seem easy but when you are actually doing it, it can really be difficult.

But the frustration to ride the waves was properly compensated by the crystal blue water, the refreshing breeze and the warm smiles of the locals. Nonetheless, this small but captivating place has a lot to offer to locals and visitors as well. If you are looking for a place to relax and stray away from the hustle and bustle of the city, I definitely recommend Penang as the place to explore. The last place I went to in Malaysia was in Pahang. One of their main attractions is the Genting Highlands. It is a luxurious vacation retreat situated on top of a mountain.

Generally, the area of the mountain retreat is small but there is a saying that good things come in small packages and this is true in the case of the Genting Highlands. This place is packed with a variety of entertainment and leisure activities that everyone can enjoy. For me, this place is like a one stop shop where everything you need is located in one place. It has a theme park, a shopping mall, golf course, country club and a hotel so visitors would not ran out of things to do here. When we went there, we rented a car and drove there from Kuala Lumpur.

The trip was a little long but we did not notice the time because we were preoccupied by the scenic and extraordinary sights that we saw. Then, after our arrival, we rode a cable car to have a birds eye view of the estate. Since there are a lot of things to explore in Genting Highlands, we tried to make a schedule so that we would be able to all the attractions. We started first with the theme park. This park is adorned with numerous exhilarating rides. Some are located indoors while the majority are outdoor rides such as the roller coaster, cyclone and spinner.

I really had a blast with these rides. It was an adrenaline-pumping, thrilling and exciting experience for me and the rest of my family. Next to the theme park, we went to the shopping mall called First World Plaza to catch our breaths after going through all those rides. We took this time to buy things to bring back at home as souvenirs and gift for our friends. Actually in this mall, people can splurge on many fashionable items and essential merchandises available here. In Genting Highlands, we stayed at their accommodating and lavish hotel for two nights.

The staff of the hotel were very friendly who made us feel that we were home away from home. Actually, the hotel is acclaimed for its amenities and services that is why many local and international stars go here to relax and even perform for entertainment. Also, if you are not into theme parks or shopping, there are other options like playing in the casinos or if the visitor wants more adrenaline rush, you can try biking, jungle trekking or horse-riding and finishing an 18-hole golf course.

After experiencing these, I can say that all the money that we have spent here was all worth it because the memories, the adventure and the laughs we had here are all priceless. Malaysia is indeed a place where you can enjoy ancient customs and the same time splurge yourself with the modern day amenities. My Malaysian experience will forever be embedded in my consciousness for it has brought educational and memorable experiences that I will treasure for the rest of my life.

Works Cited

“Malaysia:Overview. ” 2008. Lonely Planet. 10 June 2008 <>.

The Developments of the Roman road system Essay

Everybody knows the phrase – “all roads lead to Rome», we could find probably both figurative and literal meaning of the expression. Figurative meaning concerns the general place of the Roman Empire among other countries and talking about literal meaning we could refer to the development of the Roman roads and their role for the whole Western Civilization. The roads built by Romans were the best for hundreds of years. Due to their quality and reliability some of the roads and bridges built at those times are still used nowadays.

One of the most famous roads was the so-called “silk road” connecting the Roman Empire with trade countries. Roads were very important for military forces of the Empire and usually Roman legions took part in building the roads as well. Along with the expansion of the Empire roads were transformed from military routes to trade directions. Total there were 53 000 miles of roads built by Romans. All the mail exchange was done also with the help of the roads.

“In Latin road is via, and roads is viae. There were viae publicae (public roads), via militares (military roads), and actus (local roads). (Ashby,30).

Romans built various types of roads, including corduroy and paved roads; rubble was used in order for the roads to remain dry as water could go away between the stones. There were special rules worked out – the Twelve Tables – telling about the necessary width and curves of the roads. Mostly Romans concentrated upon straight roads, but due to deep grades these roads were not so convenient and later on Romans switched to building longer roads. The researchers stated that Romans had learned to build roads from Etruscans, although there were contributions from other cultures as well. Von Hagen, 112).

Work on the new road had a certain sequence, first of all the architect had to come out with the place for the future road, then agrimensores studied the bed of the road with the help of the rod and the groma, as the Romans had neither compass nor map. The route was worked out by a group of surveyors, they marked hills and plains. The next step was to unite hundreds of markers in the way that there was the straightest possible line between two points. Groma consisted of two parts connected together so that all the angles were right.

In order to form a straight line it was necessary for the two lead weights on the ends of the device to line up. They didn’t have the transit and in order to control the straightness of the road it was necessary to look along the rods. (Ashby, 13) After measuring, the points were drawn on a long piece of paper and then joined, thus the general picture of the road was visible. Then they reconsidered the markers once again in order to move those, which made the road not straight. Another step of changes was made due to slight deviations of the route, for example when it was necessary to build a bridge over a river at its narrowest place.

When the plan of the road was ready, ploughs and military people were set at work. (Margary, 268). Legionnaires were said to be a perfect road builders. The methods and techniques used by the Romans guaranteed excellent results and strong roads. Usually a road was a straight line connecting two places, going around the natural obstacles in order to avoid abrupt rising and so on. For crossing the rivers the Romans built wooden or stone bridges, some of them even had arches. On the swamps they built causeways also using special methods like sinking a lot of stones to raise the road (Ashby, 45).

Usually the road was dug to the most stable layer of the ground. The fosse then had to be filled in, this was done according to location and available materials, like stones, gravel or even sand, the bed of the road always consisted of several layers. As a rule the first layer was made of big stones and he last layer – of small stones with cement. The very last layer was made of small flint pieces and then pressed very tightly. The process of pressing of all the layers was called pavimentare or pavire.

Pavimentum was the notion for the flat result of the process, it could be already used as a road, and sometimes some additional layers were put. When the road was ready the Romans set milestones for defining the directions and distances for travelers. The miles were counted with the help of odometer, a device made by the Greek inventor Archimedes. The wheel of it was to rotate 400 times thus marking a distance of one mile. They were put on the sides of the roads informing about names and distances to towns from both left and right sides.

Nowadays the scientists are able to estimate the period of building the road with the help of information on these stones left by builders of the road. (Jean-Pierre, 71). Thus strong and well-constructed roads built by the Romans occupied an important place in the history of transportation and they played a remarkable role in the development of the Roman Empire and Western Europe. The roads were vitally important for establishing political and commercial relations between countries, for expanding the territories and military issues.

How Film Technology Impacted Cinema’s Evolution Essay

Over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, cinema technology advanced greatly—and with an ever-growing history of movies from which to draw reference, film-makers have increasingly approached productions from fresher perspectives, while always employing the most modern equipment, in order to better serve the audiences of their days. In Visions Of Light, a series of interviews with directors and cinematographers explores how the evolution of microphones, lighting, film, staging, cameras and mounts has affected the translation of story into cinema in a variety of ways.

When sound was first introduced, for instance, actors were forced to lean in closer to microphones that were hidden on the sets, in order to be better heard—thus affecting their physical impression on camera (Bailey, VL). Also, the advent of sound affected the mobility of cameras—and it was years before directors began taking moving shots again. Only after technology improved, and the practice of adding audio in post-production took hold, did cameras become fluid once more (Bailey, VL).

In Visions Of Light, Zsigmond even goes so far as to claim the advent of sound might have affected film’s ability to rise to a higher form of art. Furthermore, in the early years, the onset of color film collided with the aesthetic prerogatives of directors from the black-and-white era of cinema. The dark-and-light stark contrasts of early film had always supplied directors with a strong foundation in a medium built on more abstract emotions—being more removed from reality, due to their lack of color (Daviau, VL).

The introduction of red, yellow and blues, however, gradually eroded that surreal nature of young cinema—and left film-maker’s with a new spectrum of visuals to explore that were more rooted in reality—yet took away the artsier fare of the colorless picture (Daviau, VL). Finally, as the studios began to give way to more location shoots, and more independently ground-breaking and inventive movie-making, more experimental cinematography began taking place, including the increased use of techniques adopted from unintended effects of technology—and instructional mistakes on set.

Inventiveness and new cameras and lenses wedded to create unprecedented waves of evolution in cinema. The more relaxed embracing of happy accidents, such as random camera “flares” for instance–and other unique lighting effects (Hall, VL), eventually led to the deeper medium today, where visual artisans have a century’s worth of rich and varied cinema to emulate, be inspired by—and pay homage to—in order to further expand upon the apparent human motion to improve the film experience.

Visions Of Light is an inspiring look into the history of film—and a revelatory expose of the methods by which we attempt to translate our greatest tales into the constructs of cinema—and how technology and history have shaped the medium. By the time a movie is played on screen, one is witness to countless lifetimes of work, both in the perceived piece—as well as the endless sub-texts of cinema that came before it. The improvements of technology over time have both strengthened and handicapped cinema, enabling it to more accurately capture reality, while also rarifying the more abstract forms of black-and-white film and silent pictures.

Future directors, of course, may yet return to the black-and-white medium, in order to test the depths of their art—but they may also find it more challenging than filming in color (Daviau, VL). Similarly, while sound changed movies from a purely visual form into a mixed discipline—directors who were to attempt to make a silent film today might find it more difficult to execute. Technology has allowed film to record reality better—while also blunting or limiting its inherent ability to translate more basic human emotions, through less colour or sound.

Furthermore, as cameras have become more sophisticated and economical—the increased use of an independent, hand-held approach will change the look-and-feel of film for the coming generations, lending to it a more reality-based frame—and for that very same reason, a more difficult platform from which to craft the abstract. Overall, as technology advances, film evolves into a much different form from the shape it started out. It is now a fuller and more complex medium—although perhaps less of a straightforward one.

With each mounting generation, directors have to grapple with the new and profound questions about how to approach the entertainment and education of an audience. They have to learn how to emulate the traditional paths of film’s past auteurs—but also, and equally importantly, to test the limits of the undiscovered country and new technology in cinema. Film-making as an art-form is ever-evolving and re-engaging its audiences in newer and more gripping ways.

The language of the motion picture, however, is fundamentally limited by the science which allows it—and so, in order to direct most effectively, every last available trick of modern film-making must be employed, toward the end of showing people something they haven’t seen before, and creating a synthesis that succeeds in overwhelming the sum of its parts. Newer technologies and angles must be embraced, in order to achieve a more honest form of surprise and catharsis, so that audiences are finally moved and enlightened.

For as technology evolves, so too does our tool set in the medium—providing an endless art-form to perfect and exercise up to the heights of cinema, as modeled by Citizen Kane. No patterns from past directors can ever be totally relied on, of course, in order to achieve the freshest cutting edge of new cinema—but those who are willing to learn the trade as well as take risks and experiment in the non-traditional forms are the ones who will always create original and inspiring works.

Thinkers and shapers who are keen to test tomorrow’s technologies and exploit their own mistakes are the ones who will consistently set the bar higher—and allow the younger audiences to be livened up by the unexpected. Film’s suspension of disbelief, after all, dwells in the camera’s ability to capture the world around us—but also, in the editing room, where unnecessary redundancies of past pictures are trimmed back–and re-hashed tricks of the trade are left on the cutting floor. Only the bare bone advances of new cameras and exciting visual storytelling will seduce the eye and mind long enough to engage future audiences.

Only the visionaries of light and sound will remind people of their daily existences deeply enough to be enthralled by the verisimilitude of it all—while simultaneously transporting them far enough away from themselves, that they will ultimately leave the theaters changed forever.

Works Cited

Vision Of Light. Samuels, S. ; Glassman, A. ; McCarthy, T. ; Glassman, A.. Daviau, A. ; Almendros, N. ; Bailey, J. ; Hall, C. ; Kovacs, L. ; Nykvist, S. ; Storaro, V. ; Wexler, H. ; Willis, G. ; Zsigmond, V. ; DVD. CBS FOX, 1993.

Similarities between Frankenstein and Monster Essay

Victor Frankenstein and his monster are considered conflation of each other. As the novel progresses, Frankenstein and his monster vie for the role of protagonist. With the progress of the story, the monster he created manifests itself as an identification of the traits and qualities of his creator, Victor Frankenstein. They are not similar physically and socially but their personality traits, thought patterns; their intents toward humanity and ambitiousness make them analogous.

Levine (1973) illustrates that the monster and Frankenstein are the sides of a same coin.

He depicts that “Frankenstein creates the monster and that, as they pursue their separate lives, they increasingly resemble and depend upon each other so that by the end Frankenstein pursues his own monster, their positions reversed, and the monster plants clues to keep Frankenstein in pursuit. As Frankenstein’s creation, the monster can be taken as an expression of an aspect of Frankenstein’s self”. (Levine. 1973)

First of all, the benevolence and munificence is a substantial feature of Frankenstein and the development of the story depicts that monster also possesses such personality traits of kindness and humanity.

His friends admire Frankenstein, the ship captain, who rescues him from the ice floe and even the monster as testify that Frankenstein is a benevolent person full with the “milk of human kindness”. Sea captain Walton says, “What a glorious creature must he have been in the days of his prosperity,” again writes Walton, “when he is thus noble and godlike in ruin!”(Shelley. p.210).

He greatness lies in the fact that he is revered by his worst enemy who describes him as, “Oh, Frankenstein! Generous and self-devoted being! what does it avail that I now ask thee to pardon me?” (Shelley. p.219). His evils and malevolencies do not mar his good characteristics and tendencies. Same is the case with monster that although he is often understood as a savage devoid of any human tendency but in reality, he is as benevolent and kind as his creator, Victor Frankenstein.

His atrocities toward human are the retorts to the world he inhabits, as opposed to something innate, for example his unidentified acts of kindheartedness to the cottage-dwellers and saving the life of a child are reimbursed with unsubstantiated abhorrence. But yet gain his intentions toward human were nobler and full of benevolence. Monster, during his reverence of his creator, points out his self-devotion. This self-devotion together with his benevolent aspiration to “banish disease from the human frame and render man invulnerable to any but a violent death” (p. 40) creates a dual nature in him.

Although his intents are virtuous but his ambitions capacitates him to go to any extent to get his objective accomplished. However, despite, Frankenstein ensnare himself in a despicable hunt that causes him to devastate his own good being and make his “fellow-creatures as if . . . guilty of a crime” (p. 55). The monster displays a parallel duality of nature exciting sympathy as well as dismay toward him. He claims our kindness to the degree that we identify ourselves in his existential seclusion.

Monster himself suffers from this duality of nature and had self-devoted cravings together with love and care for human beings. His love for Elizabeth and murder for the purpose to get him is reflection of this ambivalent personality. Monster ambitiousness is similar to Frankenstein. It makes him to learn and devise new ways of expressing himself. The major dilemma of monster is not devotion like Frankenstein but it is self-identification. He educates himself by reading such phrases of Paradise Lost. “Who was I? What was I? Whence did I come?” (p. 125) that generates in him an urge to locate his identity and that becomes the ultimate cause of his tragedy.


Levine, George. Frankenstein and the Tradition of Realism. NOVEL: A Forum on  

   Fiction, 7.1 (Autumn, 1973): 14-30.

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Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s Frankenstein, or, The

            Modern Prometheus. A Longman cultural ed. New York